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Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human
These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
microorganism : an organism (such as a bacterium or protozoan) of microscopic or ultramicroscopic size — Webster
Microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may be single-celled or multicellular. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the Eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here.
They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45-billion-year-old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. — Wikipedia
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells). Microbiology encompasses numerous sub-disciplines including virology, parasitology, mycology and bacteriology.
Eukaryotic microorganisms possess membrane-bound cell organelles and include fungi and protists, whereas prokaryotic organisms—all of which are microorganisms—are conventionally classified as lacking membrane-bound organelles and include eubacteria and archaebacteria. Microbiologists traditionally relied on culture, staining, and microscopy. However, less than 1% of the microorganisms present in common environments can be cultured in isolation using current means.
Microbiologists often rely on molecular biology tools such as DNA sequence based identification, for example 16s rRNA gene sequence used for bacteria identification. — Wikipedia
Microbes and More News -- ScienceDaily Current science articles on microbes and more. Read about viruses, bacteria, fungi and prions and see related videos.
Breaking COVID-19's 'clutch' to stop its spread
on September 30, 2020 at 12:51 pm
The virus that causes COVID-19 uses a clutch-like shifter to enable transcription of one RNA string into multiple proteins, and therein lies a vulnerability. A proof-of-concept study shows it's possible to eliminate that shifter with an RNA-binding compound linked to a 'trash this' signal.
Genomes of two millipede species shed light on...
on September 29, 2020 at 7:21 pm
Researchers have sequenced and analyzed complete genomes from two very different millipede species. The study provides important insights into arthropod evolution, and highlights the genetic underpinnings of unique features of millipede physiology.
How Zika virus degrades essential protein for...
on September 28, 2020 at 7:57 pm
Researchers shed new light on how Zika virus hijacks our own cellular machinery to break down an essential protein for neurological development, getting it to 'eat itself'. By triggering this process known as autophagy, Zika virus is able to degrade an important protein, a process that may contribute to the development of neurological or brain deficiencies and congenital birth defects in the newborns of infected pregnant women.
Strong activation of anti-bacterial T cells...
on September 28, 2020 at 7:28 pm
A type of anti-bacterial T cells, so-called MAIT cells, are strongly activated in people with moderate to severe COVID-19 disease, according to a new study.
Looking at evolution's genealogy from home
on September 28, 2020 at 5:31 pm
Evolution leaves its traces -- in particular -- in genomes. Researchers used '2-n-way' software to determine the relationships between species or individuals and compare any genome of and for anyone.
Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.
Adaptive genetic markers identify the origins and...
on September 30, 2020 at 11:48 am
The western area of the Iberian Peninsula could be determinant in the origin of the ancestral population of Drosophila subobscura, an invasive species widely spread across multiple latitudes. This is the conclusion of a study of adaptive genetic markers now published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, which was led by Marta Pascual from the Faculty of Biology and the Biodiversity Research Institute (IRBio) of the University of Barcelona.
E. coli engineered to grow on carbon dioxide and...
on September 29, 2020 at 2:12 pm
Most biorefinery processes have relied on the use of biomass as a raw material for the production of chemicals and materials. Even though the use of CO₂as a carbon source in biorefineries is desirable, it has not been possible to make common microbial strains such as E. coli grow on CO₂.
Understanding oxygen-reducing enzymes
on September 28, 2020 at 8:04 pm
Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas that plays a central role in the global carbon cycle. At the same time, it is an important energy source for us humans. About half of its annual production is made by microorganisms known as methanogens that decompose organic material such as dead plants. This normally takes place in a habitat without oxygen as this gas is lethal to methanogens. But even in actually oxygen-free habitats, oxygen molecules occasionally appear. To render these intruders […]
How to better understand what makes a virus win...
on September 25, 2020 at 5:36 pm
Estimating fitness variation among microorganisms, meaning their aptitude to survive and reproduce in given conditions, allows researchers to predict their infection trajectories in single hosts and transmission in host populations. Among two viral strains, which will be the one to win against the host's immune response, or upon administration of drugs and vaccines? In virus dynamics, understanding such scenarios in detail is crucial, given the increase in resistance to antivirals and other […]
Secondary variant of Photorhabdus luminescens...
on September 24, 2020 at 8:02 pm
One of the basic approaches in organic farming is to use organisms beneficial to the system to combat pests. The bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens is one such beneficial organism. In the case of insect larvae infestation, the bacterium produces a variety of different toxins which quickly kill the larvae. Yet, it seems this is not the only ability of Photorhabdus that can be exploited for organic plant cultivation. A research team led by Professor Ralf Heermann at Johannes Gutenberg University […]