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These are organized by form and function.

Communications Computation Storage Authoring Simulation
Analog Mail Device Paper Typewriter Automaton
Electronic Network Calculator Tape Recorder Elektro
Digital Internet Computer
Hardware Modem Microprocessor Memory Peripheral Robot, XR
Software Service (Web) Program (OS) Database Application AI, World


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



compute : to determine especially by mathematical means Compute the area of the triangle.; also : to determine or calculate by means of a computer computing pi to over one billion places — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary


Computation is any type of calculation that follows a well-defined model understood and expressed as, for example, an algorithm. The study of computation is paramount to the discipline of computer science. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica




Theory of Computation (CSAIL, MIT)




Mechanical Aids to Computation and the Development of Algorithms (Paul E. Dunne)


Computational Sciences (American Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



Computational Thinking (Wikipedia)


Introduction to Computational Media (Ian Bogost, Georgia Tech)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Association for Computing Machinery,






OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form



Communications of the ACM: Theory The latest news, opinion and research in theory, from Communications online.

  • Technology Interventions for Road Safety and...
    on November 1, 2019 at 4:00 am

    Inadequate road infrastructure, increasing vehicle population, and poor driver training make a chaotic and often deadly mix in India. Artificial intelligence and Internet of Things technologies may improve the situation.

  • Creative Disruption in Fintech from Sri Lanka
    on November 1, 2019 at 4:00 am

    The farsighted entry into financial technology, and experience in mobilizing local talent, contributed to the early success of MillenniumIT.

  • The Benefits of Indolence
    on November 1, 2019 at 4:00 am

    Yegor Bugayenko explains his realization that software developers should go neither above nor beyond.

  • Skill Evaluation
    on November 1, 2019 at 4:00 am

    Aspiring Minds has developed a scalable platform to test the job skills of millions of graduates entering the labor market in India every year.

  • Extreme Classification
    on November 1, 2019 at 4:00 am

    What if you had the superpower to accurately answer, in a few milliseconds, a multiple-choice question with a billion choices? The objective in extreme classification is to develop algorithms with such capabilities. - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Nearly extreme black holes which attempt to...
    on November 15, 2019 at 4:50 pm

    Black holes 'have no hair': no attributes that can be used to tell them apart. Extreme black holes (spinning at maximally allowed rate) can have an additional property, permanent hair that is made of a massless scalar field. Nearly extreme black holes (like Gargantua, the black hole featured in the movie "Interstellar") have hair that is a transient phenomenon: nearly extreme black holes that attempt to regrow hair will lose it and become bald again.

  • A battle for the jet stream is raging above our...
    on November 15, 2019 at 1:23 pm

    When prolonged periods of severe weather strike, two things often get the blame these days: climate change and the jet stream. Many have expressed concerns that the rapidly melting Arctic is now disturbing the jet stream, bringing more frequent bouts of wild weather. But potentially even more powerful changes are afoot in the tropics—and the consequences could be severe.

  • Researchers generate terahertz laser with...
    on November 14, 2019 at 7:00 pm

    Within the electromagnetic middle ground between microwaves and visible light lies terahertz radiation, and the promise of "T-ray vision."

  • Tailor-made carbon can help scientists find...
    on November 14, 2019 at 3:26 pm

    Sensors manufactured with carbon-based materials can provide uniquely accurate and real-time information on hereditary diseases or the concentrations of drugs in the body. In addition to medicine, carbonaceous materials are used in batteries, solar cells and water purification.

  • Quantum physics: Our study suggests objective...
    on November 14, 2019 at 3:26 pm

    Alternative facts are spreading like a virus across society. Now it seems they have even infected science—at least the quantum realm. This may seem counter intuitive. The scientific method is after all founded on the reliable notions of observation, measurement and repeatability. A fact, as established by a measurement, should be objective, such that all observers can agree with it.