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Cells Alive
Molecular and cellular biology Portal (Wikipedia)


cell : a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the “building blocks of life”.

Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion cells. Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Cell biology (Wikipedia)




Cell biology (also called cytology) is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, which is the basic unit of life. Cell biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Cell Biology (Cells Alive)



The wacky history of cell theory (Lauren Royal-Woods, TED-Ed)

The History Of Cell Theory (Encyclopædia Britannica)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The operating system of life – George Zaidan and Charles Morton (TED-Ed)


OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Cell: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Nature, Cell Biology









Computer game enabling users to contribute to scientific research about protein folding.

FoldIt: Solve Puzzles for Science
Foldit (Wikipedia)

Computer game that allows users to help scientists understand life at the cellular level. Play by designing RNAs, tiny molecules at the hear of every cell. If you win the weekly competition, your RNA is synthesized and scored by how well it folds.

EteRNA (Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University)
EteRNA (Wikipedia)




    Nature Cell Biology - Issue - nature.com science feeds Articles and research papers on cell division, cell structure, animal and plant cell biology and cell cycles.

    • Pancreatic islet-autonomous insulin and...
      by Valentina Cigliola on October 22, 2018 at 12:00 am

      Pancreatic islet-autonomous insulin and smoothened-mediated signalling modulate identity changes of glucagon+ α-cellsPancreatic islet-autonomous insulin and smoothened-mediated signalling modulate identity changes of glucagon<sup>+</sup> α-cells, Published online: 22 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41556-018-0216-yCigliola et al. show that β-cell loss activates insulin production in a small number of α-cells and that insulin and Hedgehog signalling actively […]

    • Oncogenic activation of PI3K induces progenitor...
      by Zhe Ying on October 22, 2018 at 12:00 am

      Oncogenic activation of PI3K induces progenitor cell differentiation to suppress epidermal growthOncogenic activation of PI3K induces progenitor cell differentiation to suppress epidermal growth, Published online: 22 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41556-018-0218-9Ying et al. show that oncogenic PI3K–AKT activation, through the suppression of SH3RF1, induces epidermal differentiation, inhibits progenitor self-renewal and prevents tumour initiation. […]

    • CRAD as a cytoskeletal tumour suppressor
      by George Eng on October 22, 2018 at 12:00 am

      CRAD as a cytoskeletal tumour suppressorCRAD as a cytoskeletal tumour suppressor, Published online: 22 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41556-018-0225-xβ-catenin regulates cell–cell adhesion and maintains stemness through Wnt signalling, but how these functions are mechanistically related is not fully understood. A study now identifies CRAD as the mechanistic link, providing insight into how dysregulation of epithelial adhesion contributes to Wnt-driven tumorigenesis. […]

    • Atypical matrix adhesions guide cell division
      by Ronen Zaidel-Bar on October 22, 2018 at 12:00 am

      Atypical matrix adhesions guide cell divisionAtypical matrix adhesions guide cell division, Published online: 22 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41556-018-0226-9Classical actin-dependent, integrin-mediated cell–matrix adhesions disassemble before mitotic rounding. Yet, to transmit positional information and facilitate daughter-cell separation, dividing cells maintain connections to the matrix. A previously unidentified class of actin-independent integrin adhesions may fulfil this task. […]

    • Reticular adhesions are a distinct class of...
      by John G. Lock on October 22, 2018 at 12:00 am

      Reticular adhesions are a distinct class of cell-matrix adhesions that mediate attachment during mitosisReticular adhesions are a distinct class of cell-matrix adhesions that mediate attachment during mitosis, Published online: 22 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41556-018-0220-2Lock et al. identify reticular adhesion complexes that maintain cell–extracellular-matrix attachments during cell division. Reticular adhesions transmit spatial memory between cell generations, mediated by […]

    Cell Biology and Microbiology News - Biology news, Microbiology Phys.org provides the latest news on microbiology and cell biology.

    • Structure of spherical viruses aren't as perfect...
      on October 22, 2018 at 7:00 pm

      Determining the structure of a virus is an important step in understanding and treating viral disease. For decades, structural biologists have been using cryo-electron microscopy to create increasingly accurate pictures of biomolecules, but one of the assumptions they've been relying on could be wrong. […]

    • Cells that change jobs to fight diabetes
      on October 22, 2018 at 3:00 pm

      Diabetes is characterized by persistent high blood sugar levels that occur when certain cells in the pancreas—the insulin-producing β cells—are destroyed or are no longer able to secrete insulin. Researchers at the University of Geneva (UNIGE) have succeeded in showing how part of the pancreatic α and δ cells, which usually produce other hormones, can take over from the damaged β cells by starting to produce insulin. By observing how these cells manage to […]

    • Understanding architecture of cancer-linked BAF...
      on October 22, 2018 at 12:57 pm

      In 2013, Broad Institute member Cigall Kadoch, then a postdoctoral researcher at Stanford University, discovered that approximately 20 percent of all human cancers involve mutations in a group of proteins called BAF, a complex that is also linked to intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. However, little has been known about the structure of these complexes, and how they contribute to disease. […]

    • Heredity matters: Ancestral protease functions as...
      on October 22, 2018 at 12:00 pm

      Over 1 billion years ago, a relationship began between the ancestor of all living plants and a type of bacterium that paved the way for the evolution of life as we know it. The single-celled algal ancestor engulfed, but crucially, did not destroy, a cyanobacterium-like organism with which it established a mutually beneficial bond. This symbiotic relationship provided energy in the form of sugars derived from photosynthesis (whereby sunlight is converted into chemical energy) from the […]

    • Understanding enzyme could help produce...
      on October 19, 2018 at 12:40 pm

      Researchers from The University of Western Australia have found that an enzyme in plants, ATP Synthase, plays a critical role in how plants respond to the cold. […]