Virtual Reality

Cosma Home > Communication > System > Media > 3D > Virtual Reality (VR)


(This is an 360° video — press and hold to explore it!)

A beginner’s guide to finally buying a virtual reality headset (Hayley Tsukayama, The Washington Post)
Cosma Posts about Virtual Reality…

Related Pages

Cardboard and Daydream
View-Master VR
Gear VR
PlayStation VR
Oculus Rift


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Virtual Reality Resources Page (Cosma, You are here!)
Road to VR


virtual reality : an artificial environment which is experienced through sensory stimuli (as sights and sounds) provided by a computer and in which one’s actions partially determine what happens in the environment (special hardware & software used in concert) — Webster See also Oxford, OneLook, Free Dictionary, InfoPlease, Word Reference, Urban Dictionary


Virtual reality (VR) is a term that applies to computer-simulated environments that can simulate physical presence in places in the real world, as well as in imaginary worlds. Most current virtual reality environments are primarily visual experiences, displayed either on a computer screen or through special stereoscopic displays, but some simulations include additional sensory information, such as sound through speakers or headphones. Some advanced, haptic systems now include tactile information, generally known as force feedback, in medical and gaming applications. Furthermore, virtual reality covers remote communication environments which provide virtual presence of users with the concepts of telepresence and telexistence or a virtual artifact (VA) either through the use of standard input devices such as a keyboard and mouse, or through multimodal devices such as a wired glove, the Polhemus, and omnidirectional treadmills. The simulated environment can be similar to the real world in order to create a lifelike experience—for example, in simulations for pilot or combat training—or it can differ significantly from reality, such as in VR games. — Wikipedia

Britannica, Columbia (Infoplease)


A beginner’s guide to finally buying a virtual reality headset (Hayley Tsukayama, The Washington Post)





Shop Amazon eBay Gift Zazzle



The Rise and Fall and Rise of Virtual Reality (The Verge)
Want to Know What Virtual Reality Might Become? Look to the Past (Steven Johnson, New York Times)

Morton Heilig

Morton Heilig (Official Site)
Morton Heilig (Wikipedia)
Theory and Research in HCI: Morton Heilig, Pioneer in Virtual Reality Research (Chris Payatagool, Telepresence Options)

The Sword of Damocles

Watch the ‘Godfather of VR’ Ivan Sutherland Speak at the 2015 Proto Awards (Paul James, Road to VR)
The Sword of Damocles (Wikipedia)


Virtual Reality Interview with Jaron Lanier (Whole Earth Review)
VPL Research (High Tech History)
VPL Research (Street Tech)
Sun buys VPL Research (Notes on Jaron Lanier’s Official Site)

Sega VR Headset

The Sega VR Headset That Never Was (Matt Hill, Gizomdo)
Will we ever see another SEGA VR headset? (Sega Nerd)
Sega VR (Sega Retro)
Sega VR (Wikipedia)


The Power of Glove: A Power Glove Documentary
Power Glove (Wikipedia)

You can get a sense of what the Virtual Boy was like even if you don’t have one. Recently redditor calling himself “King of Spain” posted a Virtual Boy emulator for Google’s Cardboard. Here is a head-ache inducing video to give you a sense it.

Emulating Virtual Boy in 3D on Gear VR/Google Cardboard (The-King-of-Spain)
A redditor is using Google Cardboard to give Virtual Boy games a new life (Ricky Berg, Nintendo Inquirer)
Virtual Boy (eBay)
Nintendo’s Virtual Boy (Wikipedia)


Immersive Experiences (New Computer Museum)


WorldCat (OAIster) Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



Virtual Reality in Education (Cosma 3D)


Mobile Virtual Reality Development Challenge (MIT)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources
Open Education Consortium


UPLOAD Community of VR enthusiasts


Conference Alerts Worldwide (Conal)


Road to Virtual Reality , Reddit


VR Circle, WordPress


Upload VR
WEARVR : Content Catalog
Virtual Reality on ScienceDaily
Virtual Reality in NPR Archives
Virtual Reality News from Google


Virtual Reality Journal (Springer)


Google Scholar


ISBNdb, Google Books







Science Daily

  • 'Drastically' higher resolution to your TV and smartphone May 25, 2017 6:58 pm
    By developing a way to tune the color of individual pixels, researchers have eliminated the need for subpixels -- allowing a greater density of pixels and much higher resolution for video displays.
  • World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world May 18, 2017 12:30 pm
    Researchers pave way towards integration of 3-D holography into electronics like smart phones, computers and TVs, with development of nano-hologram 1,000 times thinner than a human hair.
  • Molecular dynamics, machine learning create 'hyper-predictive' computer models May 15, 2017 7:07 pm
    Researchers have demonstrated that molecular dynamics simulations and machine learning techniques could be integrated to create more accurate computer prediction models. These 'hyper-predictive' models could be used to quickly predict which new chemical compounds could be promising drug candidates.
  • Software convenes rapid, on-demand 'flash organizations' May 10, 2017 9:48 pm
    Flash organizations are a new crowdsourcing technique that enables anyone to assemble an entire organization from a paid crowdsourcing marketplace and lead that organization in pursuit of complex, open-ended goals.
  • Live interactions with robots increase their perceived human likeness May 10, 2017 3:52 pm
    A recent study found that people who watched live interactions with a robot were more likely to consider the robot to have more human-like qualities.
  • Virtual reality for psychiatric treatment? Research shows promise for VR and other technologies in mental health care May 8, 2017 5:09 pm
    A growing body of evidence suggests that virtual reality (VR) technology can be an effective part of treatment for phobias, posttraumatic stress disorder, and other mental health conditions, according to a research review.
  • Operating smart devices from the space on and above the back of your hand May 3, 2017 3:08 pm
    Smartwatches such as the Apple Watch have been called a 'revolution on the wrist', but the operation of these devices is complicated, because the screen is small. Researchers have therefore developed a novel input method that expands the input space to the back of the hand and the 3-D space above the back of the hand wearing the watch.
  • Supercomputers assist in search for new, better cancer drugs May 1, 2017 5:17 pm
    Finding new drugs that can more effectively kill cancer cells or disrupt the growth of tumors is one way to improve survival rates for ailing patients. Researchers are using supercomputers to find new chemotherapy drugs and to test known compounds to determine if they can fight different types of cancer. Recent efforts have yielded promising drug candidates, potential plant-derived compounds and insights into how to design more effective drugs.
  • Device allows users to manipulate 3-D virtual objects more quickly May 1, 2017 1:43 pm
    Researchers have developed a user-friendly, inexpensive controller for manipulating virtual objects in a computer program in three dimensions. The device allows users to manipulate objects more quickly -- with less lag time -- than existing technologies.
  • Light has new capacity for electronics April 27, 2017 3:22 pm
    In 'Minority Report,' the protagonist uses gloves that give him the power of virtual manipulation. The light seems to allow him to control the screen as if it were a touchscreen, but he's touching nothing but air. That technology is still science fiction, but a new study may bring it closer to reality. Researchers report that they have discovered the photodielectric effect, which could lead to laser-controlled touch displays.
  • Virtual humans help aspiring doctors learn empathy April 27, 2017 1:17 pm
    Delivering bad news in a caring way -- and coping with a patient's reaction -- is a key skill for doctors. Intuitive technology is helping medical students learn the best approaches.
  • New interface allows more efficient, faster technique to remotely operate robots April 25, 2017 4:43 pm
    A new interface allows users to simply point and click on an item, then choose a grasp, to control a robot remotely.
  • Researchers unlock hardware's hidden talent for rendering 3-D graphics for science -- and video games April 20, 2017 5:23 pm
    High performance computing researcher asked if hardware called 3-D stacked memory could do something it was never designed to do -- help render 3-D graphics.
  • Gaming helps personalized therapy level up April 19, 2017 2:08 pm
    Using game features in non-game contexts, computers can learn to build personalized mental- and physical-therapy programs that enhance individual motivation, according to engineers.
  • Technology is great, but are we prepared for the consequences? April 18, 2017 3:43 pm
    Dependence on technology is slowly eroding some of our core principles, according to an expert. It's impacting everything from fake news to texting while driving.
  • Motor neurons adjust to control tasks, new brain research reveals April 18, 2017 1:43 pm
    Motor cortical neurons optimally adjust how they encode movements in a task-specific manner, new research reveals. The findings enhance our understanding of how the brain controls movement and have the potential to improve the performance and reliability of brain-machine interfaces, or neural prosthetics, that assist paralyzed patients and amputees.
  • How World of Warcraft can get you a job April 13, 2017 4:44 pm
    World of Warcraft (WoW) gamers who were successful working as a team in “raids” had qualities that psychological studies have shown to translate to success on virtual workplace teams, new research concludes.
  • Pokemon Go players are happier, friendlier, study finds April 12, 2017 6:52 pm
    Pokemon Go people are happy people. That's the finding of media researchers who leapt to study the wildly popular mobile game shortly after its release in July 2016. Their work shows that Pokemon Go users were more likely to be positive, friendly and physically active.
  • Supercomputers reveal how cell membranes keep cancer-causing proteins turned off April 4, 2017 4:49 pm
    Two biophysicists have used supercomputers to show how cell membranes control the shape, and consequently the function, of a major cancer-causing protein.
  • In the future, we will control our mobiles using gestures April 4, 2017 12:57 pm
    Being able to interact with mobile phones and other smart devices using gestures with our hands and fingers in three dimensions would make the digital world more like the real one. A new project will help develop this next-generation interface.
  • 'Virtual' interferometers may overcome scale issues for optical quantum computers April 3, 2017 4:35 pm
    Researchers have devised an entirely new way of implementing large-scale interferometers that will dramatically miniaturize optical processing circuitry.
  • Controlling turtle motion with human thought March 23, 2017 12:50 pm
    Researchers have developed a technology that can remotely control an animal's movement with human thought.
  • Method speeds testing of new networking protocols March 22, 2017 3:09 pm
    Researchers present a system for testing new traffic management protocols that requires no alteration to network hardware but still works at realistic speeds -- 20 times as fast as networks of software-controlled routers.
  • People remain calm as the world ends, video game study suggests March 20, 2017 8:23 pm
    As the world ends, will you lock arms and sing 'Kumbayah' or embark on a path of law-breaking, anti-social behavior? A new study, based upon the virtual actions of more than 80,000 players of the role-playing video game ArcheAge, suggests you'll be singing. The study found that despite some violent acts, most players tended toward behavior that was helpful to others as their virtual world came to an end.
  • Computing: Is fog more secure than cloud? March 16, 2017 3:26 pm
    Computer scientists are working on a new concept for remote and distributed storage of documents that could have all the benefits of cloud computing but without the security issues of putting one's sensitive documents on a single remote server.
  • Female cyberbullies and victims feel the most negative about school and learning March 15, 2017 1:44 pm
    Involvement in cyberbullying among girls triggers negative perceptions of the importance of school and the value of learning, a new study suggests. Psychologists found that 11-15 year-old girls who were most involved in cyberbullying -- as perpetrator, victim, or both -- felt the least accepted by their peers. This then had a knock-on effect of spilling over into how important they felt school and learning were, the researchers found.
  • Studying altruism through virtual reality March 8, 2017 6:13 pm
    A computer-based environment has been developed with the aim to shed light on the origins of altruism. This new study immersed participants in a virtual environment that reproduced a building on fire which they had to evacuate in a hurry, deciding whether to save their lives or interrupt their escape and help rescue an injured person. The results showed that altruistic individuals self-reported to have greater concern for others’ wellbeing and had larger right anterior insula (a brain area involved in processing social emotions) compared to non-altruists.
  • Computer simulations first step toward designing more efficient amine chemical scrubbers March 7, 2017 4:29 pm
    A proof-of-concept molecular modeling study that analyzes the efficiency of amine solutions in capturing carbon dioxide is the first step toward the design of cheaper, more efficient amine chemicals for capturing carbon dioxide -- and reducing harmful CO2 emissions -- in industrial installations.
  • Virtual reality training for 'safety-critical' jobs March 6, 2017 4:42 pm
    New virtual reality training could help prevent accidents in 'safety-critical' industries like the NHS, aviation, the military and nuclear power.
  • Virtual characters that touch you are seen as being warmer and friendlier March 6, 2017 2:17 pm
    Touch is a basic need. A new study has shown that virtual characters that can touch you are seen as being warmer and friendlier. Previous research had already shown that this applies to human interaction. This new study has demonstrated that the same principle applies to interactions with virtual characters.
  • Social exclusion in virtual realities has a negative social and emotional impact in 'real' life February 16, 2017 3:55 pm
    In this age of highly realistic computer games and increasingly popular social networks, social exclusion in virtual worlds is becoming more and more socially significant, as is demonstrated by the growing number of "cyber mobbing" cases. However, up until now, very little research has been carried out into the impact of social exclusion in the digital world upon real-life social behavior, and hardly any that addresses the latest developments such as Virtual Reality (VR) glasses. A study has now shown that exclusion from a virtual group has a significant negative impact upon willingness to help and social distance in the real world.
  • Complex 3D data on all devices February 6, 2017 1:41 pm
    A new web-based software platform is swiftly bringing the visualization of 3D data to every device, optimizing the use of, for example, virtual reality and augmented reality in industry. In this way, researchers have brought the ideal of “any data on any device” a good deal closer.
  • Heidelberg Castle revisited February 1, 2017 2:36 pm
    Strikes of lightning, fires, wars – not only ravages of time left their traces on Heidelberg Castle. Today, it is considered one of the most important renaissance buildings north of the Alps. And it is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Germany with about 1.1 million visitors from all over the world every year – many of them from English speaking countries and Asia. Now, a researcher has reconstructed the castle as it looked before its destruction by means of a three-dimensional virtual model.
  • A new approach to 3-D holographic displays greatly improves the image quality January 27, 2017 4:29 pm
    With the addition of holographic diffusers or frosted glasses to wavefront modulators, researchers offer a simple and practical solution to significantly enhance the performance of 3D dynamic holographic displays by 2,600 times.
  • Mummy visualization impresses in computer journal January 23, 2017 2:07 pm
    Using visualization technology, visitors to the British Museum can reveal the murder of the mummified Geberlein Man, 5,500 years ago.
  • Why scientists should research emojis and emoticons 😛 January 17, 2017 7:01 pm
    More than 90 percent of online populations now incorporate emojis and emoticons into their texts and emails, and researchers are wondering what the use of (~_^), (>_
  • Engine for Likelihood-Free Inference facilitates more effective simulation January 4, 2017 3:36 pm
    The Engine for Likelihood-Free Inference is open to everyone, and it can help significantly reduce the number of simulator runs.
  • Realistic training for extreme flight conditions December 27, 2016 1:33 pm
    Missions at sea, in mountainous regions or close to skyscrapers are extremely risky for helicopter pilots. The turbulent air flows near oil rigs, ships, cliffs and tall buildings can throw a helicopter off balance and cause a crash. To provide pilots with optimal preparation for these challenging conditions, engineers are developing new simulation software.
  • Computer models find ancient solutions to modern climate problems December 20, 2016 10:55 pm
    Archaeologists are at the helm of new research using sophisticated computer technology to learn how past societies responded to climate change. Their work, which links ancient climate and archaeological data, could help modern communities identify new crops and other adaptive strategies when threatened by drought, extreme weather and other environmental challenges.
  • New virtual reality technology may improve motor skills in damaged limbs December 14, 2016 4:50 pm
    New research suggests that a combination of traditional physical therapy and technology may improve the motor skills and mobility of an impaired hand by having its healthy partner hand lead by example through virtual reality training.
  • No peeking: Humans play computer game using only direct brain stimulation December 6, 2016 3:35 pm
    Researchers have published the first demonstration of humans playing a simple, two-dimensional computer game using only input from direct brain stimulation -- without relying on any usual sensory cues from sight, hearing or touch.
  • Phantom movements in augmented reality helps patients with chronic intractable phantom limb pain December 2, 2016 2:22 am
    A novel method of treating phantom limb pain has been developed using machine learning and augmented reality. This approach has been tested on over a dozen of amputees with chronic phantom limb pain who found no relief by other clinically available methods before. The new treatment reduced their pain by approximately 50 per cent, reports a clinical study.
  • It takes less than a second to tell humans from androids November 28, 2016 8:24 pm
    It can be hard to tell the difference between humans and androids in such sci-fi TV shows as "Westworld." But in real life, beyond our screens, the human brain takes less than a second to tell between reality and fantasy, according to new research.
  • Augmented reality advances learning especially in informal science education context November 28, 2016 6:13 pm
    The aim of a new research project was to analyze learning using Augmented Reality (AR) technology and the motivational and cognitive aspects related to it in an informal learning context.
  • A good combination: Model and experiment for a deeper look November 21, 2016 9:28 pm
    Doctors performing medical check-ups want a full picture of the patient's health without using the scalpel. Engineers who want to investigate the stability of a bridge without cutting into it are in the same position. Non-destructive testing methods play a major role in guaranteeing quality and safety, driving substantial interest in refined methodologies. Now researchers have developed a method that gives a precise picture of the inner world of objects combining a computerized model and experiment.
  • Video Games: When lag time gets you shot November 17, 2016 4:51 pm
    Do you always get 'shot' playing computer games? Do you, like a sore loser, also blame the equipment? Actually, rather surprisingly, you might be justified.
  • What can Pokémon Go teach the world of conservation? November 16, 2016 3:31 pm
    Launched in July this year, Pokémon Go has become a global phenomenon, reaching 500 million downloads within two months of release. The augmented reality game, designed for mobile devices, allows users to capture, battle and train virtual creatures called Pokémon that appear on screen as if part of the real-world environment. But can the game's enormous success deliver any lessons to the fields of natural history and conservation?
  • Network traffic visualization tool will help thwart cyber attacks November 8, 2016 4:06 pm
    Researchers have used a new tool to visualize DDoS attacks and malware distribution networks.
  • Virtual reality: Hybrid Virtual Environment 3D comes to the cinema November 2, 2016 11:37 pm
    A researcher compared the virtual reality experience with two different systems: the one with VR headsets versus one with an immersive projection system using a concave-spherical screen, developed by his research team and called Hybrid Virtual Environment 3D (Hyve-3D). He immersed 20 subjects whom preferred the virtual reality without headsets, because they could interact with other viewers and share their impressions in real time.
  • Robots help position interventional needles October 28, 2016 12:58 pm
    Finding the ideal position for interventional needles – as used in biopsies, for instance – is a difficult and time-consuming process. This can now be performed automatically, using a robotic arm to place a needle guide for the doctor at the optimal insertion point. With robotic assistance, doctors need five minutes to position the needle, as opposed to 30 minutes with conventional techniques.
  • Weakness found in common computer chip October 25, 2016 3:04 pm
    A weakness has been found in the Haswell central processing unit (CPU) components that makes common computer operating systems vulnerable to malicious attacks. Computer hackers could take control of individual, company and government computers if a weak point in address space layout randomization (ASLR) software is exploited by manipulating a CPU’s branch predictor, a piece of hardware designed to improve program performance, say researchers.
  • Helping dementia patients recall grandchildren's names October 24, 2016 5:31 pm
    A novel telemedicine speech therapy program for people with language problems due to dementia significantly improved their ability to recall words they had "lost," reports a study.
  • World-first demonstration of virtualized 5G architecture October 24, 2016 1:03 pm
    The University of Surrey's 5GIC (part of the Institute for Communications Systems) has -- for the first time worldwide -- produced a full demonstration of its FDC, which points to a significant reduction in deployment, optimisation and upgrade costs for network operators. The FDC was demonstrated over LTE-A (an advanced version of the Long Term Evolution network) on an end to end basis between off-the shelf mobiles and internet and traditional intranet services.
  • Designing the future internet October 20, 2016 3:53 pm
    This century, our world will be flooded with hundreds of billions of smartphones, gadgets, sensors and other smart objects connected to the internet. New research is at the forefront of efforts to redesign the internet to handle the enormous increase in traffic.
  • Full-circle viewing: 360-degree electronic holographic display October 18, 2016 6:14 pm
    A research team has described a novel tabletop display system that allows multiple viewers to simultaneously view a hologram showing a full 3-D image as they walk around the tabletop, giving complete 360-degree access.
  • Virtual experience gets the elderly to exercise October 18, 2016 1:38 pm
    Virtual Reality can get the elderly in nursing homes to be happier about exercising. A new research project shows that the technology motivates older people in nursing homes to get moving.
  • Typing while driving could be more safe with simple text entry technique October 11, 2016 12:59 pm
    A combination of a head-up display and the keypad familiar to us from mobiles in the 2000s significantly improved the performance of drivers who were texting while driving.
  • Key component for wireless communication with terahertz frequencies October 4, 2016 12:53 pm
    An ultrahigh speed, wireless communication network using THz instead of GHz frequencies is now one step closer. Researchers have shown that it is possible to effectively transmit signal waves with THz frequencies through the existing fiber optic network.
  • Virtual reality training improves social skills of individuals on the autism spectrum September 20, 2016 6:18 pm
    Children with autism spectrum disorder, who participated in a virtual reality training program, improved social cognition skills and reported better real-world relationships. Neurocognitive testing showed significant gains in emotional recognition, understanding the perspective of others and the ability to problem solve.
  • New 3D viewer for improved digital geoscience mapping September 20, 2016 12:30 pm
    Over the years, techniques and equipment for digital mapping have revolutionized the way geoscience field studies are performed. Now a unique new software for virtual model interpretation and visualization is revealed by researchers.

One thought on “Virtual Reality

Comments are closed.