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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Butterflies and Moths Portal (Wikipedia)


butterfly : any of numerous slender-bodied diurnal lepidopteran insects including one superfamily (apilionoidea) with broad often brightly colored wings and usually another superfamily comprising the skippers. — Webster See also OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Butterflies are insects in the clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths. Adult butterflies have large, often brightly coloured wings, and conspicuous, fluttering flight. The group comprises the large superfamily Papilionoidea, along with two smaller groups, the skippers (superfamily Hesperioidea) and the moth-butterflies (superfamily Hedyloidea). Butterfly fossils date to the Palaeocene, about 56 million years ago. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


The Butterfly Conservatory (American Museum of Natural History)


Lepidopterology is a branch of entomology concerning the scientific study of moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies. Someone that studies in this field is a lepidopterist or, archaically, an aurelian. — Wikipedia


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Monarch Butterflies Migrate 3,000 Miles—Here’s How (Jason Bittel, National Geographic)

Monarch Watch (Official Site)
Monarch Watch (YouTube Channel)

Monarch Butterfly 2018 Population Down by 14.8 Percent (David Mizejewski, National Wildlife Foundation)
The monarch butterfly is in trouble (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior)

Monarch butterfly migration (Wikipedia)
Monarch butterfly (Wikipedia)


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Sensational Butterflies: bringing the jungle to London (Emily Osterloff and Lisa Hendry, Natural History Museum)

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Nabokov’s Butterflies 360 (Vladimir Nabokov, American Museum of Natural History)
Butterflies (Vladimir Nabokov, The New Yorker)
Vladimir Nabokov, Butterfly Illustrator (Elif Batuman, The New Yorker)
Vladimir Nabokov (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Vladimir Nabokov (Wikipedia)

Butterflies + Plants: Partners in Evolution (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)
Butterflies and Beyond (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)

The Butterfly Conservatory (American Museum of Natural History)

A Century of Butterflies and Moths (Katherine Webbink, Field Museum)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Science Daily, Phys.org, NPR Archives







Edith’s checkerspot (Wikipedia)

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Vladimir Kush
Jose Villalba (YouTube Channel)


Origami Butterfly (Maria Sinayskaya, GoOrigami)


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Insects (including Butterflies) News -- ScienceDaily Current event articles on insects and butterflies. Read about insect bites, butterfly migration, caterpillar growth, which insects are beneficial and how to deal with pests.

  • New technology designed to genetically control...
    on September 10, 2021 at 4:16 pm

    Using CRISPR, scientists have created a new technology for controlling mosquitoes. The precision-guided sterile insect technique alters genes linked to male fertility and female flight in Aedes aegypti, the species responsible for spreading diseases including dengue fever, chikungunya and Zika.

  • Moth wingtips an ‘acoustic decoy’ to thwart...
    on September 9, 2021 at 4:42 pm

    Wingtips of certain species of silkmoth are structured to reflect sound and throw off attackers, according to a new study.

  • Hand pollination of crops is of major importance
    on September 8, 2021 at 10:04 pm

    Pollinators -- such as bees, butterflies and birds -- are essential for agricultural production. However, natural pollination can also fail or be insufficient, which can lead to lower yields and poorer quality. This means alternative solutions are needed. Hand pollination, in which pollen is […]

  • Insect protein has great potential to reduce the...
    on September 8, 2021 at 12:39 am

    The use of insects as food for humans and animals has both the potential to reduce European consumers' carbon footprint and contribute to reducing incentives for continued soybean cultivation in the Amazon rainforest. However, when compared to feeding insects to farm animals, the direct human […]

  • Scientists discover chemical signals in starfish...
    on September 7, 2021 at 8:06 pm

    Like humans, starfish produce chemicals that tell them they're full and to stop eating, according to a new study.

Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • The plant invaders posing a headache for...
    on September 11, 2021 at 3:46 pm

    The tall and attractive stranger has showy plumes and can make itself at home at the coast, in the city or even in your garden.

  • A Chicago woman's home-raised monarch butterfly...
    on September 10, 2021 at 3:30 pm

    An Orland Park, Illinois, woman who raises butterflies in her home hit the monarch migration jackpot: A tiny tag affixed to one of her 2020 butterflies was recovered in the mountainous region of central Mexico where Midwestern migratory monarchs spend the winter.

  • Butterflies feed on live young to steal chemicals...
    on September 9, 2021 at 1:00 pm

    For the first time, milkweed butterflies have been sighted feeding on live caterpillars—their own species' young. Researchers suggest they do this to increase their supply of mating pheromones.

  • Pollinators contribute to flowering plant...
    on September 8, 2021 at 7:39 pm

    Holden Forests & Gardens (HF&G) Scientist Na Wei, Ph.D., and her collaborators from the University of Pittsburgh and East Tennessee State University discovered how pollinators may contribute to the maintenance of flowering plant diversity. This study that accelerates our understanding of […]

  • Who observes the observers? Scientists conduct...
    on September 8, 2021 at 3:04 pm

    Scientists analyzed more than 31 million iNaturalist records in a new study to find out who most often uses the popular nature app and what types of observations they submit. iNaturalist allows anyone with a phone or camera and an Internet connection to upload and identify photos of plants and […]

This is a butterfly!