Astronomical Instrument

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Physical Realm
Universe Astronomical Instrument
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Observational astronomy is a division of astronomy that is concerned with recording data about the observable universe, in contrast with theoretical astronomy, which is mainly concerned with calculating the measurable implications of physical models. It is the practice and study of observing celestial objects with the use of telescopes and other astronomical instruments.

Galileo Galilei turned a telescope to the heavens and recorded what he saw. Since that time, observational astronomy has made steady advances with each improvement in a variety astronomical instruments and related methods. — Wikipedia

Observational Astronomy (Eric Weisstein’s World of Astronomy, Wolfram Research)
Observatories & Telescopes (Wolfram Alpha)
Encyclopædia Britannica

Astronomical Instruments, Category (Wikipedia)
Astronomical Instruments, List (Wikipedia)


Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO)



Galileo and the telescope (The Science Geek)
The History of Astronomy (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)


Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



Telescopes (NASA.Gov)
Observational Astronomy (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)
Telescopes (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)
Telescopes (Cosmos4Kids)


Crash Course Astronomy (YouTube)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Careers in Astronomy (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)


Sky & Telescope, ScienceDaily,, NPR Archives






Acapella Science (YouTube Channel)



Celestial News & Events – Sky & Telescope The essential guide to astronomy

  • Chasing the Sun at 39,000 Feet
    by Bob King on June 11, 2021 at 7:00 pm

    Sky & Telescope's annular-eclipse flight chased down the "ring of fire" eclipse in the skies above Canada for breathtaking views. The post Chasing the Sun at 39,000 Feet appeared first on Sky & Telescope.

  • This Week's Sky at a Glance, June 11 – 19
    by Alan MacRobert on June 11, 2021 at 9:03 am

    The crescent Moon passes Venus, Pollux, Castor, and Mars in the evening twilight. The Big Dipper hangs down; the Little Dipper floats up. And greet the "Betelgeuse of summer." The post This Week's Sky at a Glance, June 11 – 19 appeared first on Sky & Telescope.

  • A Sunrise Annular Solar Eclipse
    by Bob King on June 8, 2021 at 3:58 pm

    Even if you're not in the path of annularity during the June 10th solar eclipse, get ready for a sunrise spectacle. The post A Sunrise Annular Solar Eclipse appeared first on Sky & Telescope.

  • This Week's Sky at a Glance, June 4 – 12
    by Alan MacRobert on June 4, 2021 at 9:05 am

    Pollux and Castor slide down past Mars in the west, while Venus, shining brightly below, tries to hog attention. On the other side of the sky, the enormous arch of the Milky Way hoves into view after dark behind the Summer Triangle. The post This Week's Sky at a Glance, June 4 – 12 appeared first on Sky & Telescope.

  • This Week's Sky at a Glance, May 28 – June 5
    by Alan MacRobert on May 28, 2021 at 2:32 pm

    Venus and Mercury conjoin in the post-sunset afterglow as Mercury fades away; bring binoculars! Arcturus stands over Spica. The Scorpion rears up, and the Big Dipper floats on high. The post This Week's Sky at a Glance, May 28 – June 5 appeared first on Sky & Telescope.

Space Telescopes News -- ScienceDaily Space Telescopes. Astronomy articles and pictures from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-Ray Telescope and many other leading astronomy institutes from around the world.

  • Astronomers spot a 'blinking giant' near the...
    on June 11, 2021 at 12:56 pm

    Astronomers have spotted a giant 'blinking' star towards the centre of the Milky Way, more than 25,000 light years away.

  • Asteroid 16 Psyche might not be what scientists...
    on June 10, 2021 at 5:57 pm

    New research finds that the target asteroid of NASA's Psyche mission may not be as metallic or dense as previously predicted, hinting that it might not be an exposed planetary core after all.

  • Astronomers discover a 'changing-look' blazar
    on June 9, 2021 at 4:34 pm

    Astronomers describe a 'changing-look' blazar -- a powerful active galactic nucleus powered by supermassive blackhole at the center of a galaxy.

  • CHIME telescope detects more than 500 mysterious...
    on June 9, 2021 at 4:34 pm

    The large radio telescope CHIME has detected more than 500 mysterious fast radio bursts in its first year of operation, MIT researchers report. The observations quadruple the number of known radio bursts and reveal two types of FRBs: one-offs and repeaters.

  • Scientists discover new exoplanet with an...
    on June 9, 2021 at 12:46 pm

    Scientists have discovered a new, temperate sub-Neptune sized exoplanet with a 24-day orbital period orbiting a nearby M dwarf star. The recent discovery offers exciting research opportunities thanks to the planet's substantial atmosphere, small star, and how fast the system is moving away from the Earth. - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Front-row view reveals exceptional cosmic...
    on June 3, 2021 at 6:00 pm

    Scientists have gained the best view yet of the brightest explosions in the universe: A specialized observatory in Namibia has recorded the most energetic radiation and longest gamma-ray afterglow of a so-called gamma-ray burst (GRB) to date. The observations with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) challenge the established idea of how gamma-rays are produced in these colossal stellar explosions which are the birth cries of black holes, as the international team reports in the […]

  • Astronomers discover a massive star cluster, of...
    on June 2, 2021 at 3:17 pm

    An international team of astrophysicists led by the Stellar Astrophysics Group of the University of Alicante (UA), the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), and the University of Valparaíso (Chile) has discovered a massive cluster of stars of intermediate age in the direction of the Scutum constellation. This object, which has been named Valparaíso 1, lies some seven thousand light years away from the Sun, and contains at least fifteen thousand stars. To detect it, observations have […]

  • Researchers explore the surroundings of globular...
    on June 1, 2021 at 1:00 pm

    Using the 4-meter Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo InterAmerican Observatory (CTIO), astronomers have mapped the outermost regions of a galactic globular cluster known as NGC 6809. Results of the study, published May 24 on the arXiv pre-print server, could improve our understanding of this cluster and its surroundings.

  • Study reveals diverse magnetic fields in...
    on June 1, 2021 at 11:26 am

    Magnetic fields are ubiquitous throughout the Milky Way galaxy and play a crucial role in all dynamics of interstellar medium. However, questions like how solar-type stars form out of magnetized molecular clouds, whether the role of magnetic fields changes at various scales and densities of molecular clouds, and what factors can change the morphology of magnetic fields in low-mass dense cores still remain unclear.

  • FAST is promising in interplanetary scintillation...
    on June 1, 2021 at 11:26 am

    The radio signal from a distant compact radio source is scattered by the density inhomogeneities of the solar wind, and consequently a random diffraction pattern is observed on the Earth.