Astronomical Instrument

Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Realm / Physical / Astronomical Instrument


Launch Pad Astronomy (Christian Ready, YouTube Channel)
Launch Pad Astronomy (Christian Ready, Official Website)


Telescope is an optical instrument using lenses, curved mirrors, or a combination of both to observe distant objects, or various devices used to observe distant objects by their emission, absorption, or reflection of electromagnetic radiation. — Wikipedia

Telescope (Encyclopædia Britannica)

Astronomical observatories are mainly divided into four categories: space-based, airborne, ground-based, and underground-based. — Wikipedia

Astronomical Observatory (Encyclopædia Britannica)




Observational astronomy is a division of astronomy that is concerned with recording data about the observable universe, in contrast with theoretical astronomy, which is mainly concerned with calculating the measurable implications of physical models. It is the practice and study of observing celestial objects with the use of telescopes and other astronomical instruments. — Wikipedia

Observational Astronomy (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)
Telescopes (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)

Observational Astronomy (Eric Weisstein’s World of Astronomy, Wolfram Research)
Instrumentation (Eric Weisstein’s World of Astronomy, Wolfram Research)

Observatories & Telescopes (Wolfram Alpha)
Telescope (Wolfram Alpha)


Giant Magellan Telescope (GMTO Corporation)
Giant Magellan Telescope (Wikipedia)

Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT International Observatory)
Thirty Meter Telescope (Wikipedia)

European Extremely Large Telescope (European Southern Observatory)
Extremely Large Telescope (Wikipedia)

Astronomical Instruments, Category (Wikipedia)
Astronomical Instruments, List (Wikipedia)

List of Astronomical Observatories (Wikipedia)
List of Astronomical Observatories and Telescopes (Encyclopædia Britannica)




The history of the telescope can be traced to before the invention of the earliest known telescope, which appeared in 1608 in the Netherlands, when a patent was submitted by Hans Lippershey, an eyeglass maker. Although Lippershey did not receive his patent, news of the invention soon spread across Europe. The design of these early refracting telescopes consisted of a convex objective lens and a concave eyepiece. Galileo improved on this design the following year and applied it to astronomy. In 1611, Johannes Kepler described how a far more useful telescope could be made with a convex objective lens and a convex eyepiece lens. By 1655, astronomers such as Christiaan Huygens were building powerful but unwieldy Keplerian telescopes with compound eyepieces. — Wikipedia


Melvil Decimal System # 522.2 Telescopes (Library Thing)
Library of Congress Subject Heading: Telescope (Library Thing)

Library of Congress # QB495 Descriptive Astronomy (UPenn Online Books)

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Telescopes (Cosmos4Kids)

MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Observing News (Sky & Telescope)
Telescope (Astronomy Magazine)
Space Telescopes (Science Daily)
Telescope (
Telescope (NPR Archives)



Astronomical Instrument (



Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Law (Constant) Relativity
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)
Matter (Microscope) Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle

Universe (Astronomical Instrument)
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Our Neighborhood
Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.