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Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human
These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
cell : a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently — Webster
Cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the “building blocks of life”.
Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion cells. Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres. — Wikipedia
Cell biology (also called cytology) is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, which is the basic unit of life. Cell biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology. — Wikipedia
Computer game that allows users to help scientists understand life at the cellular level. Play by designing RNAs, tiny molecules at the hear of every cell. If you win the weekly competition, your RNA is synthesized and scored by how well it folds.
EteRNA (Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University)
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U2AF1 mutations induce oncogenic IRAK4 isoforms...
by Molly A. Smith on April 22, 2019 at 12:00 am
U2AF1 mutations induce oncogenic IRAK4 isoforms and activate innate immune pathways in myeloid malignanciesU2AF1 mutations induce oncogenic IRAK4 isoforms and activate innate immune pathways in myeloid malignancies, Published online: 22 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0314-5Smith et al demonstrate that mutated splicing factor U2AF1 promotes expression of a longer isoform of IRAK4, leading to enhanced NF-kB activation and leukaemic growth in acute myeloid leukaemia. […]
Splicing the innate immune signalling in leukaemia
by Maria Guillamot on April 22, 2019 at 12:00 am
Splicing the innate immune signalling in leukaemiaSplicing the innate immune signalling in leukaemia, Published online: 22 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0323-4Components of the spliceosome are frequently mutated in haematopoietic malignancies. Identification of mis-spliced genes promoting transformation will uncover novel targeted therapies. Now, a long isoform of IRAK4 is shown to be upregulated in a subset of acute myeloid leukaemia patients, conferring susceptibility for IRAK4 […]
Engineering a haematopoietic stem cell niche by...
by Fumio Nakahara on April 15, 2019 at 12:00 am
Engineering a haematopoietic stem cell niche by revitalizing mesenchymal stromal cellsEngineering a haematopoietic stem cell niche by revitalizing mesenchymal stromal cells, Published online: 15 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0308-3Nakahara et al. identify five transcriptional regulators that can revitalize Nestin-expressing mesenchymal stromal cells to enhance the synthesis of haematopoietic stem cell niche factors, improve haematopoietic stem cell expansion and protect them against DNA […]
Bone vascular niche E-selectin induces...
by Mark Esposito on April 15, 2019 at 12:00 am
Bone vascular niche E-selectin induces mesenchymal–epithelial transition and Wnt activation in cancer cells to promote bone metastasisBone vascular niche E-selectin induces mesenchymal–epithelial transition and Wnt activation in cancer cells to promote bone metastasis, Published online: 15 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0309-2Esposito et al. report a role for bone vascular niche E-selectin in promoting mesenchymal–epithelial transition and Wnt signalling in breast cancer […]
Ultrastructure and dynamics of the actin−myosin...
by Changsong Yang on April 15, 2019 at 12:00 am
Ultrastructure and dynamics of the actin−myosin II cytoskeleton during mitochondrial fissionUltrastructure and dynamics of the actin−myosin II cytoskeleton during mitochondrial fission, Published online: 15 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0313-6Using platinum replica electron microscopy, Yang and Svitkina find how myosin II enhances actin-mediated mitochondrial constriction and fission. […]
Designing ocean ecological systems in the lab
on April 26, 2019 at 10:11 am
Researchers from MIT have discovered simple rules of assembly of ocean microbiomes that degrade complex polysaccharides in coastal environments. Microbiomes, or microbial communities, are composed of hundreds or thousands of diverse species, making it a challenge to identify the principles that govern their structure and function. […]
High school students publish paper with RIT...
on April 25, 2019 at 8:28 pm
Three high school students working in a science lab for the first time made a surprising discovery with a Rochester Institute of Technology professor. Now, the young women are co-authors on a scientific paper announcing a rare bacterium that kills e-coli. […]
Bacteria uses viral weapon against other bacteria
on April 25, 2019 at 6:33 pm
Bacterial cells use both a virus—traditionally thought to be an enemy—and a prehistoric viral protein to kill other bacteria that competes with it for food according to an international team of researchers who believe this has potential implications for future infectious disease treatment. […]
Bringing information into the cell
on April 25, 2019 at 6:00 pm
Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) have elucidated an important part of a signal pathway that transmits information through the cell membrane into the interior of a cell. […]
Pole-to-pole study of ocean life identifies...
on April 25, 2019 at 3:00 pm
An international team has conducted the first-ever global survey of the ecological diversity of viruses in the oceans during expeditions aboard a single sailboat, the Tara. They identified nearly 200,000 marine viral species, which vastly exceeds the 15,000 known from prior ocean surveys of these waters and the approximately 2,000 genomes available from cultured viruses of microbes. Their findings, appearing April 25 in the journal Cell, have implications for understanding issues ranging from […]