Cosma Home > Communication > Knowledge > Realm > Terrestrial > Sphere > Life > Cell


Note: This is a 360° Video — press and hold to explore it!



Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Cells Alive
Molecular and cellular biology Portal (Wikipedia)


cell : a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the “building blocks of life”.

Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion cells. Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Cell biology (Wikipedia)




Cell biology (also called cytology) is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, which is the basic unit of life. Cell biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Cell Biology (Cells Alive)



The wacky history of cell theory (Lauren Royal-Woods, TED-Ed)

The History Of Cell Theory (Encyclopædia Britannica)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The operating system of life – George Zaidan and Charles Morton (TED-Ed)


OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Cell: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Nature, Cell Biology









Computer game enabling users to contribute to scientific research about protein folding.

FoldIt: Solve Puzzles for Science
Foldit (Wikipedia)

Computer game that allows users to help scientists understand life at the cellular level. Play by designing RNAs, tiny molecules at the hear of every cell. If you win the weekly competition, your RNA is synthesized and scored by how well it folds.

EteRNA (Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University)
EteRNA (Wikipedia)




    Nature Cell Biology - Issue - nature.com science feeds Articles and research papers on cell division, cell structure, animal and plant cell biology and cell cycles.

    • Author Correction: Pericyte-like spreading by...
      by Ekrem Emrah Er on December 12, 2018 at 12:00 am

      Author Correction: Pericyte-like spreading by disseminated cancer cells activates YAP and MRTF for metastatic colonizationAuthor Correction: Pericyte-like spreading by disseminated cancer cells activates YAP and MRTF for metastatic colonization, Published online: 12 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41556-018-0257-2Author Correction: Pericyte-like spreading by disseminated cancer cells activates YAP and MRTF for metastatic colonization […]

    • A chromatin integration labelling method enables...
      by Akihito Harada on December 10, 2018 at 12:00 am

      A chromatin integration labelling method enables epigenomic profiling with lower inputA chromatin integration labelling method enables epigenomic profiling with lower input, Published online: 10 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41556-018-0248-3Harada et al. develop a chromatin integration labelling (ChIL) method to map distributions of histone modifications and DNA-binding factors at low-input or even single-cell levels. […]

    • N6-methyldeoxyadenine is a transgenerational...
      by Chengchuan Ma on December 3, 2018 at 12:00 am

      N6-methyldeoxyadenine is a transgenerational epigenetic signal for mitochondrial stress adaptationN6-methyldeoxyadenine is a transgenerational epigenetic signal for mitochondrial stress adaptation, Published online: 03 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41556-018-0238-5Ma et al. show that exposure of Caenorhabditis elegans to mitochondrial stress triggers stress adaptation in offspring, which is mediated by 6mA DNA modification at mitochondrial unfolded-protein-response genes. […]

    • Social media for scientists
      on November 27, 2018 at 12:00 am

      Social media for scientistsSocial media for scientists, Published online: 27 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41556-018-0253-6Scientists are increasingly embracing social media in their professional lives. Here, we look at the different platforms available to researchers and how social media engagement can positively influence their day-to-day work and scientific communication. […]

    • Targeting BAF-perturbed cancers
      by Divya Reddy on November 27, 2018 at 12:00 am

      Targeting BAF-perturbed cancersTargeting BAF-perturbed cancers, Published online: 27 November 2018; doi:10.1038/s41556-018-0246-5BAF is a heterogenous chromatin-remodelling complex, frequently mutated in cancer. A study now defines genome-wide localization patterns of three complexes, cBAF, PBAF and previously unknown ncBAF, and reveals the ncBAF complex as a specific vulnerability in synovial sarcoma and malignant rhabdoid tumours. […]

    Cell Biology and Microbiology News - Biology news, Microbiology Phys.org provides the latest news on microbiology and cell biology.

    • Algorithms to locate centrioles in the cell
      on December 12, 2018 at 1:36 pm

      Investigators from the Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Group at the University of Extremadura are studying signaling mediated by a pathway known as planar cell polarity (PCP), which regulates the coordinated orientation of cells during organogenesis, the process of organ formation in living organisms. This pathway has been highly conserved on the evolutionary scale, and one of its key functions in vertebrates is the regulation of the coordinated positioning of centrioles/ciliary basal cells […]

    • How skin cells protect themselves against stress
      on December 12, 2018 at 1:14 pm

      The skin is our largest organ, and, among other things, it provides protection against mechanical impacts. To ensure this protection, skin cells have to be connected to one another especially closely. Exactly how this mechanical stability is provided at the molecular level was unclear for a long time. Researchers led by Prof. Carsten Grashoff from the Institute of Molecular Cell Biology at the University of Münster and the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry have collaborated with […]

    • When less is more: A promising approach for...
      on December 12, 2018 at 11:41 am

      Scientists at Kyushu University and Tokyo Institute of Technology in Japan have developed a technique that enables analysis of DNA-protein interactions using very small numbers of cells, ranging from 100 to 1,000. Their method could capture previously unexamined epigenomic information, facilitate biomarker discovery and open new avenues for precision medicine. […]

    • Stop sterilizing your dust—Antimicrobial...
      on December 11, 2018 at 6:00 pm

      Most people have heard about antibiotic-resistant germs. But how about antibiotic-resistant dust? […]

    • The source of stem cells points to two proteins
      on December 11, 2018 at 3:45 pm

      Mammalian embryos are unlike those of any other organism as they must grow within the mother's body. While other animal embryos grow outside the mother, their embryonic cells can get right to work accepting assignments, such as head, tail or vital organ. By contrast, mammalian embryos must first choose between forming the placenta or creating the baby. […]