Land

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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism
Plant Flower, Tree
Animal
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human

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These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…

General

Dictionary

land : the surface of the earth and all its natural resources — Webster

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lithosphere : the outer part of the solid earth composed of rock essentially like that exposed at the surface, consisting of the crust and outermost layer of the mantle, and usually considered to be about 60 miles (100 kilometers) in thickness — Webster

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Encyclopedia

Lithosphere is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater. The outermost shell of a rocky planet, the crust, is defined on the basis of its chemistry and mineralogy. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

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http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=Lithosphere (WolframAlpha)

Introduction

Science

Geology is an science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science.

Geology describes the structure of the Earth beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earth’s past climates. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Geology Resources (Library of Congress)
Geology (Wolfram Alpha)

History

Project Mohole (National Academies of Sciences)
Project Mohole (Wikipedia)

Participation

Education

Earth’s Structure: About the Earth (Geography4Kids)
Geology for Kids

Course

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

News

Science Daily, Phys.org, NPR Archives

Expression

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returntotop

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Geology News -- ScienceDaily Geology news. From the discovery of new properties of deep earth and finds in fossil magma chambers to fossil fuels and more.

  • Energy unleashed by submarine volcanoes could...
    on April 21, 2021 at 12:29 pm

    Volcanic eruptions deep in our oceans are capable of extremely powerful releases of energy, at a rate high enough to power the whole of the United States, according to new research.

  • Was Cascadia's 1700 earthquake part of a sequence...
    on April 20, 2021 at 8:09 pm

    The famous 1700 Cascadia earthquake that altered the coastline of western North America and sent a tsunami across the Pacific Ocean to Japan may have been one of a sequence of earthquakes, according to new research.

  • Can extreme melt destabilize ice sheets?
    on April 20, 2021 at 1:28 pm

    Researchers have deciphered a trove of data that shows one season of extreme melt can reduce the Greenland Ice Sheet's capacity to store future meltwater - and increase the likelihood of future melt raising sea levels.

  • Study reveals the workings of nature's own...
    on April 19, 2021 at 5:56 pm

    A new study finds a naturally occurring 'earthquake gate' that decides which earthquakes are allowed to grow into magnitude 8 or greater. Sometimes, the 'gate' stops earthquakes in the magnitude 7 range, while ones that pass through the gate grow to magnitude 8 or greater, releasing over 32 times as much energy as a magnitude 7.

  • Hidden magma pools pose eruption risks that we...
    on April 16, 2021 at 6:30 pm

    Volcanologists' ability to estimate eruption risks is largely reliant on knowing where pools of magma are stored, deep in the Earth's crust. But what happens if the magma can't be spotted?


Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • The Deep-time Digital Earth program: Data-driven...
    on April 6, 2021 at 11:56 am

    Humans have long explored three big scientific questions: the evolution of the universe, the evolution of Earth, and the evolution of life. Geoscientists have embraced the mission of elucidating the evolution of Earth and life, which are preserved in the information-rich but incomplete geological record that spans more than 4.5 billion years of Earth history. Delving into Earth's deep-time history helps geoscientists decipher mechanisms and rates of Earth's evolution, unravel the rates and […]

  • Just add (mantle) water: New research cracks the...
    on April 1, 2021 at 1:30 pm

    Earth is an amazing planet. As far as we know, it's the only planet in the universe where life exists. It's also the only planet known to have continents: the land masses on which we live and which host the minerals needed to support our complex lives.

  • Thick lithosphere casts doubt on plate tectonics...
    on January 28, 2021 at 6:40 pm

    At some point between 300 million and 1 billion years ago, a large cosmic object smashed into the planet Venus, leaving a crater more than 170 miles in diameter. A team of Brown University researchers has used that ancient impact scar to explore the possibility that Venus once had Earth-like plate tectonics.

  • Geological phenomenon widening the Atlantic Ocean
    on January 27, 2021 at 3:00 pm

    An upsurge of matter from deep beneath the Earth's crust could be pushing the continents of North and South America further apart from Europe and Africa, new research has found.

  • Geologic history written in garnet sand
    on January 14, 2021 at 8:21 pm

    On a beach on a remote island in eastern Papua New Guinea, a country located in the southwestern Pacific to the north of Australia, garnet sand reveals an important geologic discovery. Similar to messages in bottles that have traveled across the oceans, sediments derived from the erosion of rocks carry information from another time and place. In this case the grains of garnet sand reveal a story of traveling from the surface to deep into the Earth (~75 miles), and then returning to the surface […]