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These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Cells Alive
Molecular and cellular biology Portal (Wikipedia)


cell : a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the “building blocks of life”.

Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion cells. Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Cell biology (Wikipedia)




Cell biology (also called cytology) is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, which is the basic unit of life. Cell biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Cell Biology (Cells Alive)



The wacky history of cell theory (Lauren Royal-Woods, TED-Ed)

The History Of Cell Theory (Encyclopædia Britannica)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The operating system of life – George Zaidan and Charles Morton (TED-Ed)


OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Cell: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Nature, Cell Biology









Computer game enabling users to contribute to scientific research about protein folding.

FoldIt: Solve Puzzles for Science
Foldit (Wikipedia)

Computer game that allows users to help scientists understand life at the cellular level. Play by designing RNAs, tiny molecules at the hear of every cell. If you win the weekly competition, your RNA is synthesized and scored by how well it folds.

EteRNA (Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University)
EteRNA (Wikipedia)




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Nature Cell Biology - Issue - nature.com science feeds Articles and research papers on cell division, cell structure, animal and plant cell biology and cell cycles.

  • Translational reprogramming marks adaptation to...
    by Gaurav Pathria on November 18, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 18 November 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0415-1Translational reprogramming during asparagine restriction, via activated MAPK signalling and enhanced translation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) mRNA in melanoma and pancreatic cancer cells, provide a survival advantage.

  • Author Correction: PTENα and PTENβ promote...
    by Shao-Ming Shen on November 15, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 15 November 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0435-xAuthor Correction: PTENα and PTENβ promote carcinogenesis through WDR5 and H3K4 trimethylation

  • Haematopoietic stem cells in perisinusoidal...
    by Mehmet Saçma on November 4, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 04 November 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0418-ySaçma, Pospiech and co-workers show that sinusoidal niches are uniquely preserved on ageing, that they are the predominant niche for label-retaining (LR)-HSCs in aged mice and display higher reconstitution capacity compared with non-LR HSCs.

  • Differential scaling between G1 protein...
    by Athanasios Litsios on November 4, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 04 November 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0413-3By measuring metabolic and biosynthetic activity with cell cycle progression, Litsios et el. uncover pulses in protein production rate that do not scale with cell size but drive cell cycle entry in budding yeast.

  • A chromosome folding intermediate at the...
    by Kristin Abramo on November 4, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 04 November 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0406-2Abramo et al. show that during mitosis, condensin-mediated loops are lost by telophase and a transient chromosome folding intermediate is formed that lacks cohesin-generated loops.

Cell Biology and Microbiology News - Biology news, Microbiology Phys.org provides the latest news on microbiology and cell biology.

  • Antibiotics from the sea
    on November 18, 2019 at 5:55 pm

    The team led by Prof. Christian Jogler of Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, has succeeded in cultivating several dozen marine bacteria in the laboratory—bacteria that had previously been paid little attention. The researchers then carried out a functional characterisation of the bacteria, thus enabling a systematic screening for active substances. Initial bioinformatic analyses and cell biological observations indicate potential for the production of new antibiotics. The research team […]

  • Subtle changes, big effects
    on November 18, 2019 at 5:39 pm

    "Does the flap of a butterfly's wings in Brazil set off a tornado in Texas?," Edward Lorenz, once famously wondered at the 139th meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Scientists have recently discovered the mechanism by which a minuscule change in 3 atoms in a protein molecule can affect immune signalling in cells. This 'butterfly effect' is used by the bacterium, Shigella flexneri, to survive within the host cells that it infects.

  • Dozens of potential new antibiotics discovered...
    on November 18, 2019 at 4:00 pm

    A new web tool speeds the discovery of drugs to kill Gram-negative bacteria, which are responsible for the overwhelming majority of antibiotic-resistant infections and deaths. The tool also offers insights into discrete chemical changes that can convert drugs that kill other bacteria into drugs to fight Gram-negative infections. The team proved the system works by modifying a Gram-positive drug and testing it against three different Gram-negative bacterial culprits in mouse sepsis. The drug was […]

  • Researchers: Ingredient for new mosquitocidal...
    on November 18, 2019 at 1:56 pm

    Mushrooms have many enemies that they repel with toxins. This is also true for the mushroom Agrocybe aegerita, which is cultivated in Southern Europe, Asia and the U.S., amongst others, and is prized as an excellent edible. But there is more to this mushroom: In 2017, it was discovered that the mushroom produces the toxin ageritin. Scientists of the German Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre and their colleagues from Swiss ETH Zurich in collaboration with other German and Swiss […]

  • How mammoth poop contributes to antibiotics...
    on November 18, 2019 at 1:20 pm

    Ph.D. student Doris van Bergeijk brought 40,000-year-old bacteria from mammoth poop back to life. She hopes to find new information that can help research at the Institute of Biology Leiden into antibiotics and antibiotics resistance.