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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Butterflies and Moths Portal (Wikipedia)


butterfly : any of numerous slender-bodied diurnal lepidopteran insects including one superfamily (apilionoidea) with broad often brightly colored wings and usually another superfamily comprising the skippers. — Webster See also OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Butterflies are insects in the clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths. Adult butterflies have large, often brightly coloured wings, and conspicuous, fluttering flight. The group comprises the large superfamily Papilionoidea, along with two smaller groups, the skippers (superfamily Hesperioidea) and the moth-butterflies (superfamily Hedyloidea). Butterfly fossils date to the Palaeocene, about 56 million years ago. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


The Butterfly Conservatory (American Museum of Natural History)


Lepidopterology is a branch of entomology concerning the scientific study of moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies. Someone that studies in this field is a lepidopterist or, archaically, an aurelian. — Wikipedia


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Monarch Butterflies Migrate 3,000 Miles—Here’s How (Jason Bittel, National Geographic)

Monarch Watch (Official Site)
Monarch Watch (YouTube Channel)

Monarch Butterfly 2018 Population Down by 14.8 Percent (David Mizejewski, National Wildlife Foundation)
The monarch butterfly is in trouble (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior)

Monarch butterfly migration (Wikipedia)
Monarch butterfly (Wikipedia)


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Sensational Butterflies: bringing the jungle to London (Emily Osterloff and Lisa Hendry, Natural History Museum)

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Nabokov’s Butterflies 360 (Vladimir Nabokov, American Museum of Natural History)
Butterflies (Vladimir Nabokov, The New Yorker)
Vladimir Nabokov, Butterfly Illustrator (Elif Batuman, The New Yorker)
Vladimir Nabokov (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Vladimir Nabokov (Wikipedia)

Butterflies + Plants: Partners in Evolution (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)
Butterflies and Beyond (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)

The Butterfly Conservatory (American Museum of Natural History)

A Century of Butterflies and Moths (Katherine Webbink, Field Museum)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Science Daily, Phys.org, NPR Archives







Edith’s checkerspot (Wikipedia)

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Vladimir Kush
Jose Villalba (YouTube Channel)


Origami Butterfly (Maria Sinayskaya, GoOrigami)


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Insects (including Butterflies) News -- ScienceDaily Current event articles on insects and butterflies. Read about insect bites, butterfly migration, caterpillar growth, which insects are beneficial and how to deal with pests.

  • When it comes to monarchs, fall migration matters
    on March 18, 2019 at 9:02 pm

    New research shows that a critical piece of the butterfly's annual cycle was missing -- the fall migration. […]

  • Novel methods for analyzing neural circuits for...
    on March 14, 2019 at 2:13 pm

    Insects show a variety of species-specific innate behaviors (instinctive behaviors). For example, a worker honeybee that has found flower nectar exhibits 8-shape waggle-dances upon returning to its beehive. A male moth that has detected a sex pheromone flies around to look for a female counterpart. […]

  • Pesticides influence ground-nesting bee...
    on March 13, 2019 at 8:08 pm

    Results from a new study suggest that bees might be exposed to pesticides in more ways than we thought, and it could impact their development significantly. The study looks at the non-target effects of pesticides on ground-nesting bees, a group that actually makes up the majority of bee species. […]

  • Scientists warn about the dangerous interaction...
    on March 12, 2019 at 4:37 pm

    A recent study found that the toxins used in agriculture to combat insect pests and fungi can be more dangerous than expected. […]

  • Mowing for monarchs
    on March 12, 2019 at 4:36 pm

    You might think that mowing fields wouldn't benefit monarch butterfly populations. New research, however, shows that disturbances like mowing -- at key times -- might help boost the iconic butterfly's numbers. […]

Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Butterfly numbers down by two-thirds—scientists...
    on March 19, 2019 at 2:50 pm

    Together with a German/Polish team, Senckenberg scientist Thomas Schmitt studied the effects of various land use models on the butterfly fauna. The researchers show that meadows adjacent to high-intensity agricultural areas are home to less than half the number of butterfly species than areas in […]

  • When it comes to monarchs, fall migration matters
    on March 18, 2019 at 9:09 pm

    Scientists studying monarch butterflies have traditionally focused on two sources for their decline—winter habitat loss in Mexico and fewer milkweed plants in the Midwest. […]

  • Soluble epoxide hydrolase in mammals diminishes...
    on March 15, 2019 at 1:10 pm

    In the 1980s, researchers at the University of California, Riverside, were looking for a way to control insects and found an enzyme—called JHEH—that, when inhibited, prevents caterpillars from becoming butterflies. This work led to the discovery of an equivalent enzyme in mammals, […]

  • California experiencing burst of butterflies
    on March 14, 2019 at 1:50 pm

    They've been spotted on La Cienega, flitting north by the thousands near the Westfield mall. […]

  • The impact of extreme weather on biodiversity and...
    on March 14, 2019 at 1:40 pm

    Markus Franzén, doctor in ecology at the department of biology and environmental science at Linnaeus University, has been granted SEK 3 million by Formas for his research project, "Cascading effects of drought on farming/grazing and farmland biodiversity." […]

This is a butterfly!