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Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
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Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
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Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Cells Alive
Molecular and cellular biology Portal (Wikipedia)


cell : a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the “building blocks of life”.

Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion cells. Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Cell biology (Wikipedia)




Cell biology (also called cytology) is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, which is the basic unit of life. Cell biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Cell Biology (Cells Alive)



The wacky history of cell theory (Lauren Royal-Woods, TED-Ed)

The History Of Cell Theory (Encyclopædia Britannica)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The operating system of life – George Zaidan and Charles Morton (TED-Ed)


OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Cell: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Nature, Cell Biology









Computer game enabling users to contribute to scientific research about protein folding.

FoldIt: Solve Puzzles for Science
Foldit (Wikipedia)

Computer game that allows users to help scientists understand life at the cellular level. Play by designing RNAs, tiny molecules at the hear of every cell. If you win the weekly competition, your RNA is synthesized and scored by how well it folds.

EteRNA (Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University)
EteRNA (Wikipedia)




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Nature Cell Biology - Issue - nature.com science feeds Articles and research papers on cell division, cell structure, animal and plant cell biology and cell cycles.

  • Quantitative proteomics identifies the core...
    by Fernanda G. Kugeratski on June 9, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 09 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00693-yUsing an unbiased and quantitative proteomic approach, Kugeratski et al. identified the core constituents of exosomes and found that syntenin-1 was the most abundant component, making it a putative universal biomarker.

  • Single-cell epigenomic landscape of peripheral...
    by Maojun You on June 9, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 09 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00690-1You et al. report single-cell ATAC-seq profiles of periphery immune cells from patients recovered from COVID-19, which reveals a global remodelling of the chromatin accessibility that may contribute to immune memory formation.

  • ELOF1 is a transcription-coupled DNA repair...
    by Yana van der Weegen on June 9, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 09 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00688-9Two side-by-side papers report that the transcription elongation factor ELOF1 drives transcription-coupled repair and prevents replication stress.

  • Generic nature of the condensed states of proteins
    by Monika Fuxreiter on June 9, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 09 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00697-8In this Perspective, Fuxreiter and Vendruscolo discuss the fundamental nature of the droplet and amyloid states of proteins, the regulatory mechanisms controlling their formation, and the cellular functions associated with these condensed states.

  • Elongation factor ELOF1 drives...
    by Marit E. Geijer on June 9, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 09 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00692-zTwo side-by-side papers report that the transcription elongation factor ELOF1 drives transcription-coupled repair and prevents replication stress.

Cell Biology and Microbiology News - Biology news, Microbiology The latest science news on microbiology and cell biology.

  • Uncovering cellular mechanisms driving epidermal...
    on June 11, 2021 at 11:29 am

    A team of Northwestern Medicine investigators has discovered a set of intracellular mechanisms that support the polarized function of the skin's outermost layer, the epidermis, according to findings published in Current Biology.

  • How cells measure themselves
    on June 10, 2021 at 6:00 pm

    Ever since scientists discovered cells under the microscope more than 350 years ago, they have noted that each type of cell has a characteristic size. From tiny bacteria to inches-long neurons, size matters for how cells work. The question of how these building blocks of life regulate their own size, however, has remained a mystery.

  • Hydrogen sulfide critical to innate ability of...
    on June 10, 2021 at 6:00 pm

    The signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays a critical role in antibiotic tolerance, the innate ability of bacteria to survive normally lethal levels of antibiotics, a new study finds.

  • Here's what scientists learn from studying...
    on June 10, 2021 at 3:50 pm

    There are about 1,400 known human pathogens—viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths that can cause a person's injury or death. But in a world with a trillion individual species of microorganisms, where scientists have counted only one one-thousandth of one percent, how likely is it researchers have discovered and characterized everything that might threaten people?

  • Decoded genome of little-known disease offers...
    on June 10, 2021 at 3:20 pm

    Scientists are hoping the RNA of an obscure infection can one day be used like a Trojan horse to deliver life-saving treatments to citrus trees.