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These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Cells Alive
Molecular and cellular biology Portal (Wikipedia)


cell : a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the “building blocks of life”.

Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion cells. Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Cell biology (Wikipedia)




Cell biology (also called cytology) is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, which is the basic unit of life. Cell biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Cell Biology (Cells Alive)



The wacky history of cell theory (Lauren Royal-Woods, TED-Ed)

The History Of Cell Theory (Encyclopædia Britannica)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The operating system of life – George Zaidan and Charles Morton (TED-Ed)


OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Cell: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Nature, Cell Biology









Computer game enabling users to contribute to scientific research about protein folding.

FoldIt: Solve Puzzles for Science
Foldit (Wikipedia)

Computer game that allows users to help scientists understand life at the cellular level. Play by designing RNAs, tiny molecules at the hear of every cell. If you win the weekly competition, your RNA is synthesized and scored by how well it folds.

EteRNA (Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University)
EteRNA (Wikipedia)




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Nature Cell Biology - Issue - nature.com science feeds Articles and research papers on cell division, cell structure, animal and plant cell biology and cell cycles.

  • Paul S. Frenette (1965–2021)
    by Sandra Pinho on September 24, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 24 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00761-3Paul S. Frenette (1965–2021)

  • Author Correction: Depletion of aneuploid cells...
    by Min Yang on September 21, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 21 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00775-xAuthor Correction: Depletion of aneuploid cells in human embryos and gastruloids

  • Author Correction: Mitochondrial UPR through...
    by Mooncheol Park on September 16, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 16 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00757-zAuthor Correction: Mitochondrial UPR through generations

  • TRIM15 and CYLD regulate ERK activation via...
    by Guixin Zhu on September 8, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 08 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00732-8Zhu et al. report that, in response to growth signals, ERK undergoes TRIM15-mediated lysine-63-linked ubiquitination, which facilitates ERK interaction with MEK and therefore enhances ERK activity.

  • TRIM8 in Ewing sarcoma
    by Zhe Wang on September 8, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 08 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00755-1TRIM8 in Ewing sarcoma

Cell Biology and Microbiology News - Biology news, Microbiology The latest science news on microbiology and cell biology.

  • Guiding microbes along their path
    on September 24, 2021 at 3:35 pm

    The interdisciplinary field of active matter physics investigates the principles behind the behavior and self-organization of living organisms. The goal is to reveal general principles that allow to describe and predict the performance of living matter and thereby support the development of novel technologies. Recently, the groups of Oliver Bäumchen and Marco Mazza from the MPIDS, the University of Bayreuth and the University of Loughborough in the UK published their results on the model […]

  • When organoids meet coronaviruses
    on September 24, 2021 at 1:40 pm

    Researchers from the group of Hans Clevers in collaboration with the group of Bart Haagmans (Erasmus MC) established an organoid biobank to search for the genes that are essential for the spreading of a SARS-CoV2 infection. Their study was published in Nature Communications on 17 September and highlights the usefulness of organoids for basic research into coronaviruses, as well as highlighting potential drug targets.

  • Mouse sperm need a molecular VIP pass to reach...
    on September 24, 2021 at 1:39 pm

    In most animals and plants, the life cycle of an individual begins with fertilization, when egg and sperm fuse to combine their genetic material. Together, they form the zygote, the first cell of an embryo that will eventually develop into a complex organism.

  • When a chromosome is lost: How do human cells...
    on September 24, 2021 at 12:54 pm

    Human cells are usually diploid—they contain two sets of chromosome. Cells in which one chromosome is missing from the duplicated chromosome set are generally not viable. For a long time, the mechanisms responsible for the loss of viability were unknown. This is where researchers at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern (TUK) came in. In collaboration with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelberg and the Koblenz University of Applied Sciences to investigate the […]

  • Dual action: RNA binding protein also binds DNA...
    on September 23, 2021 at 8:01 pm

    Cancer is a devastating disease and is the second leading cause of death in the U.S. One of the hallmarks of cancer is genomic instability, or the tendency to accumulate mutations and damage to the DNA that leads to genome alterations during cell division. DNA mutations can arise from exposure to ultraviolet or X-ray radiation or from certain chemicals known as carcinogens; however, our cells have developed mechanisms to monitor and repair damaged DNA.