land : the surface of the earth and all its natural resources — Webster
lithosphere : the outer part of the solid earth composed of rock essentially like that exposed at the surface, consisting of the crust and outermost layer of the mantle, and usually considered to be about 60 miles (100 kilometers) in thickness — Webster
Lithosphere is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater. The outermost shell of a rocky planet, the crust, is defined on the basis of its chemistry and mineralogy. — Wikipedia
Geology is an science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science.
Geology describes the structure of the Earth beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earth’s past climates. — Wikipedia
Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.
- Exploring the timing and mechanism of Tibetan...on August 11, 2022 at 3:13 pm
A research team led by Prof. Ding Lin from the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has systematically explained the differential uplift process and its related deep dynamic mechanism of the Tibetan Plateau since the Cretaceous.
- Earth's crust has been 'dripping' beneath Andes...on July 19, 2022 at 9:31 pm
Just like honey slowly dripping from a spoon, parts of the rocky outermost layer of Earth's shell are continuously sinking into the more fluid layer of the planet's mantle over the course of millions of years. Known as lithospheric dripping—named for the fragmenting of rocky material that makes up Earth's crust and upper mantle—the process results in significant deformations at the surface such as basins, folding of the crust and irregular elevations.
- Grain size of rocks in Earth's mantle affects...on June 17, 2022 at 2:27 pm
The planet is shaped by forces deep within its interior. These push the plates of the Earth's crust against each other, causing mountains and volcanoes to form along the collision zones. But when reconstructing what exactly is happening inside the Earth, we are limited to indirect observation; for example, by conducting pressure experiments on rocks from the Earth's mantle or by analyzing seismic waves triggered by earthquakes.
- Tectonics of convergent plate margins: New...on June 14, 2022 at 4:45 pm
A study led by Prof. Yong-Fei Zheng at University of Science and Technology of China focused on the development of tectonic processes along convergent plate margins through inspection of recent advances in the fields of geology, geochemistry, geophysics and geodynamics. These advances are fundamental to our understanding of various phenomena at active and fossil plate margins, providing new insights into many first-order problems regarding geological occurrences in the interior of continents. […]
- Which forces control the elevation of mountains?on June 2, 2022 at 5:01 pm
Scientists have come up with a new classification scheme for mountain belts that uses just a single number to describe whether the elevation of the mountain belt is controlled mainly by weathering and erosion or by properties of the Earth's crust, i.e., the lithospheric strength: the "Beaumont number" (Bm). It's named after Chris Beaumont, a scientist who, together with his team, developed coupled models of surface processes and tectonic forces. The scientists report about their findings in the […]
Geology News -- ScienceDaily Geology news. From the discovery of new properties of deep earth and finds in fossil magma chambers to fossil fuels and more.
- One more clue to the Moon's originon August 10, 2022 at 8:10 pm
Researchers discover the first definitive proof that the Moon inherited indigenous noble gases from the Earth's mantle. The discovery represents a significant piece of the puzzle towards understanding how the Moon and, potentially, the Earth and other celestial bodies were formed.
- Ancient source of oxygen for life hidden deep in...on August 8, 2022 at 12:59 pm
Scientists have shown the importance of hot temperatures in maximizing hydrogen peroxide generation from rocks during the movement of geological faults, and say it may have influenced the early evolution, and feasibly even origin, of life in hot environments on the early Earth prior to the evolution of photosynthesis.
- Nanoscale observations simplify how scientists...on August 3, 2022 at 4:03 pm
Using single calcite crystals with varying surface roughness allows engineers to simplify the complex physics that describes fault movement. Researchers now show how this simplification may lead to better earthquake prediction.
- Volcanic super eruptions are millions of years in...on August 3, 2022 at 3:25 pm
Researchers have discovered that super-eruptions occur when huge accumulations of magma deep in the Earth's crust, formed over millions of years, move rapidly to the surface disrupting pre-existing rock.
- Off-axis high-temperature hydrothermal field...on July 18, 2022 at 7:43 pm
Scientists discover off-axis, high-temperature deep-sea hydrothermal vents along a portion of the northern East Pacific Rise that are hotter and cover more area than any other hydrothermal vents studied to date along this section of the mid-ocean ridge. The discovery demonstrates that there are likely more hydrothermal vents in the deep-sea than previously thought, and underscores the need for high-resolution bathymetric mapping to locate them.
Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.
Life Cell, Gene, Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Cuttlefish, Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human