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Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
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These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Cells Alive
Molecular and cellular biology Portal (Wikipedia)


cell : a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the “building blocks of life”.

Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion cells. Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Cell biology (Wikipedia)




Cell biology (also called cytology) is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, which is the basic unit of life. Cell biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Cell Biology (Cells Alive)



The wacky history of cell theory (Lauren Royal-Woods, TED-Ed)

The History Of Cell Theory (Encyclopædia Britannica)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The operating system of life – George Zaidan and Charles Morton (TED-Ed)


OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Cell: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Nature, Cell Biology









Computer game enabling users to contribute to scientific research about protein folding.

FoldIt: Solve Puzzles for Science
Foldit (Wikipedia)

Computer game that allows users to help scientists understand life at the cellular level. Play by designing RNAs, tiny molecules at the hear of every cell. If you win the weekly competition, your RNA is synthesized and scored by how well it folds.

EteRNA (Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University)
EteRNA (Wikipedia)




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Nature Cell Biology - Issue - nature.com science feeds Articles and research papers on cell division, cell structure, animal and plant cell biology and cell cycles.

  • Author Correction: A hypoxia-responsive...
    by Abdol-Hossein Rezaeian on June 5, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 05 June 2020; doi:10.1038/s41556-020-0538-4Author Correction: A hypoxia-responsive TRAF6–ATM–H2AX signalling axis promotes HIF1α activation, tumorigenesis and metastasis

  • Publisher Correction: ROCK-mediated selective...
    by Sarah Theresa Boyle on June 4, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 04 June 2020; doi:10.1038/s41556-020-0539-3Publisher Correction: ROCK-mediated selective activation of PERK signalling causes fibroblast reprogramming and tumour progression through a CRELD2-dependent mechanism

  • Chromosomal translocation-derived aberrant Rab22a...
    by Dan Liao on June 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 01 June 2020; doi:10.1038/s41556-020-0522-zExon–intron-fused RAB22A regulates metastasis of osteosarcoma. Liao et al. show that protein products resulting from chromosomal translocations involving RAB22A mediate release of GTP-bound RhoA, induce its activation and promote lung metastasis of osteosarcoma.

  • Assembly of a persistent apical actin network by...
    by Benoit Dehapiot on June 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 01 June 2020; doi:10.1038/s41556-020-0524-xDehapiot et al. show two actin networks at the cell surface in Drosophila embryos. While the pulsatile network controls local deformation, the Frl-dependent persistent network promotes force propagation.

  • STING and IRF3 in stromal fibroblasts enable...
    by Esther N. Arwert on June 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 01 June 2020; doi:10.1038/s41556-020-0527-7Tumour fibroblasts influence oncolytic viral therapy. Arwert et al. show that transcytosis of cancer cells into fibroblasts activates STING and IRF3 to upregulate interferon-β1, eliciting a transcriptional program to reduce the effectiveness of oncolytic viral therapy.

Cell Biology and Microbiology News - Biology news, Microbiology Phys.org provides the latest news on microbiology and cell biology.

  • Uncovering the tricks of game changer antibiotic...
    on June 5, 2020 at 3:00 pm

    Utrecht scientists have discovered how the powerful antibiotic teixobactin kills bacteria. Heralded as a breakthrough drug, the discovery of teixobactin marked a milestone for combating drug-resistant superbugs. However, the way teixobactin binds to its target was hitherto unknown. An international group, led by Dr. Markus Weingarth of Utrecht University, presents the structure of teixobactin 5 June in Nature Communications.

  • Bacteria perform mass suicide to defend their...
    on June 5, 2020 at 2:40 pm

    A new study from researchers at Oxford University's Departments of Zoology and Biochemistry shows that warring bacteria will engage in suicidal attacks in vast numbers to take down competitors.

  • Can microbes mine for metals?
    on June 5, 2020 at 1:13 pm

    They're microscopic miners. Some species of aquatic bacteria draw in dissolved iron from their watery environment and store it in specialized compartments called magnetosomes. They use its magnetic properties to navigate, sort of like ancient mariners using a lodestone to keep their bearings.

  • Deadly bacterial infection in pigs deciphered
    on June 5, 2020 at 12:15 pm

    The Clostridium perfringens bacterium is part of the large Clostridium genus which can cause various fatal illnesses in animals and humans. Clostridium infections are widespread. These bacteria are dangerous because they produce extremely strong poisons (toxins) which cause targeted damage to the host's cells. Dreaded diseases caused by Clostridium include botulism, tetanus, gas gangrene and intestinal infections, for example.

  • A new hybrid fungus is found in hospitals and...
    on June 5, 2020 at 12:14 pm

    From the mythical minotaur to the mule, creatures created from merging two or more distinct organisms – hybrids – have played defining roles in human history and culture. However, not all hybrids are as fantastic as the minotaur or as dependable as the mule; in fact, some of them cause human diseases.