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land : the surface of the earth and all its natural resources — Webster

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lithosphere : the outer part of the solid earth composed of rock essentially like that exposed at the surface, consisting of the crust and outermost layer of the mantle, and usually considered to be about 60 miles (100 kilometers) in thickness — Webster

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Lithosphere is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater. The outermost shell of a rocky planet, the crust, is defined on the basis of its chemistry and mineralogy. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

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Geology is an science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science.

Geology describes the structure of the Earth beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earth’s past climates. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Geology Resources (Library of Congress)
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Earth’s Structure: About the Earth (Geography4Kids)
Geology for Kids


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Science Daily,, NPR Archives


More News … - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Exploring the timing and mechanism of Tibetan...
    on August 11, 2022 at 3:13 pm

    A research team led by Prof. Ding Lin from the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has systematically explained the differential uplift process and its related deep dynamic mechanism of the Tibetan Plateau since the Cretaceous.

  • Earth's crust has been 'dripping' beneath Andes...
    on July 19, 2022 at 9:31 pm

    Just like honey slowly dripping from a spoon, parts of the rocky outermost layer of Earth's shell are continuously sinking into the more fluid layer of the planet's mantle over the course of millions of years. Known as lithospheric dripping—named for the fragmenting of rocky material that makes up Earth's crust and upper mantle—the process results in significant deformations at the surface such as basins, folding of the crust and irregular elevations.

  • Grain size of rocks in Earth's mantle affects...
    on June 17, 2022 at 2:27 pm

    The planet is shaped by forces deep within its interior. These push the plates of the Earth's crust against each other, causing mountains and volcanoes to form along the collision zones. But when reconstructing what exactly is happening inside the Earth, we are limited to indirect observation; for example, by conducting pressure experiments on rocks from the Earth's mantle or by analyzing seismic waves triggered by earthquakes.

  • Tectonics of convergent plate margins: New...
    on June 14, 2022 at 4:45 pm

    A study led by Prof. Yong-Fei Zheng at University of Science and Technology of China focused on the development of tectonic processes along convergent plate margins through inspection of recent advances in the fields of geology, geochemistry, geophysics and geodynamics. These advances are fundamental to our understanding of various phenomena at active and fossil plate margins, providing new insights into many first-order problems regarding geological occurrences in the interior of continents. […]

  • Which forces control the elevation of mountains?
    on June 2, 2022 at 5:01 pm

    Scientists have come up with a new classification scheme for mountain belts that uses just a single number to describe whether the elevation of the mountain belt is controlled mainly by weathering and erosion or by properties of the Earth's crust, i.e., the lithospheric strength: the "Beaumont number" (Bm). It's named after Chris Beaumont, a scientist who, together with his team, developed coupled models of surface processes and tectonic forces. The scientists report about their findings in the […]

Geology News -- ScienceDaily Geology news. From the discovery of new properties of deep earth and finds in fossil magma chambers to fossil fuels and more.

  • An ocean inside Earth? Water hundreds of...
    on September 27, 2022 at 12:07 am

    The transition zone between the Earth's upper and lower mantle contains considerable quantities of water, according to an international study. The research team analyzed a rare diamond formed 660 meters below the Earth's surface using techniques including Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectrometry. The study confirmed something that for a long time was only a theory, namely that ocean water accompanies subducting slabs and thus enters the transition zone. This means that our planet's water cycle […]

  • Deepest scientific ocean drilling sheds light on...
    on September 23, 2022 at 1:08 pm

    Scientists who drilled deeper into an undersea earthquake fault than ever before have found that the tectonic stress in Japan's Nankai subduction zone is less than expected.  The findings are a puzzle but will help scientists home in on the link between tectonic forces and the earthquake cycle and potentially lead to better earthquake forecasts, both at Nankai and other megathrust faults such as Cascadia in the Pacific Northwest. The drilling reached over two miles into the Nankai subduction […]

  • Researchers create synthetic rocks to better...
    on September 22, 2022 at 2:32 pm

    Researchers have shed new light on the formation of increasingly precious rare earth elements (REEs) by creating synthetic rocks and testing their responses to varying environmental conditions. REEs are used in electronic devices and green energy technologies, from smartphones to e-cars. The findings, have implications for recycling REEs from electronic waste, designing materials with advanced functional properties, and even for finding new REE deposits hidden around the globe.

  • Groundbreaking discovery from South Africa...
    on September 22, 2022 at 2:32 pm

    The traditional hypothesis about totally molten magma chambers (key to volcanic activity) may just be correct, despite some recent studies claiming otherwise. Wits researchers have compelling evidence for the existence of such a magma chamber deep within a South Africa's ancient crust.

  • Elusive atmospheric wave detected during 2022...
    on September 20, 2022 at 2:07 am

    The catastrophic eruption of the Hunga Tonga -- Hunga Ha'apai volcano in 2022 triggered a special atmospheric wave that has eluded detection for the past 85 years. Researchers relied on state-of-the-art observational data and computer simulations to discover the existence of Pekeris waves -- fluctuations in air pressure that were theorized in 1937 but never proven to occur in nature, until now.



Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Life Cell, Gene, Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Cuttlefish, Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.