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microorganism : an organism (such as a bacterium or protozoan) of microscopic or ultramicroscopic size — Webster   See also   OneLook


Microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may be single-celled or multicellular. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the Eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. — Wikipedia

Microorganism (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Microorganism (Biology Online)

Life on Earth (Tree of Life)
Oirgin of Life (One Zoom)
Biota (Catalogue of Life)




Microbiology is the scientific study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells). Microbiology encompasses numerous sub-disciplines including virology, bacteriology, protistology, mycology, immunology, and parasitology. Eukaryotic microorganisms possess membrane-bound organelles and include fungi and protists, whereas prokaryotic organisms—all of which are microorganisms—are conventionally classified as lacking membrane-bound organelles and include Bacteria and Archaea. Microbiologists traditionally relied on culture, staining, and microscopy. However, less than 1% of the microorganisms present in common environments can be cultured in isolation using current means. Microbiologists often rely on molecular biology tools such as DNA sequence based identification, for example the 16S rRNA gene sequence used for bacteria identification. — Wikipedia

Microbiology (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Microbiology (Biology Online)




DDC: 579 Microbiology (Library Thing)
Subject: Microbiology (Library Thing)

Subject: Microbiology (Open Library)

LCC: QR Microbiology (UPenn Online Books)
Subject: Microbiology (UPenn Online Books)

LCC: QR Microbiology (Library of Congress)
Subject: Microbiology (Library of Congress)

Subject: Microbiology (WorldCat)




Microbiology (Ology, American Museum of Natural History)
The Littlest Organisms (Biology4Kids)

Microbial Life Resources (Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College)
In the Classroom (American Society for Microbiology)
Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education (American Society for Microbiology)

MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Microbiology (MIT OpenCourseWare)
Microbiology (edX)



Microbiologists (US Occupational Outlook Handbook)


Microbiology Society
American Society for Microbiology


Microbiology (Microbiology Society)
Clinical Microbiology Reviews (American Society for Microbiology)
Nature Microbiology
Microbiology (Nature)
Microbiology (bioRxiv: Preprint Server for Biology, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)
Microorganism (EurekaAlert, American Association for the Advancement of Science)
Microbes and More News (Science Daily)
Microbes (Science News)
Microorganism (Phys.org)
Microorganism (NPR Archives)


Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (National Institutes of Health)
Microbiology Lab (National Science Foundation)


Microorganism (USA.gov)


More News …

Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Researchers uncover the first steps driving...
    on March 31, 2023 at 4:41 pm

    Antibiotic resistance is a global health threat. In 2019 alone, an estimated 1.3 million deaths were attributed to antibiotic resistant bacterial infections worldwide. Looking to contribute a solution to this growing problem, researchers at Baylor College of Medicine have been studying the process that drives antibiotic resistance at the molecular level.

  • White-tailed deer blood shown to kill bacteria...
    on March 30, 2023 at 8:33 pm

    As tick season kicks in across the country, the executive director of the University of Massachusetts Amherst-based New England Center of Excellence in Vector-Borne Diseases (NEWVEC) and his team have completed research that offers a promising lead in the fight against Lyme disease.

  • Scientists apply Raman quantitative 3D imaging to...
    on March 29, 2023 at 5:01 pm

    Microorganisms are important contributors to the deep-sea sulfur cycle. However, in-situ detection of deep-sea microorganisms faces great challenges due to the extreme complexity of the deep-sea environment, the difficulty of sampling, isolation and cultivation of microorganisms, and the lack of near real-time nondestructive monitoring methods for microbial sulfur metabolism.

  • Simplified screening of individual bacterial...
    on March 28, 2023 at 6:18 pm

    In medical research and diagnostics, the microbiome, i.e. the microbial colonization of the intestine, is increasingly gaining attention. A stool sample can be used to precisely analyze the complex microbial ecosystem of the gut. There are basically two methods for this: traditional cultivation on plates with specific culture media or the quite expensive DNA analysis of the stool sample.

  • HIV can persist for years in myeloid cells of...
    on March 27, 2023 at 8:17 pm

    A subset of white blood cells, known as myeloid cells, can harbor HIV in people who have been virally suppressed for years on antiretroviral therapy, according to findings from a small study supported by the National Institutes of Health.

Microbes and More News -- ScienceDaily Current science articles on microbes and more. Read about viruses, bacteria, fungi and prions and see related videos.

  • Form is (mal)function: Protein's shape lets...
    on March 30, 2023 at 9:22 pm

    Shigella bacteria can infect humans but not mice. A team can now explain why. Their findings may explain the multifariousness of a key weapon of our immune system.

  • New details of SARS-COV-2 structure
    on March 30, 2023 at 4:27 pm

    Researchers used computational modeling to reveal finer details surrounding the outer shell of the COVID-19 virus. The work expands the scientific community's understanding of SARS-COV-2, and could lead to more refined antiviral therapies and better vaccines.

  • Earth prefers to serve life in XXS and XXL sizes
    on March 30, 2023 at 2:22 pm

    Life comes in all shapes in sizes, but some sizes are more popular than others, new research has found. A survey of body sizes of all Earth's living organisms has uncovered an unexpected pattern. Contrary to what current theories can explain, our planet's biomass -- the material that makes up all living organisms -- is concentrated in organisms at either end of the size spectrum.

  • Human body a breeding ground for antimicrobial...
    on March 27, 2023 at 8:32 pm

    The community of microbes living in and on our bodies may be acting as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance, according to new research.

  • Beneficial bacteria in the infant gut uses...
    on March 27, 2023 at 8:06 pm

    A nutrition scientist who has spent his career studying breast milk has demonstrated how beneficial microbes in the gut of infants use nitrogen from human milk to support pediatric nutrition and development.


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm

Terrestrial   (Earth)

Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism Virus
Prokaryote Archaea, Bacteria
Eukaryote Protist, Fungi, Algae, Protozoa (Tardigrade)
Plant Flower, Tree
Cnidaria Coral, Jellyfish
Cephalopod Cuttlefish, Octopus
Crustacean Lobster, Shrimp
Arachnid Spider, Scorpion
Insect Ant, Bee, Beetle, Butterfly
Fish Seahorse, Ray, Shark
Amphibian Frog, Salamander
Reptile Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird Penguin, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Platypus, Bat, Mouse, Rabbit, Goat, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Panda, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Cetacean Whale, Dolphin
Primate Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.