Land

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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism
Plant Flower, Tree
Animal
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human

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These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…

General

Dictionary

land : the surface of the earth and all its natural resources — Webster

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lithosphere : the outer part of the solid earth composed of rock essentially like that exposed at the surface, consisting of the crust and outermost layer of the mantle, and usually considered to be about 60 miles (100 kilometers) in thickness — Webster

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Encyclopedia

Lithosphere is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater. The outermost shell of a rocky planet, the crust, is defined on the basis of its chemistry and mineralogy. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

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http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=Lithosphere (WolframAlpha)

Introduction


Science

Geology is an science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science.

Geology describes the structure of the Earth beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earth’s past climates. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Geology Resources (Library of Congress)
Geology (Wolfram Alpha)

History




Project Mohole (National Academies of Sciences)
Project Mohole (Wikipedia)

Participation

Education




Earth’s Structure: About the Earth (Geography4Kids)
Geology for Kids


Course

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

News

Science Daily, Phys.org, NPR Archives

Expression


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Geology News -- ScienceDaily Geology news. From the discovery of new properties of deep earth and finds in fossil magma chambers to fossil fuels and more.

  • Eclectic rocks influence earthquake types
    on March 25, 2020 at 7:40 pm

    New Zealand's largest fault is a jumble of mixed-up rocks of all shapes, sizes, compositions and origins. According to research from a global team of scientists, this motley mixture could help explain why the fault generates slow-motion earthquakes known as 'slow slip events' as well as destructive, tsunami-generating tremors.

  • Shifts in deep geologic structure may have...
    on March 16, 2020 at 6:15 pm

    Researchers say they have identified the origins of an unusual fault that probably magnified the catastrophic 2011 Japan tsunami.

  • 'Fossil earthquakes' offer new insight into...
    on March 12, 2020 at 6:23 pm

    A study has shed new light on the mechanisms through which earthquakes are triggered up to 40km beneath the earth's surface.

  • Heat stress may affect more than 1.2 billion...
    on March 12, 2020 at 6:22 pm

    Heat stress from extreme heat and humidity will annually affect areas now home to 1.2 billion people by 2100, assuming current greenhouse gas emissions, according to a new study. That's more than four times the number of people affected today, and more than 12 times the number who would have been affected without industrial era global warming.

  • Water, carbon and nitrogen were not immediately...
    on March 12, 2020 at 3:26 pm

    Scientists present important new findings regarding the origin of oceans and life on Earth. Measurements on the oldest preserved mantle rocks from Greenland show that -- contrary to previous assumptions -- the elements necessary for the evolution of life were not delivered to Earth until very late in the planet's formation.


Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Scientists quantify how wave power drives coastal...
    on March 16, 2020 at 12:12 pm

    Over millions of years, Hawaiian volcanoes have formed a chain of volcanic islands stretching across the Northern Pacific, where ocean waves from every direction, stirred up by distant storms or carried in on tradewinds, have battered and shaped the islands' coastlines to varying degrees.

  • Signals from inside the Earth: Borexino...
    on January 22, 2020 at 5:15 pm

    Scientists involved in the Borexino collaboration have presented new results for the measurement of neutrinos originating from the interior of the Earth. The elusive "ghost particles" rarely interact with matter, making their detection difficult. With this update, the researchers have now been able to access 53 events—almost twice as many as in the previous analysis of the data from the Borexino detector, which is located 1,400 metres below the Earth's surface in the Gran Sasso massif […]

  • The Antarctic: Study provides data about the...
    on December 9, 2019 at 4:54 pm

    The Antarctic is one of the parts of Earth that we know the least about. Due to the massive ice shield, the collection of geophysical information on site is extremely difficult and expensive. Satellite data from the European Space Agency (ESA) has now been used as the basis for new insights on the deep structure of the continent. Scientists from Kiel University (CAU) recently published their discoveries in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth in cooperation with scientists from the […]

  • Extraterrestrial impacts may have triggered...
    on November 26, 2019 at 1:03 pm

    When—and how—the Earth's surface evolved from a hot, primordial mush into a rocky planet continually resurfaced by plate tectonics remain some of the biggest unanswered questions in earth science research. Now a new study, published in Geology, suggests this earthly transition may in fact have been triggered by extra-terrestrial impacts.

  • What happens under the Yellowstone volcano?
    on October 17, 2019 at 4:12 pm

    Yellowstone National Park in the USA, with its geysers and hot springs, is a major attraction for tourists. However, especially in times of little news, the media often focuses on the Yellowstone supervolcano, which last erupted about 630,000 years ago. Inevitably then, the question of the underlying geological structures will be posed.