Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Realm / Terrestrial / Life / Cell




cell : a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary


Cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the “building blocks of life”. Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion cells. Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Outline of Cell biology (Wikipedia)


Cells Alive
Molecular and cellular biology Portal (Wikipedia)





Note: This is a 360° Video — press and hold to explore it!




Cell biology (also called cytology) is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, which is the basic unit of life. Cell biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Cell Biology (Cells Alive)




The wacky history of cell theory (Lauren Royal-Woods, TED-Ed)

The History Of Cell Theory (Encyclopædia Britannica)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




The operating system of life – George Zaidan and Charles Morton (TED-Ed)


OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Cell: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Nature, Cell Biology










Computer game enabling users to contribute to scientific research about protein folding.

FoldIt: Solve Puzzles for Science
Foldit (Wikipedia)

Computer game that allows users to help scientists understand life at the cellular level. Play by designing RNAs, tiny molecules at the hear of every cell. If you win the weekly competition, your RNA is synthesized and scored by how well it folds.

EteRNA (Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University)
EteRNA (Wikipedia)



More News …

Cell Biology and Microbiology News - Biology news, Microbiology The latest science news on microbiology and cell biology.

  • When fossils come to life: SARS-CoV-2 spike,...
    on January 27, 2022 at 4:30 pm

    The homotrimeric spike glycoprotein (S) from SARS-CoV-2, particularly its S2 subunit, is a fusion protein extraordinaire. It can fuse viral particles to cells and also fuse cells to cells to create multifarious syncytia among different cell phenotypes. Depending on which exact versions are under consideration, the spike can perform these feats via multiple mechanisms acting at both the intracellular and extracellular sides of cell membranes.

  • Repulsive interactions bring rapid mitotic...
    on January 27, 2022 at 3:35 pm

    A fertilized egg cell is a common starting point for most animals. Generally, duplication of the genetic material in this cell marks the start of several rounds of division that eventually give rise to a multicellular organism. But insect species achieve this in a peculiar way: in contrast with vertebrates, they create hundreds of nuclei, each holding a copy of their genetic material, within the fertilized egg before forming individual cells.

  • Induced pluripotent bovine stem cells overcome...
    on January 27, 2022 at 3:19 pm

    Stem cells have been used for years as therapeutics for human health, but new research shows they may offer the promise of making the global food supply more sustainable and reliable through the development of cultivated meat.

  • Groundbreaking study reveals dynamics of DNA...
    on January 26, 2022 at 8:14 pm

    A new study from scientists at the UNC School of Medicine has illuminated an important process that occurs during cell division and is a likely source of DNA damage under some circumstances, including cancer.

  • The genomic structure of microbial communities...
    on January 26, 2022 at 4:00 pm

    A new study by ecologists at the University of Chicago shows that the genes present in a microbial community can predict the community's dynamic metabolic activity, with implications for the nitrogen cycle and other important biogeochemical processes.

Nature Cell Biology - Issue - nature.com science feeds Articles and research papers on cell division, cell structure, animal and plant cell biology and cell cycles.

  • Publisher Correction: Histone variant H3.3...
    by Peipei Guo on January 20, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 20 January 2022; doi:10.1038/s41556-022-00851-wPublisher Correction: Histone variant H3.3 maintains adult haematopoietic stem cell homeostasis by enforcing chromatin adaptability

  • 53BP1–shieldin-dependent DSB processing in...
    by Zachary Mirman on January 13, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 13 January 2022; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00812-9Mirman et al. report that the primary function of the shieldin complex in double-strand break repair in BRCA1-deficient cells is the recruitment of the CST–Polα–primase complex to conduct fill-in synthesis.

  • BRD2 inhibition blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection by...
    by Avi J. Samelson on January 13, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 13 January 2022; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00821-8Samelson et al. report that BRD2 inhibition suppresses SARS-CoV-2 infection in epithelial cells and Syrian hamsters via reducing the transcription of host cell surface receptor ACE2.

  • Positive feedback amplifies ferroptosis
    by Jason Rodencal on January 13, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 13 January 2022; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00824-5Lipid metabolism is crucial for the execution of ferroptosis. A new study demonstrates that the function of the lipid metabolic enzyme ACSL4 is positively regulated by phosphorylation, leading to amplification of ferroptotic cell death. These results shed new light on the regulation of ferroptosis execution in cancer cells.

  • Migrating down a hard path
    by Daryl J. V. David on January 13, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 13 January 2022; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00830-7Migrating down a hard path


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Life Cell, Gene, Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Cuttlefish, Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.