Astronomical Instrument

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Physical Realm
Universe Astronomical Instrument
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Observational astronomy is a division of astronomy that is concerned with recording data about the observable universe, in contrast with theoretical astronomy, which is mainly concerned with calculating the measurable implications of physical models. It is the practice and study of observing celestial objects with the use of telescopes and other astronomical instruments.

Galileo Galilei turned a telescope to the heavens and recorded what he saw. Since that time, observational astronomy has made steady advances with each improvement in a variety astronomical instruments and related methods. — Wikipedia

Observational Astronomy (Eric Weisstein’s World of Astronomy, Wolfram Research)
Observatories & Telescopes (Wolfram Alpha)
Encyclopædia Britannica

Astronomical Instruments, Category (Wikipedia)
Astronomical Instruments, List (Wikipedia)


Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO)



Galileo and the telescope (The Science Geek)
The History of Astronomy (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)


Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



Telescopes (NASA.Gov)
Observational Astronomy (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)
Telescopes (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)
Telescopes (Cosmos4Kids)


Crash Course Astronomy (YouTube)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Careers in Astronomy (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)


Sky & Telescope, ScienceDaily,, NPR Archives






Acapella Science (YouTube Channel)



Celestial News & Events – Sky & Telescope The essential guide to astronomy

  • Comet NEOWISE Delights at Dawn
    by Bob King on July 8, 2020 at 11:37 pm

    Skywatchers are treated to a naked-eye comet as NEOWISE emerges into the the dawn sky. The post Comet NEOWISE Delights at Dawn appeared first on Sky & Telescope.

  • Two Bright Supernovae Light Up Nearby Galaxies
    by Bob King on July 7, 2020 at 6:42 pm

    Two bright new supernovae — 2020nlb in M85 and 2020nvb in NGC 4457 — are now within the range of amateur telescopes in the western sky at nightfall. The post Two Bright Supernovae Light Up Nearby Galaxies appeared first on Sky & Telescope.

  • Anticipation Grows for Comets NEOWISE and Lemmon
    by Bob King on July 1, 2020 at 5:12 pm

    Two comets spark excitement for the coming week — NEOWISE might reach naked-eye visibility at dawn, while Lemmon will be visible in binoculars at dusk. The post Anticipation Grows for Comets NEOWISE and Lemmon appeared first on Sky & Telescope.

  • Watch the Moon Pair Up with Venus on June 19th
    by Joe Rao on June 18, 2020 at 11:45 pm

    Two crescents — the Moon and Venus — meet in the sky in the wee hours of June 19th. The post Watch the Moon Pair Up with Venus on June 19th appeared first on Sky & Telescope.

  • Nights of Noctilucent Clouds
    by Bob King on June 17, 2020 at 6:27 pm

    Noctilucent clouds shimmer high in the sky during summer twilight at northerly latitudes. The post Nights of Noctilucent Clouds appeared first on Sky & Telescope.

Space Telescopes News -- ScienceDaily Space Telescopes. Astronomy articles and pictures from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-Ray Telescope and many other leading astronomy institutes from around the world.

  • How colliding neutron stars could shed light on...
    on July 8, 2020 at 4:14 pm

    Researchers have discovered an unusual pulsar - one of deep space's magnetized spinning neutron-star 'lighthouses' that emits highly focused radio waves from its magnetic poles. It is unusual because the masses of its two neutron stars are quite different -- with one far larger than the other. The breakthrough provides clues about unsolved mysteries in astrophysics -- including the expansion rate of the Universe (the Hubble constant).

  • The collective power of the solar system's dark,...
    on July 7, 2020 at 3:32 pm

    Two new studies by researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder may help to solve one of the biggest mysteries about the dark, icy bodies of the outer solar system: why so many of them don't circle the sun the way they should.

  • White dwarfs reveal new insights into the origin...
    on July 6, 2020 at 6:08 pm

    A new analysis of white dwarf stars supports their role as a key source of carbon in galaxies. Every carbon atom in the universe was created by stars, but astrophysicists still debate which types of stars are the primary source of the carbon in our galaxy. Some studies favor low-mass stars that blew off their envelopes in stellar winds and became white dwarfs, while others favor massive stars that eventually exploded as supernovae.

  • Scientific 'red flag' reveals new clues about our...
    on July 3, 2020 at 6:12 pm

    By determining how much energy permeates the center of the Milky Way, researchers have moved closer to understanding the power behind our galaxy.

  • Stellar fireworks celebrate birth of giant cluster
    on July 2, 2020 at 3:50 pm

    Astronomers created a stunning new image showing celestial fireworks in star cluster G286.21+0.17. - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • A new telescope to study solar flares
    on July 9, 2020 at 4:08 pm

    The cold, dark chaos of space is filled with mystery.

  • The darkness at the end of the tunnel
    on July 9, 2020 at 3:20 pm

    The Cage, as the elevator is called, leaves at exactly 7:30 a.m. Latecomers are out of luck.

  • Supermassive binary black hole hunter: SKA pulsar...
    on July 9, 2020 at 1:47 pm

    Recently, researchers from the National Astronomical Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences quantified the potential of gravitational wave detection in the era of the Square Kilometer Array (SKA). The study was published in Physical Review D.

  • How colliding neutron stars could shed light on...
    on July 8, 2020 at 3:00 pm

    An important breakthrough in how we can understand dead star collisions and the expansion of the Universe has been made by an international team, led by the University of East Anglia.

  • New collection of stars, not born in our galaxy,...
    on July 7, 2020 at 4:10 pm

    Astronomers can go their whole career without finding a new object in the sky. But for Lina Necib, a postdoctoral scholar in theoretical physics at Caltech, the discovery of a cluster of stars in the Milky Way, but not born of the Milky Way, came early—with a little help from supercomputers, the Gaia space observatory, and new deep learning methods.