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Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human
These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
cell : a small usually microscopic mass of protoplasm bounded externally by a semipermeable membrane, usually including one or more nuclei and various other organelles with their products, capable alone or interacting with other cells of performing all the fundamental functions of life, and forming the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently — Webster
Cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the “building blocks of life”.
Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). While the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion cells. Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres. — Wikipedia
Cell biology (also called cytology) is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, which is the basic unit of life. Cell biology is concerned with the physiological properties, metabolic processes, signaling pathways, life cycle, chemical composition and interactions of the cell with their environment. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences; it is also essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases. Research in cell biology is closely related to genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, and developmental biology. — Wikipedia
Computer game that allows users to help scientists understand life at the cellular level. Play by designing RNAs, tiny molecules at the hear of every cell. If you win the weekly competition, your RNA is synthesized and scored by how well it folds.
EteRNA (Carnegie Mellon University, Stanford University)
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Author Correction: Sin1 phosphorylation impairs...
by Pengda Liu on February 19, 2019 at 12:00 am
Author Correction: Sin1 phosphorylation impairs mTORC2 complex integrity and inhibits downstream Akt signalling to suppress tumorigenesisAuthor Correction: Sin1 phosphorylation impairs mTORC2 complex integrity and inhibits downstream Akt signalling to suppress tumorigenesis, Published online: 19 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0280-yAuthor Correction: Sin1 phosphorylation impairs mTORC2 complex integrity and inhibits downstream Akt signalling to suppress tumorigenesis […]
IRE1α maintains HSC stemness under ER-stress
by Marina Scheller-Wendorff on February 18, 2019 at 12:00 am
IRE1α maintains HSC stemness under ER-stressIRE1α maintains HSC stemness under ER-stress, Published online: 18 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0295-4Healthy and malignant haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) must overcome a variety of cell intrinsic and extrinsic stresses to maintain their functionality. Now, IRE1α –XBP1 signalling is shown to protect HSCs and to promote survival of, and confer competitive advantages to, NRAS-mutated pre-leukaemic cells. […]
Adaptive endoplasmic reticulum stress signalling...
by Lu Liu on February 18, 2019 at 12:00 am
Adaptive endoplasmic reticulum stress signalling via IRE1α–XBP1 preserves self-renewal of haematopoietic and pre-leukaemic stem cellsAdaptive endoplasmic reticulum stress signalling via IRE1α–XBP1 preserves self-renewal of haematopoietic and pre-leukaemic stem cells, Published online: 18 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0285-6Liu et al. show that the adaptive branch of unfolded protein response signalling, IRE1α–XBP1, protects haematopoietic stem cells […]
NAD<sup>+</sup> metabolism governs...
by Timothy Nacarelli on February 18, 2019 at 12:00 am
NAD+ metabolism governs the proinflammatory senescence-associated secretomeNAD<sup>+</sup> metabolism governs the proinflammatory senescence-associated secretome, Published online: 18 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0287-4Nacarelli et al. show that the nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-regulated NAD+ biogenesis pathway promotes the proinflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype by enhancing glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration during senescence. […]
Distinct functions of ATG16L1 isoforms in...
by Alf Håkon Lystad on February 18, 2019 at 12:00 am
Distinct functions of ATG16L1 isoforms in membrane binding and LC3B lipidation in autophagy-related processesDistinct functions of ATG16L1 isoforms in membrane binding and LC3B lipidation in autophagy-related processes, Published online: 18 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41556-019-0274-9Lystad et al. identify distinct membrane binding regions in ATG16L1 and show that the β-isoform-specific C-terminal region is required for VPS34/ULK1/2-independent non-canonical autophagy. […]
Preventing the production of toxic mitochondrial...
on February 22, 2019 at 1:20 pm
Researchers at the University of Helsinki uncovered the mechanisms for a novel cellular stress response arising from the toxicity of newly synthesized proteins. Activation of the stress response is at the epicentre of the molecular events generated by genetic mutations that cause a complex neurological syndrome. […]
Triclosan added to consumer products impairs...
on February 22, 2019 at 7:21 am
Grocery store aisles are stocked with products that promise to kill bacteria. People snap up those items to protect themselves from the germs that make them sick. However, new research from Washington University in St. Louis finds that a chemical that is supposed to kill bacteria is actually making them stronger and more capable of surviving antibiotic treatment. […]
How bird feather patterns form
on February 21, 2019 at 7:00 pm
Feathers evolved in dinosaurs and are a key characteristic of birds today. They are arranged in a precise hexagonal pattern in a bird's skin, but it has been unclear how this happens. According to a new study published February 21 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology, led by Dr. William Ho and Denis Headon of the University of Edinburgh, and collaborative colleagues, the patterning of bird feathers relies on signaling through ectodysplasin (EDA) and its receptor EDAR—the same signaling […]
New 'interspecies communication' strategy between...
on February 21, 2019 at 6:20 pm
Bacteria in the gut do far more than help digest food in the stomachs of their hosts, they can also tell the genes in their mammalian hosts what to do. […]
Pioneering study could offer protection to...
on February 21, 2019 at 5:31 pm
Skin cells taken from patients with a rare genetic disorder are up to ten times more sensitive to damage from ultraviolet A (AVA) radiation in laboratory tests, than those from a healthy population, according to new research from the University of Bath. […]