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These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Cells Alive
Molecular and cellular biology Portal (Wikipedia)


cell : a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the “building blocks of life”.

Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion cells. Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Cell biology (Wikipedia)




Cell biology (also called cytology) is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, which is the basic unit of life. Cell biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Cell Biology (Cells Alive)



The wacky history of cell theory (Lauren Royal-Woods, TED-Ed)

The History Of Cell Theory (Encyclopædia Britannica)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The operating system of life – George Zaidan and Charles Morton (TED-Ed)


OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Cell: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Nature, Cell Biology









Computer game enabling users to contribute to scientific research about protein folding.

FoldIt: Solve Puzzles for Science
Foldit (Wikipedia)

Computer game that allows users to help scientists understand life at the cellular level. Play by designing RNAs, tiny molecules at the hear of every cell. If you win the weekly competition, your RNA is synthesized and scored by how well it folds.

EteRNA (Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University)
EteRNA (Wikipedia)




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Nature Cell Biology - Issue - nature.com science feeds Articles and research papers on cell division, cell structure, animal and plant cell biology and cell cycles.

  • Nuclear F-actin counteracts nuclear deformation...
    by Noa Lamm on November 30, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 30 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41556-020-00605-6Lamm et al. report that replication stress activates mTOR through ATR to induce nuclear actin polymerization, facilitating the recovery from replication stress.

  • Female human primordial germ cells display...
    by Tsotne Chitiashvili on November 30, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 30 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41556-020-00607-4Chitiashvili et al. report that X-chromosome dosage compensation is achieved via X-chromosome dampening in human female primordial germ cells (hPGCs) and reveal that the lncRNA XACT is a hPGC marker.

  • Many XCI-ting routes to reach the eXACT dose
    by Jean-François Ouimette on November 30, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 30 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41556-020-00608-3X-chromosome inactivation studies have revealed striking species specificities in terms of the players, kinetics and mechanisms. Transcriptomic profiling of human pre‐implantation development and germ cell differentiation suggests a peculiar dosage compensation mechanism with yet undefined contributions from XIST and XACT lncRNAs.

  • Manipulating niche composition limits damage to...
    by Myriam L. R. Haltalli on November 23, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 23 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41556-020-00601-wHaltalli et al. show that Plasmodium berghei infection induces interferon release, and affects haematopoietic stem cell proliferation and function, as well as osteoblasts and vascular integrity, in the bone marrow niche.

  • Haematopoietic stem cell-dependent Notch...
    by Sophia G. Espanola on November 23, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 23 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41556-020-00604-7Espanola et al. show in zebrafish that Supt16h, a component of the FACT complex, regulates HSC development through an increase of p53, which promotes expression of phc1, a transcriptional repressor of Notch.

Cell Biology and Microbiology News - Biology news, Microbiology Phys.org provides the latest news on microbiology and cell biology.

  • How proteins find their place in the cell
    on December 3, 2020 at 7:56 pm

    Over a quarter of all proteins in a cell are found in the membrane, where they perform vital functions. To fulfill these roles, membrane proteins must be reliably transported from their site of production in the cell to their destination and correctly inserted into the target membrane. Researchers from the Heidelberg University Biochemistry Center (BZH) have succeeded in determining the three-dimensional structure of a molecular machine responsible for the correct placement of an important […]

  • Development of new stem cell type may lead to...
    on December 3, 2020 at 7:47 pm

    A team led by UT Southwestern has derived a new "intermediate" embryonic stem cell type from multiple species that can contribute to chimeras and create precursors to sperm and eggs in a culture dish.

  • Researchers identify bacteria that can make the...
    on December 3, 2020 at 5:13 pm

    The Bolson tortoise (Bolson Gopherus flavomarginatus) is the largest land reptile in North America. It lives mainly in dry areas, in particular, in the Chihuahua desert in northern Mexico. In recent decades, its numbers have fallen by 50%, driving the International Union for Conservation of Nature to include it on its red list and it has been classified as endangered. Land tortoises are prone to suffering from a wide range of diseases that can deplete their numbers even more, therefore […]

  • Spatial maps give new view of gut microbiome
    on December 3, 2020 at 3:44 pm

    What microbes are in your gut, and where?

  • Hawaiian minerals increasing lung infection rates...
    on December 3, 2020 at 3:43 pm

    If you have severe asthma, underlying pulmonary conditions or are immunocompromised, Hawaii's atmosphere may not be the place for you.