Astronomical Instrument

Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Realm / Physical / Astronomical Instrument


Launch Pad Astronomy (Christian Ready, YouTube Channel)
Launch Pad Astronomy (Christian Ready, Official Website)


Astronomical instruments are the tools used to observe objects and phenomena that occur in space. These can include both terrestrial and satellite-borne telescopes. High precision optical components such as mirrors and lenses at all wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum are crucial to the development of these devices. — Nature

List of Astronomical Instruments (Wikipedia)

Observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial, marine, or celestial events. Historically, observatories were as simple as containing an astronomical sextant (for measuring the distance between stars) or Stonehenge (which has some alignments on astronomical phenomena). Astronomical observatories are divided into four categories: space-based, airborne, ground-based, and underground-based. — Wikipedia

Astronomical Observatory (Encyclopædia Britannica)

List of Astronomical Observatories (Wikipedia)

Telescope is an optical instrument using lenses, curved mirrors, or a combination of both to observe distant objects, or various devices used to observe distant objects by their emission, absorption, or reflection of electromagnetic radiation. — Wikipedia

Telescope (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Telescope (COSMOS: The SAO Encyclopedia of Astronomy)



Talks about Telescopes (TED: Ideas Worth Spreading)
Articles about Telescopes (Big Think)




Observational astronomy is a division of astronomy that is concerned with recording data about the observable universe, in contrast with theoretical astronomy, which is mainly concerned with calculating the measurable implications of physical models. It is the practice and study of observing celestial objects with the use of telescopes and other astronomical instruments. — Wikipedia

Observational Astronomy (Eric Weisstein’s World of Astronomy, Wolfram Research)
Instrumentation (Eric Weisstein’s World of Astronomy, Wolfram Research)

Observatories & Telescopes (Wolfram Alpha)
Telescope (Wolfram Alpha)


Giant Magellan Telescope (GMTO Corporation)
Giant Magellan Telescope (Wikipedia)

Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT International Observatory)
Thirty Meter Telescope (Wikipedia)

European Extremely Large Telescope (European Southern Observatory)
Extremely Large Telescope (Wikipedia)

Astronomical Instruments, Category (Wikipedia)
Astronomical Instruments, List (Wikipedia)

List of Astronomical Observatories (Wikipedia)
List of Astronomical Observatories and Telescopes (Encyclopædia Britannica)




The history of the telescope can be traced to before the invention of the earliest known telescope, which appeared in 1608 in the Netherlands, when a patent was submitted by Hans Lippershey, an eyeglass maker. Although Lippershey did not receive his patent, news of the invention soon spread across Europe. The design of these early refracting telescopes consisted of a convex objective lens and a concave eyepiece. Galileo improved on this design the following year and applied it to astronomy. In 1611, Johannes Kepler described how a far more useful telescope could be made with a convex objective lens and a convex eyepiece lens. By 1655, astronomers such as Christiaan Huygens were building powerful but unwieldy Keplerian telescopes with compound eyepieces. — Wikipedia


DDC: 522 Astronomical Instruments (Library Thing)
Subject: Astronomical Instruments (Library Thing)

DDC: 522.1 Observatories (Library Thing)
Subject: Observatories (Library Thing)

DDC: 522.2 Telescopes (Library Thing)
Subject: Telescopes (Library Thing)

Subject: Astronomical Instruments (Open Library)
Subject: Observatories (Open Library)
Subject: Telescopes (Open Library)

LCC: QB 63 Astronomical Instruments (UPenn Online Books)

LCC: QB 63 Astronomical Instruments (Library of Congress)
Subject: Astronomical Instruments (Library of Congress)
Subject: Observatories (Library of Congress)
Subject: Telescopes (Library of Congress)

Subject: Astronomical Instruments (WorldCat)
Subject: Observatories (WorldCat)
Subject: Telescopes (WorldCat)




Telescopes (Cosmos4Kids)

MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



CareerOneStop, YouTube Channel (U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)
CareerOneStop, Official Website (U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)

Astronomers (CareerOneStop, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)

Careers in Astronomy (International Astronomical Union)
Astronomy Careers Information and Advice (American Astronomical Society)
Astronomy as a Profession (Ask an Astrophysicist, Imagine the Universe, NASA)


Journal of Astronomical Instrumentation
Astronomical Instrumentation (Nature)

Astronomical Instruments (JSTOR)
Observatories (JSTOR)
Telescopes (JSTOR)

Observing News (Sky & Telescope)
Space Telescopes (Science Daily)



Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Law (Constant) Relativity
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)
Matter (Microscope) Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle

Universe (Astronomical Instrument)
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Our Neighborhood
Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.