Force

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Spotlight

New study suggests we might have spotted a fifth force of nature (Fiona MacDonald, Science Alert)
Physicists confirm possible discovery of fifth force of nature (Phys.org)
Has a New, Fifth Force of Nature Been Found? (Mike Wall, Space.com)
A Fifth Force: Fact or Fiction? (Don Lincoln, Senior Scientist, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Live Science)

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Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)

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General

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force : any of the natural influences (as electromagnetism, gravity, the strong force, and the weak force) that exist especially between particles and determine the structure of the universe — Webster

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Encyclopedia

Forces in the universe are based on four fundamental interactions. The strong and weak forces are nuclear forces that act only at very short distances, and are responsible for the interactions between subatomic particles, including nucleons and compound nuclei. The electromagnetic force acts between electric charges, and the gravitational force acts between masses. All other forces in nature derive from these four fundamental interactions. For example, friction is a manifestation of the electromagnetic force acting between the atoms of two surfaces, and the Pauli exclusion principle, which does not permit atoms to pass through each other. Similarly, the forces in springs, modeled by Hooke’s law, are the result of electromagnetic forces and the Exclusion Principle acting together to return an object to its equilibrium position. Centrifugal forces are acceleration forces that arise simply from the acceleration of rotating frames of reference — Wikipedia

David Darling’s Internet Encyclopedia of Science, Britannica

Introduction

Introduction to Forces (Practical Physics)

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The story of force: from Aristotle to Einstein (Arthur Stinner)

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Physics News -- ScienceDaily Physics News and Research. Why is the universe more partial to matter than antimatter? How could fuel cells be more efficient? Read current science articles on physics.

  • Bridging optics and electronics
    on October 14, 2021 at 5:11 pm

    Researchers have developed a simple spatial light modulator made from gold electrodes covered by a thin film of electro-optical material that changes its optical properties in response to electric signals.

  • Quarks and antiquarks at high momentum shake the...
    on October 13, 2021 at 7:22 pm

    Two independent studies have illuminated unexpected substructures in the fundamental components of all matter. Preliminary results using a novel tagging method could explain the origin of the longstanding nuclear paradox known as the EMC effect. Meanwhile, authors will share next steps after the recent observation of asymmetrical antimatter in the proton.

  • Precise measurement of neutron lifetime
    on October 13, 2021 at 5:16 pm

    Physicists have made the most precise measurement of the neutron's lifetime, which may help answer questions about the early universe.

  • Longstanding magnetic materials classification...
    on October 13, 2021 at 3:40 pm

    For over 100 years, physicists, chemists, and materials scientists have developed extensive theoretical and experimental machinery to predict and characterize the electronic properties of magnetic materials, but even the most successful classification system, developed almost 75 years ago by Lev Shubnikov, was incomplete. An international team of researchers announced this week that it has finally been completed.

  • How to force photons to never bounce back
    on October 13, 2021 at 3:40 pm

    Scientists have developed a topology-based method that forces microwave photons to travel along on way path, despite unprecedented levels of disorder and obstacles on their way. This discovery paves the way to a new generation of high-frequency circuits and extremely robust, compact communication devices.


Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • New river of lava threatens even more buildings...
    on October 9, 2021 at 6:55 pm

    A new river of lava belched Saturday from the La Palma volcano, spreading more destruction on the Atlantic Ocean island where over 1,000 buildings have already been engulfed or badly damaged by streams of molten rock.

  • Levi­tating particles in a vacuum
    on October 8, 2021 at 4:20 pm

    Levitation of both large objects and of single atoms has become a widely used technique in science and engineering. In the last years, many researchers have started to explore a new horizon: the levitation of nano- and micro-particles—still smaller than the diameter of a single hair, but composed of billions of atoms—in vacuum.

  • Orange County oil spill leaves many clues, dead...
    on October 8, 2021 at 4:16 pm

    Nearly a week after a 13-inch tear in an undersea pipeline resulted in a massive oil spill off the Southern California coast, the clues keep piling up, but the mystery of what caused the rupture and who is ultimately responsible remains unsolved.

  • New rotating liquid reactor design solves issues...
    on October 8, 2021 at 1:42 pm

    Intensified reactors are used in a variety of chemical processes. One such reactor is the rotating packed bed (RPB) reactor which uses high centrifugal forces to accelerate chemical reactions between constituents. However, the RPB reactor has a number of issues that affect its efficiency. With this in mind, for this Ph.D. research, Jasper Hacking designed a new reactor referred to as rotating liquid redistributor. Key to the new reactor is the inclusion of liquid-filled rings in the packing, […]

  • Student sex work is happening, and universities...
    on October 8, 2021 at 11:40 am

    As university and college semesters unfold, a small but increasing percentage of students will likely also be taking on a largely under-reported and overlooked form of part-time employment: sex work.