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Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
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These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Cells Alive
Molecular and cellular biology Portal (Wikipedia)


cell : a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the “building blocks of life”.

Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion cells. Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Cell biology (Wikipedia)




Cell biology (also called cytology) is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, which is the basic unit of life. Cell biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Cell Biology (Cells Alive)



The wacky history of cell theory (Lauren Royal-Woods, TED-Ed)

The History Of Cell Theory (Encyclopædia Britannica)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The operating system of life – George Zaidan and Charles Morton (TED-Ed)


OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Cell: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Nature, Cell Biology









Computer game enabling users to contribute to scientific research about protein folding.

FoldIt: Solve Puzzles for Science
Foldit (Wikipedia)

Computer game that allows users to help scientists understand life at the cellular level. Play by designing RNAs, tiny molecules at the hear of every cell. If you win the weekly competition, your RNA is synthesized and scored by how well it folds.

EteRNA (Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University)
EteRNA (Wikipedia)




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Nature Cell Biology - Issue - nature.com science feeds Articles and research papers on cell division, cell structure, animal and plant cell biology and cell cycles.

  • Circular RNA-encoded oncogenic E-cadherin variant...
    by Xinya Gao on March 4, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 04 March 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00639-4Gao et al. show that a secretory variant of E-cadherin encoded by a circular RNA directly activates EGFR and STAT3 signalling, thereby promoting glioma stem cell tumorigenicity.

  • AIDA directly connects sympathetic innervation to...
    by Meng Shi on March 4, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 04 March 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00642-9Shi et al. show that following adrenergic signalling, PKA phosphorylates AIDA, which in turn interacts with and promotes oxidation of UCP1 to regulate UCP1-dependent adaptive thermogenesis.

  • A circuitous route to GBM stem cell signalling
    by Kelly Mitchell on March 4, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 04 March 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00643-8Circular RNAs regulate a variety of biological processes. Now an unexpected pathway is revealed in which a translated circular RNA derived from E-cadherin pre-mRNA activates EGFR signalling in glioblastoma cancer stem cells and acts as a ligand for the EGFR mutant EGFRVIII, a common oncogenic variant.

  • Publisher Correction: Twinfilin uncaps filament...
    by Markku Hakala on March 2, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 02 March 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00651-8Publisher Correction: Twinfilin uncaps filament barbed ends to promote turnover of lamellipodial actin networks

  • Single-cell analyses reveal the clonal and...
    by Dawn S. Lin on March 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Cell Biology, Published online: 01 March 2021; doi:10.1038/s41556-021-00636-7Lin et al. examine the process of clonal tuning during Flt3L-mediated emergency haematopoiesis, which leads to selective expansion of haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that are primed to produce type 1 conventional dendritic cells instead of modulating cell fate.

Cell Biology and Microbiology News - Biology news, Microbiology The latest science news on microbiology and cell biology.

  • BCAS3-C16orf70 complex is a new actor on the...
    on March 5, 2021 at 3:22 pm

    Autophagy is an intracellular degradation process of cytosolic materials and damaged organelles. Researchers at Ubiquitin Project of TMIMS have been studying the molecular mechanism of mitophagy, the selective autophagy process to eliminate damaged mitochondria. PINK1 (a serine/threonine kinase) and Parkin (an ubiquitin ligating enzyme: E3) work together to ubiquitylate the outer membrane proteins of damaged mitochondria, then ubiquitin chains are recognized as signals for autophagy […]

  • How an 'antibiotic' helps bacteria eat
    on March 5, 2021 at 12:44 pm

    For years, scientists have known that certain bacteria produce molecules that are toxic to other bacteria when there is competition for food and space. Now, Caltech researchers have discovered these so-called antibiotics have another purpose: they help the bacteria acquire essential nutrients when resources are scarce.

  • Study: Combined liver-cytokine humanization...
    on March 5, 2021 at 12:44 pm

    In a new study by the Yale Department of Immunobiology and Yale Cancer Center, researchers report combined liver and growth factor humanization enhances human red blood cell production and survival in circulation the immunodeficient murine host. The discovery could help in the development of treatments of life-threatening blood disorders, such as myelodysplastic syndrome, and diseases afflicting red blood cells, including sickle cell disease and malaria. The study is published online today in […]

  • Scientists discover how microorganisms evolve...
    on March 4, 2021 at 5:22 pm

    Interspecies interactions are the foundation of ecosystems, from soil to ocean to human gut. Among the many different types of interactions, syntrophy is a particularly important and mutually beneficial interspecies interaction where one partner provides a chemical or nutrient that is consumed by the other in exchange for a reward.

  • WOX9: A jack of all trades
    on March 4, 2021 at 4:00 pm

    Over evolutionary time scales, a single gene may acquire different roles in diverging species. However, revealing the multiple hidden roles of a gene was not possible before genome editing came along. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) Professor and HHMI Investigator Zach Lippman and CSHL postdoctoral fellow Anat Hendelman collaborated with Idan Efroni, HHMI International Investigator at Hebrew University Faculty of Agriculture in Israel, to uncover this mystery. They dissected the activity […]