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ExSciEd (YouTube Channel)


cell : a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently — Webster   See also   OneLook


Cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the “building blocks of life”. Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion cells. Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres. — Wikipedia

Cell (Encyclopædia Britannica)




Biology is the scientific study of life. Biologists study life at multiple levels of organization, from the molecular biology of a cell to the anatomy and physiology of plants and animals, and evolution of populations. Biologists also study and classify the various forms of life, from prokaryotic organisms such as archaea and bacteria to eukaryotic organisms such as protists, fungi, plants, and animals. — Wikipedia




Subject: Cell (WorldCat)




MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists (CareerOneStop, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)


American Institute of Biological Sciences


BioScience (American Institute of Biological Sciences)
Cell (EurekaAlert, American Association for the Advancement of Science)
Cell (Phys.org)
Cell (Science News)
Cell (NPR Archives)



Cell (USA.gov)


More News …

Cell Biology and Microbiology News - Biology news, Microbiology The latest science news on microbiology and cell biology.

  • Tablet-based vaccine prevents urinary tract...
    on November 29, 2022 at 9:00 am

    Biomedical engineers at Duke University have developed a tablet-based vaccine for urinary tract infections (UTIs) that rapidly dissolves when placed under the tongue. The new treatment could offer an easy and practical alternative to high-dose, oral antibiotics which are the current standard for UTI treatments.

  • Study reveals genomic potential of active soil...
    on November 28, 2022 at 10:10 pm

    Scientists estimate that northern peatlands contain one third of the Earth's soil carbon. This makes them important ecosystems for carbon storage, which keeps carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and controls climate change. In northern peatlands, carbon losses from soil during the winter can exceed carbon storage during the warm growing season. This is primarily because of the activity of microbes, especially bacteria, that break down organic matter in the soil. Viruses can kill or slow down […]

  • Superbugs in the environment rarely transfer to...
    on November 28, 2022 at 7:11 pm

    The rapid spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) around the globe represents a crisis on many fronts. Infections that are difficult, or impossible, to treat cause considerable public health and economic burdens, but also pose a serious threat to food security.

  • Unique features of octopus create 'an entirely...
    on November 28, 2022 at 4:47 pm

    Octopuses are not much like humans—they are invertebrates with eight arms, and more closely related to clams and snails. Still, they have evolved complex nervous systems with as many neurons as in the brains of dogs, and are capable of a wide array of complicated behaviors. In the eyes of Melina Hale, Ph.D., and other researchers in the field, this means they provide a great opportunity to explore how alternative nervous system structures can serve the same basic functions of limb sensation […]

  • Cell division enzyme earmarked as potential new...
    on November 28, 2022 at 3:59 pm

    To make new cells, we have to divide existing ones. This is a continuous, frequent and ubiquitous process which starts at conception and ends at death. There are an estimated 37 trillion cells in the tissues and organs of the human body, each of which originates from one cell dividing into two.

Nature Cell Biology Nature Cell Biology publishes peer-reviewed original research of the highest quality in all areas of cell biology with an emphasis on studies that provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular processes. The journal’s scope is broad and ranges from cytoskeletal dynamics, membrane transport, adhesion and migration, cell division, signalling pathways, development and stem cells, to molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying cancer. Nature Cell Biology provides timely and informative coverage of cell biological advances.

  • Monocytes deposit migrasomes to promote embryonic...
    by Cuifang Zhang on November 28, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 28 November 2022; doi:10.1038/s41556-022-01026-3Zhang et al. have data suggesting that, in the chicken embryo, monocytes foster a pro-angiogenic microenvironment in advance of angiogenesis by depositing migrasomes enriched in angiogenic factors.

  • A general approach to identify cell-permeable and...
    by Donghyun Lim on November 17, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 17 November 2022; doi:10.1038/s41556-022-01005-8Lim et al. developed a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based assay to identify anti-CRISPR molecules and discovered an SpCas9 inhibitor that is twofold more efficient in inhibiting Cas9 at diverse genomic loci than existing inhibitors and easy to synthesize.

  • Gradual differentiation uncoupled from cell cycle...
    by Katie Cockburn on November 10, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 10 November 2022; doi:10.1038/s41556-022-01021-8Cockburn et al. report that epidermal differentiation is a multi-day process through which cells undergo a continuum of transcriptional alterations initiated independently of cell cycle exit.

  • Splitting up differentiation and cell cycle exit
    by Albert Herms on November 10, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 10 November 2022; doi:10.1038/s41556-022-01022-7The onset of differentiation has been assumed to follow withdrawal from the cell cycle. A new study shows that keratinocytes initiate differentiation before exiting the cell cycle, allowing the skin to respond rapidly to damage.

  • Intron-encoded cistronic transcripts for...
    by Dong-Jiunn Jeffery Truong on November 7, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 07 November 2022; doi:10.1038/s41556-022-00998-6Truong et al. report a system to monitor RNA expression by modifying an intron within a gene of interest. This additional engineered transcript then hijacks nuclear export machinery for subsequent translation of a reporter gene.


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm

Terrestrial   (Earth)

Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism Virus
Prokaryote Archaea, Bacteria
Eukaryote Protist, Fungi, Algae, Protozoa (Tardigrade)
Plant Flower, Tree
Cnidaria Coral, Jellyfish
Cephalopod Cuttlefish, Octopus
Crustacean Lobster, Shrimp
Arachnid Spider, Scorpion
Insect Ant, Bee, Beetle, Butterfly
Fish Seahorse, Ray, Shark
Amphibian Frog, Salamander
Reptile Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird Penguin, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Platypus, Bat, Mouse, Rabbit, Goat, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Panda, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Cetacean Whale, Dolphin
Primate Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.