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force : any of the natural influences (as electromagnetism, gravity, the strong force, and the weak force) that exist especially between particles and determine the structure of the universe — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Forces in the universe are based on four fundamental interactions. The strong and weak forces are nuclear forces that act only at very short distances, and are responsible for the interactions between subatomic particles, including nucleons and compound nuclei. The electromagnetic force acts between electric charges, and the gravitational force acts between masses. All other forces in nature derive from these four fundamental interactions. For example, friction is a manifestation of the electromagnetic force acting between the atoms of two surfaces, and the Pauli exclusion principle, which does not permit atoms to pass through each other. Similarly, the forces in springs, modeled by Hooke’s law, are the result of electromagnetic forces and the Exclusion Principle acting together to return an object to its equilibrium position. Centrifugal forces are acceleration forces that arise simply from the acceleration of rotating frames of reference — Wikipedia

David Darling’s Internet Encyclopedia of Science, Britannica





New study suggests we might have spotted a fifth force of nature (Fiona MacDonald, Science Alert)
Physicists confirm possible discovery of fifth force of nature (
Has a New, Fifth Force of Nature Been Found? (Mike Wall,
A Fifth Force: Fact or Fiction? (Don Lincoln, Senior Scientist, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Live Science)




The story of force: from Aristotle to Einstein (Arthur Stinner)


Quotations Page


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library





Fundamental Forces of Physics (Sci Show YouTube Playlist)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Science Daily,, NPR Archives









OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


More News …

Physics News -- ScienceDaily Physics News and Research. Why is the universe more partial to matter than antimatter? How could fuel cells be more efficient? Read current science articles on physics.

  • Bristol team chase down advantage in quantum race
    on January 26, 2022 at 7:39 pm

    Quantum researchers have dramatically reduced the time to simulate an optical quantum computer, with a speedup of around one billion over previous approaches.

  • A leap forward for terahertz lasers
    on January 26, 2022 at 5:24 pm

    Researchers have taken a major step towards bringing terahertz frequencies out of their hard-to-reach region of the electromagnetic spectrum and into everyday applications. Researchers demonstrate a first-of-its-kind terahertz laser that is compact, operates at room temperature and can produce 120 individual frequencies spanning the 0.25 - 1.3 THz, far more range than previous terahertz sources.

  • Fourth signature of the superconducting...
    on January 26, 2022 at 5:24 pm

    Superconductors have four classic traits, including conducting electric current without loss and levitating magnets. Now the discovery of the fourth and final trait caps 15 years of detective work.

  • Quantum computing: Vibrating atoms make robust...
    on January 26, 2022 at 5:24 pm

    Physicists have discovered a new quantum bit, or 'qubit,' in the form of vibrating pairs of atoms known as fermions. The new qubit appears to be extremely robust, able to maintain superposition between two vibrational states, even in the midst of environmental noise, for up to 10 seconds, offering a possible foundation for future quantum computers.

  • Atomic Armor for accelerators enables discoveries
    on January 25, 2022 at 8:10 pm

    Protective coatings are common for many things in daily life that see a lot of use: we coat wood floors with finish; apply Teflon to the paint on cars; even use diamond coatings on medical devices. Protective coatings are also essential in many demanding research and industrial applications. - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Tug of sun, moon could be driving plate motions...
    on January 21, 2022 at 10:57 pm

    A study led by geophysicist Anne M. Hofmeister in Arts & Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis proposes that imbalanced forces and torques in the Earth-moon-sun system drive circulation of the whole mantle.

  • Finding a link between emissions taxes and R&D...
    on January 21, 2022 at 6:34 pm

    Addressing climate change is a massive and daunting challenge. But many economists say gradually increasing taxes on emissions would significantly reduce the amount of greenhouse gas spewed into the air at the lowest economic cost.

  • Yosemite National Park may limit visitors this...
    on January 21, 2022 at 4:14 pm

    Concerned about nightmarish traffic jams at Yosemite National Park from more than half a dozen major new construction projects, park leaders are drawing up plans that could limit the number of visitors this summer by requiring reservations for day visits.

  • Faster technique for resetting quantum circuits...
    on January 21, 2022 at 3:39 pm

    Rebooting a quantum computer is a tricky process that can damage its parts, but now two RIKEN physicists have proposed a fast and controllable way to hit reset.

  • In science, small groups create big ideas
    on January 21, 2022 at 3:00 pm

    In research and development, new topics are always emerging, maturing, and converging. Some of them quietly fade away, but others become the fundamental driving forces of innovation. Research organizations want to encourage the development of emerging topics, but small groups of scientists can find it risky to spend time on an unproven approach. Even if a new topic turns out to be important, it might be co-opted by larger research groups with more resources, which may discourage some […]


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Law (Constant) Relativity
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)
Matter (Microscope) Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle

Universe (Astronomical Instrument)
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Our Neighborhood
Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.