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tardigrade : any of a phylum (Tardigrada) of microscopic invertebrates with four pairs of stout legs that live usually in water or damp moss — called also water bearWebster   See also   OneLook


Tardigrades, also known colloquially as water bears, or moss piglets), are water-dwelling, eight-legged, segmented micro-animals. They have been found everywhere: from mountain tops to the deep sea and mud volcanoes; from tropical rain forests to the Antarctic. Tardigrades are one of the most resilient known animals, with individual species able to survive extreme conditions that would be rapidly fatal to nearly all other known life forms, such as exposure to extreme temperatures, extreme pressures (both high and low), air deprivation, radiation, dehydration, and starvation. About 1,150 known species form the phylum Tardigrada, a part of the superphylum Ecdysozoa. The group includes fossils dating from 530 million years ago, in the Cambrian period. — Wikipedia

Tardigrade (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Tardigrade (Biology Online)

Tardigrada, Water Bears (Tree of Life)
Water Bears, Tardigrada (One Zoom)
Tardigrada (Catalogue of Life)
Tardigrade (WolframAlpha)




Microbiology is the scientific study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells). Microbiology encompasses numerous sub-disciplines including virology, bacteriology, protistology, mycology, immunology, and parasitology. Eukaryotic microorganisms possess membrane-bound organelles and include fungi and protists, whereas prokaryotic organisms—all of which are microorganisms—are conventionally classified as lacking membrane-bound organelles and include Bacteria and Archaea. Microbiologists traditionally relied on culture, staining, and microscopy. However, less than 1% of the microorganisms present in common environments can be cultured in isolation using current means. Microbiologists often rely on molecular biology tools such as DNA sequence based identification, for example the 16S rRNA gene sequence used for bacteria identification. — Wikipedia

Tardigrades (Goldstein Lab, UNC Chapel Hill)




Subject: Tardigrade (Library of Congress)

Subject: Tardigrade (WorldCat)




MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Microbiology (MIT OpenCourseWare)
Microbiology (edX)



Microbiologists (US Occupational Outlook Handbook)


Microbiology Society
American Society for Microbiology


Tardigrada Newsletter
Tardigrade (bioRxiv: Preprint Server for Biology, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)
Tardigrade (EurekaAlert, American Association for the Advancement of Science)
Microbes and More News (Science Daily)
Tardigrade (Science News)
Tardigrade (Phys.org)
Tardigrade (NPR Archives)



Tardigrade (USA.gov)


More News …

Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • We could spread life to the Milky Way with...
    on December 21, 2022 at 6:29 pm

    Here's a thorny problem: What if life doesn't always appear on planets that can support it? What if we find more and more exoplanets and determine that some of them are habitable? What if we also determine that life hasn't appeared on them yet?

  • New information on the abilities of tardigrades:...
    on November 9, 2022 at 6:15 pm

    Tardigrades are tiny (0.5–1 mm) eight-legged animals famous for being among the toughest organisms on the planet. However, we still know very little about their behavior and ecology, particularly in Finnish ecosystems. Researchers from the Department of Biological and Environmental Science at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have recently described a new species and reported a new incredible survival skill in another one of these mighty creatures.

  • Researchers reveal new knowledge of microscopic...
    on October 19, 2022 at 6:53 pm

    University of Wyoming researchers have gained further insight into the biological processes that allow microscopic creatures called tardigrades to survive extreme conditions, including being completely dried out in suspended animation for years.

  • How tardigrades survive freezing temperatures
    on October 7, 2022 at 5:10 pm

    Tardigrades are excellent at adapting to harsh environmental conditions. Back in 2019, Ralph Schill, a professor at the Institute of Biomaterials and Biomolecular Systems at the University of Stuttgart, proved that anhydrobiotic (dried) tardigrades can survive undamaged for many years without absorbing water. Whether they age faster or slower in a frozen state, or whether aging even comes to a halt, was previously unclear. But the mystery has now been solved: Frozen tardigrades do not age.

  • How the secrets of the tardigrade could improve...
    on October 5, 2022 at 1:00 pm

    UCLA chemist Heather Maynard had to wonder: How do organisms like the tardigrade do it?


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm

Terrestrial   (Earth)

Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism Virus
Prokaryote Archaea, Bacteria
Eukaryote Protist, Fungi, Algae, Protozoa (Tardigrade)
Plant Flower, Tree
Cnidaria Coral, Jellyfish
Cephalopod Cuttlefish, Octopus
Crustacean Lobster, Shrimp
Arachnid Spider, Scorpion
Insect Ant, Bee, Beetle, Butterfly
Fish Seahorse, Ray, Shark
Amphibian Frog, Salamander
Reptile Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird Penguin, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Platypus, Bat, Mouse, Rabbit, Goat, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Panda, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Cetacean Whale, Dolphin
Primate Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human



1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.