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These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Cells Alive
Molecular and cellular biology Portal (Wikipedia)


cell : a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the “building blocks of life”.

Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion cells. Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Cell biology (Wikipedia)




Cell biology (also called cytology) is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, which is the basic unit of life. Cell biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Cell Biology (Cells Alive)



The wacky history of cell theory (Lauren Royal-Woods, TED-Ed)

The History Of Cell Theory (Encyclopædia Britannica)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The operating system of life – George Zaidan and Charles Morton (TED-Ed)


OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Cell: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Nature, Cell Biology









Computer game enabling users to contribute to scientific research about protein folding.

FoldIt: Solve Puzzles for Science
Foldit (Wikipedia)

Computer game that allows users to help scientists understand life at the cellular level. Play by designing RNAs, tiny molecules at the hear of every cell. If you win the weekly competition, your RNA is synthesized and scored by how well it folds.

EteRNA (Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University)
EteRNA (Wikipedia)




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Nature Cell Biology - Issue - nature.com science feeds Articles and research papers on cell division, cell structure, animal and plant cell biology and cell cycles.

  • IMP dehydrogenase-2 drives aberrant nucleolar...
    by Satoshi Kofuji on August 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 01 August 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0363-9Kofuji et al. demonstrate that upregulation of IMPDH2 promotes nucleostemin stabilization and nucleoli malformation, and its inactivation induces growth arrest in glioblastoma.

  • HER2 joins AKT to inhibit STING immunity
    by Ian D. Odell on August 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 01 August 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0368-4Activation of the receptor EGFR (ERBB1) occurs in response to viral infections and regulates antiviral immunity. A new study now shows that the receptor HER2 (ERBB2) negatively regulates STING signaling in response to DNA viruses and expands the model and mechanisms by which surface-receptor tyrosine kinases perform important intracellular regulatory functions.

  • Migrasomes provide regional cues for organ...
    by Dong Jiang on August 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 01 August 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0358-6Yu and colleagues report the formation of migrasomes during zebrafish gastrulation. Migrasomes provide signalling molecules to guide the migration of dorsal forerunner cells, thus controlling organ morphogenesis.

  • Migrasome formation is mediated by assembly of...
    by Yuwei Huang on August 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 01 August 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0367-5Yu and colleagues report that migrasome formation depends on tetraspanin and cholesterol. Macrodomains formed by clustering of tetraspanin- and cholesterol-enriched membrane domains swell to generate migrasomes.

  • Patient-derived organoids from endometrial...
    by Matteo Boretto on August 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 01 August 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0360-zBoretto et al. demonstrate that organoids derived from patients with various types of endometrial pathologies can model disease traits and diversity, and can be used as a drug-screening tool.

Cell Biology and Microbiology News - Biology news, Microbiology Phys.org provides the latest news on microbiology and cell biology.

  • E. coli's secret weapon for causing the worst...
    on August 16, 2019 at 11:37 am

    A pair of University of Virginia School of Medicine scientists have revealed how E. coli seeks out the most oxygen-free crevices of your colon to cause the worst infection possible.

  • Discovery provides path to pathogen-targeted...
    on August 16, 2019 at 10:58 am

    "Take with food" is a common warning for people using antibiotics, but a discovery announced this week in the scientific journal Nature may create a path to more targeted drugs.

  • Genetic redundancy aids competition among...
    on August 15, 2019 at 8:35 pm

    The molecular mechanism used by many bacteria to kill neighboring cells has redundancy built into its genetic makeup, which could allow for the mechanism to be expressed in different environments. Some strains of luminescent bacteria that compete to colonize the light organs of the Hawaiian bobtail squid kill nearby cells of different bacterial strains using the "type VI secretion system (T6SS)." Researchers at Penn State and the University of Wisconsin-Madison have now shown that the genomes […]

  • Research: Previously unknown aspect of cell...
    on August 15, 2019 at 2:14 pm

    A team of researchers from Aix Marseille Université and CNRS, the Turing Centre for Living Systems, the University of Chicago and Collège de France has found a previously unknown aspect of cell internalization that occurs during embryonic development in the fruit fly. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the group describes their study of embryonic development in Drosophila melanogaster—the common fruit fly—and what they learned from it. Kristen Panfilio […]

  • Drought spells changes for soil microbes
    on August 15, 2019 at 12:22 pm

    Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Kansas State University found that soil drying significantly affected the structure and function of soil microbial communities.