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tardigrade : any of a phylum (Tardigrada) of microscopic invertebrates with four pairs of stout legs that live usually in water or damp moss — called also water bearMerriam-Webster   See also   OneLook


Tardigrades, also known colloquially as water bears, or moss piglets), are water-dwelling, eight-legged, segmented micro-animals. They have been found everywhere: from mountain tops to the deep sea and mud volcanoes; from tropical rain forests to the Antarctic. Tardigrades are one of the most resilient known animals, with individual species able to survive extreme conditions that would be rapidly fatal to nearly all other known life forms, such as exposure to extreme temperatures, extreme pressures (both high and low), air deprivation, radiation, dehydration, and starvation. About 1,150 known species form the phylum Tardigrada, a part of the superphylum Ecdysozoa. The group includes fossils dating from 530 million years ago, in the Cambrian period. — Wikipedia

Tardigrade (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Tardigrade (Biology Online)

Tardigrada, Water Bears (Tree of Life)
Water Bears, Tardigrada (One Zoom)
Tardigrada (Catalogue of Life)
Tardigrade (WolframAlpha)



Articles about Tardigrades (Big Think)
Talks about Tardigrades (TED: Ideas Worth Spreading)




Microbiology is the scientific study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells). Microbiology encompasses numerous sub-disciplines including virology, bacteriology, protistology, mycology, immunology, and parasitology. Eukaryotic microorganisms possess membrane-bound organelles and include fungi and protists, whereas prokaryotic organisms—all of which are microorganisms—are conventionally classified as lacking membrane-bound organelles and include Bacteria and Archaea. Microbiologists traditionally relied on culture, staining, and microscopy. However, less than 1% of the microorganisms present in common environments can be cultured in isolation using current means. Microbiologists often rely on molecular biology tools such as DNA sequence based identification, for example the 16S rRNA gene sequence used for bacteria identification. — Wikipedia

Tardigrades (Goldstein Lab, UNC Chapel Hill)




Subject: Tardigrade (Library of Congress)

Subject: Tardigrade (WorldCat)




MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Microbiology (MIT OpenCourseWare)
Microbiology (edX)



Microbiologists (US Occupational Outlook Handbook)


Microbiology Society
American Society for Microbiology


Tardigrada Newsletter
Tardigrade (bioRxiv: Preprint Server for Biology, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)
Tardigrade (EurekaAlert, American Association for the Advancement of Science)
Tardigrades (JSTOR)
Microbes and More News (Science Daily)
Tardigrade (Science News)
Tardigrade (Phys.org)
Tardigrade (NPR Archives)



Tardigrade (USA.gov)


More News …

Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • The secret world of moss, ancient ancestor of all...
    on May 26, 2023 at 5:04 pm

    When people consider extraordinary plants, most probably don't spare a thought for moss. It blends in against the green background of plant life, and seems to grow everywhere—whether you want it to or not.

  • Researchers discover that the ice cap is teeming...
    on May 2, 2023 at 7:27 pm

    There are no plants, and only very few animals: people rarely come here. The large glaciers in Greenland have long been perceived as ice deserts. Gigantic ice sheets where conditions for life are extremely harsh.

  • Scientists use tardigrade proteins for human...
    on March 20, 2023 at 7:20 pm

    University of Wyoming researchers' study of how microscopic creatures called tardigrades survive extreme conditions has led to a major breakthrough that could eventually make life-saving treatments available to people where refrigeration isn't possible.

  • Learning how cells respond to stressful conditions
    on March 3, 2023 at 5:10 pm

    Developing approaches to protect human well-being in a changing climate will depend on a deeper understanding of how mammalian cells and organisms adapt to dramatic shifts in temperature and in the availability of food and water. To help build this knowledge base, Institute researchers are exposing cells from multiple types of mammals to a range of increased and decreased temperatures; then they are observing the mechanisms the cells may use to survive extreme conditions.

  • We could spread life to the Milky Way with...
    on December 21, 2022 at 6:29 pm

    Here's a thorny problem: What if life doesn't always appear on planets that can support it? What if we find more and more exoplanets and determine that some of them are habitable? What if we also determine that life hasn't appeared on them yet?


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm

Terrestrial   (Earth)

Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism Virus
Prokaryote Archaea, Bacteria
Eukaryote Protist, Fungi, Algae, Protozoa (Tardigrade)
Plant Flower, Tree
Cnidaria Coral, Jellyfish
Cephalopod Cuttlefish, Octopus
Crustacean Lobster, Shrimp
Arachnid Spider, Scorpion
Insect Ant, Bee, Beetle, Butterfly
Fish Seahorse, Ray, Shark
Amphibian Frog, Salamander
Reptile Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird Penguin, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Platypus, Bat, Mouse, Rabbit, Goat, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Panda, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Cetacean Whale, Dolphin
Primate Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human



1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.