Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid
These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
Jupiter : the largest of the planets and fifth in order from the sun — Webster
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a giant planet with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two and a half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter is a gas giant, along with Saturn, with the other two giant planets, Uranus and Neptune, being ice giants. Jupiter was known to astronomers of ancient times. The Romans named it after their god Jupiter.
Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium, though helium comprises only about a tenth of the number of molecules. It may also have a rocky core of heavier elements, but like the other giant planets, Jupiter lacks a well-defined solid surface. Because of its rapid rotation, the planet’s shape is that of an oblate spheroid (it has a slight but noticeable bulge around the equator). The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries. A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the 17th century when it was first seen by telescope. Surrounding Jupiter is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. Jupiter has at least 67 moons, including the four large Galilean moons discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Ganymede, the largest of these, has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury. — Wikipedia
In this animation the viewer is taken low over Jupiter’s north pole to illustrate the 3-D aspects of the region’s central cyclone and the eight cyclones that encircle it.
The movie utilizes imagery derived from data collected by the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) instrument aboard NASA’s Juno mission during its fourth pass over the massive planet. Infrared cameras are used to sense the temperature of Jupiter’s atmosphere and provide insight into how the powerful cyclones at Jupiter’s poles work. In the animation, the yellow areas are warmer (or deeper into Jupiter’s atmosphere) and the dark areas are colder (or higher up in Jupiter’s atmosphere). In this picture the highest “brightness temperature” is around 260K (about -13°C) and the lowest around 190K (about -83°C). The “brightness temperature” is a measurement of the radiance, at 5 µm, traveling upward from the top of the atmosphere towards Juno, expressed in units of temperature.
Note: This is a 360° Video — press and hold to explore it!
Jupiter News -- ScienceDaily Jupiter Research. From Hubble's latest pictures of Jupiter's new red spot to astronomy articles on Jupiter's moons, learn all the Jupiter facts here.
Astronomers use Earth's natural history as guide...
on September 24, 2018 at 9:44 pm
By looking at Earth's full natural history and evolution, astronomers may have found a template for vegetation fingerprints -- borrowing from epochs of changing flora -- to determine the age of habitable exoplanets. […]
Evidence of early planetary shake-up
on September 10, 2018 at 3:12 pm
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How a NASA scientist looks in the depths of the...
on August 29, 2018 at 7:38 pm
One critical question has bedeviled astronomers for generations: Is there water deep in Jupiter's atmosphere, and if so, how much? […]
Jupiter had growth disorders
on August 27, 2018 at 3:08 pm
Researchers can now show how Jupiter was formed. Data collected from meteorites had indicated that the growth of the giant planet had been delayed for two million years. Now the researchers have found an explanation: Collisions with kilometer-sized blocks generated high energy, which meant that in this phase hardly any accretion of gas could take place and the planet could only grow slowly. […]
Million fold increase in the power of waves near...
on August 7, 2018 at 1:51 pm
Chorus waves are electromagnetic waves. Converted to sound they sound like singing and chirping birds at dawn. They can cause polar lights above the Earth as well as damage to satellites. Now, a team of researchers has found that such waves are intensified million-fold around Jupiter's moon Ganymede. This study provides important observational constraints for theoretical studies. […]
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Astronomers use Earth's natural history as guide...
on September 24, 2018 at 10:51 pm
By looking at Earth's full natural history and evolution, astronomers may have found a template for vegetation fingerprints—borrowing from epochs of changing flora—to determine the age of habitable exoplanets. […]
A new classification scheme for exoplanet sizes
on September 24, 2018 at 12:50 pm
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Ceres takes life an ice volcano at a time
on September 17, 2018 at 6:19 pm
Every year throughout its 4.5-billion-year life, ice volcanoes on the dwarf planet Ceres generate enough material on average to fill a movie theater, according to a new study led by the University of Arizona. […]
When is a star not a star? The line that...
on September 17, 2018 at 2:36 pm
The line that separates stars from brown dwarfs may soon be clearer thanks to new work led by Carnegie's Serge Dieterich. Published by the Astrophysical Journal, his team's findings demonstrate that brown dwarfs can be more massive than astronomers previously thought. […]
Juno captures elusive 'brown barge'
on September 17, 2018 at 11:46 am
A long, brown oval known as a "brown barge" in Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt is captured in this color-enhanced image from NASA's Juno spacecraft. […]