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cell : a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary


Cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the “building blocks of life”. Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion cells. Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Outline of Cell biology (Wikipedia)


Cells Alive
Molecular and cellular biology Portal (Wikipedia)





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Cell biology (also called cytology) is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, which is the basic unit of life. Cell biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Cell Biology (Cells Alive)




The wacky history of cell theory (Lauren Royal-Woods, TED-Ed)

The History Of Cell Theory (Encyclopædia Britannica)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




The operating system of life – George Zaidan and Charles Morton (TED-Ed)


OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Cell: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Nature, Cell Biology










Computer game enabling users to contribute to scientific research about protein folding.

FoldIt: Solve Puzzles for Science
Foldit (Wikipedia)

Computer game that allows users to help scientists understand life at the cellular level. Play by designing RNAs, tiny molecules at the hear of every cell. If you win the weekly competition, your RNA is synthesized and scored by how well it folds.

EteRNA (Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University)
EteRNA (Wikipedia)



More News …

Cell Biology and Microbiology News - Biology news, Microbiology The latest science news on microbiology and cell biology.

  • Understanding how microbiota thrive in their...
    on June 28, 2022 at 8:40 pm

    A research team lead by scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Biology, Tübingen, Germany, has now made substantial progress in understanding how gut bacteria succeed in their human hosts on a molecular level. They investigated how bacteria produce inositol lipids, substances vital for many cellular processes in humans and other eukaryotes but hitherto rarely observed in bacteria. The results, now published in the journal Nature Microbiology, indicate that inositol lipids have […]

  • Human urine-derived stem cells have robust...
    on June 28, 2022 at 5:05 pm

    The Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine (WFIRM) researchers, who were the first to identify that stem cells in human urine have potential for tissue regenerative effects, continue their investigation into the power of these cells. In their latest published study, they focus on how telomerase activity affects the regenerative potential of these and other types of stem cells.

  • New study investigates the microbiomes of dogs...
    on June 28, 2022 at 4:54 pm

    Although the microbiome—the collection of all microbes that live in the body—in the fecal matter of dogs has been investigated extensively, those studies have mostly been limited to domesticated dogs. In a new study, researchers have sampled the fecal microbiomes across diverse geographical populations to better understand what they look like around the world.

  • Human-robot-AI teamwork accelerates regenerative...
    on June 28, 2022 at 1:42 pm

    A joint research group led by Genki Kanda at the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR) has developed a robotic artificial intelligence (AI) system for autonomously determining the optimal conditions for growing replacement retina layers necessary for vision. The AI controlled a trial and error process spanning 200 million possible conditions that succeeded in improving cell culture recipes used in regenerative medicine. This achievement, published in the scientific journal eLife […]

  • Maternal microbiome promotes healthy development...
    on June 28, 2022 at 1:05 pm

    A mother's gut microbes can help in the development of the placenta, and the healthy growth of the baby—according to new research from the University of East Anglia, the Quadram Institute and the University of Cambridge.

Nature Cell Biology - Issue - nature.com science feeds Articles and research papers on cell division, cell structure, animal and plant cell biology and cell cycles.

  • Ceramide-rich microdomains facilitate nuclear...
    by Subhash B. Arya on June 23, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 23 June 2022; doi:10.1038/s41556-022-00934-8Arya et al. identify a pathway for exosome generation in immune cells that originates at the nuclear envelope and is facilitated by nSMase1-mediated generation of ceramide.

  • The conserved helicase ZNFX-1 memorializes...
    by John Paul Tsu Ouyang on June 23, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 23 June 2022; doi:10.1038/s41556-022-00940-wOuyang et al. show that the RNA helicase ZNFX-1 preserves heritable RNAi by maintaining a pool of small RNA-targeted transcripts in perinuclear condensates of the Caenorhabditis elegans germline, which serve as templates for small-RNA amplification in the next generation.

  • Actin remodelling controls proteasome homeostasis...
    by Thomas David Williams on June 23, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 23 June 2022; doi:10.1038/s41556-022-00938-4Williams et al. report that, upon TORC1 inhibition in yeast, mRNA of the chaperone protein ADC17 is localized to cortical actin patches where its translation is enhanced upon stress.

  • Hyaluronic acid–GPRC5C signalling promotes...
    by Yu Wei Zhang on June 20, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 20 June 2022; doi:10.1038/s41556-022-00931-xZhang et al. use single-cell RNA sequencing and functional analyses to describe the hyaluronic acid–GPRC5C signalling axis as an essential component controlling the state of dormancy for human and mouse haematopoietic stem cells.

  • Cytoskeletal regulation of a transcription factor...
    by Farah Haque on June 20, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 20 June 2022; doi:10.1038/s41556-022-00935-7Haque et al. report that the Hedgehog pathway kinesin KIF7 binds the transcription factor GLI via electrostatic coiled-coil interactions, and synergy between KIF7 and GLI underlies the recruitment of both proteins to microtubules and the cilium tip.


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Life Cell, Gene, Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Cuttlefish, Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.