Force

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Spotlight

New study suggests we might have spotted a fifth force of nature (Fiona MacDonald, Science Alert)
Physicists confirm possible discovery of fifth force of nature (Phys.org)
Has a New, Fifth Force of Nature Been Found? (Mike Wall, Space.com)
A Fifth Force: Fact or Fiction? (Don Lincoln, Senior Scientist, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Live Science)

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Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)

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force : any of the natural influences (as electromagnetism, gravity, the strong force, and the weak force) that exist especially between particles and determine the structure of the universe — Webster

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Forces in the universe are based on four fundamental interactions. The strong and weak forces are nuclear forces that act only at very short distances, and are responsible for the interactions between subatomic particles, including nucleons and compound nuclei. The electromagnetic force acts between electric charges, and the gravitational force acts between masses. All other forces in nature derive from these four fundamental interactions. For example, friction is a manifestation of the electromagnetic force acting between the atoms of two surfaces, and the Pauli exclusion principle, which does not permit atoms to pass through each other. Similarly, the forces in springs, modeled by Hooke’s law, are the result of electromagnetic forces and the Exclusion Principle acting together to return an object to its equilibrium position. Centrifugal forces are acceleration forces that arise simply from the acceleration of rotating frames of reference — Wikipedia

David Darling’s Internet Encyclopedia of Science, Britannica

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Introduction to Forces (Practical Physics)

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The story of force: from Aristotle to Einstein (Arthur Stinner)

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Physics News -- ScienceDaily Physics News and Research. Why is the universe more partial to matter than antimatter? How could fuel cells be more efficient? Read current science articles on physics.

  • Crystal structures in super slow motion
    on January 22, 2021 at 8:44 pm

    Laser beams are used to change the properties of materials in an extremely precise way. However, the underlying processes generally take place at such unimaginably fast speeds and at such a small scale that they have so far eluded direct observation. Researchers have now managed to film, for the first time, the laser transformation of a crystal structure with nanometer resolution and in slow motion in an electron microscope.

  • Single atoms as a catalyst: Surprising effects...
    on January 22, 2021 at 4:22 pm

    Catalysts are getting smaller - 'single-atom' catalysts are the logical end point of this downsizing. However, individual atoms can no longer be described using the rules developed from larger pieces of metal, so the rules used to predict which metals will be good catalysts must be revamped - this has now been achieved. As it turns out, single atom catalysts based on much cheaper materials might be even more effective.

  • Defects may help scientists understand the exotic...
    on January 22, 2021 at 3:20 pm

    Real-world materials are usually messier than the idealized scenarios found in textbooks. Imperfections can add complications and even limit a material's usefulness. To get around this, scientists routinely strive to remove defects and dirt entirely, pushing materials closer to perfection. Now, researchers have turned this problem around and shown that for some materials defects could act as a probe for interesting physics, rather than a nuisance.

  • Record-breaking laser link could help us test...
    on January 22, 2021 at 1:49 pm

    Scientists have set a world record for the most stable transmission of a laser signal through the atmosphere. The team combined 'phase stabilization' technology with advanced self-guiding optical terminals to 'effectively eliminate atmospheric turbulence,' an advance which could help test Einstein's theory of general relativity.

  • Bringing atoms to a standstill: Miniaturizing...
    on January 21, 2021 at 9:31 pm

    Scientists have miniaturized the optical components required to cool atoms down to a few thousandths of a degree above absolute zero, the first step in employing them on microchips to drive a new generation of super-accurate atomic clocks, enable navigation without GPS, and simulate quantum systems.


Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Chileans receive mistaken tsunami warning...
    on January 24, 2021 at 11:07 am

    A 7.1-magnitude earthquake that struck Saturday off the coast of Antarctica triggered a tsunami warning but panic ensued when a message to abandon coastal areas was sent to a large number of Chileans, some of whom experienced a separate, less dangerous temblor.

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    on January 22, 2021 at 3:57 pm

    The Sun's extremely hot outer layer, the corona, has a very different chemical composition from the cooler inner layers, but the reason for this has puzzled scientists for decades.

  • As more bacteria grow resistant to antibiotics,...
    on January 22, 2021 at 1:40 pm

    Scottish bacteriologist Alexander Fleming's discovery of penicillin, the world's first antibiotic, saved countless lives. But even as the bacteria killer first hit the U.S. market—in the closing months of World War II—Fleming warned the world about what penicillin might unleash.

  • SARS-CoV-2 needs cholesterol to invade cells and...
    on January 22, 2021 at 1:32 pm

    People taking cholesterol-lowering drugs may fare better than others if they catch the novel coronavirus. A new study hints at why: the virus relies on the fatty molecule to get past the cell's protective membrane.

  • Producing green hydrogen through the exposure of...
    on January 21, 2021 at 8:04 pm

    A research team from the Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS) has joined forces with French researchers from the Institute of Chemistry and Processes for Energy, Environment and Health (ICPEES), a CNRS-University of Strasbourg joint research lab, to pave the way towards the production of green hydrogen. This international team has developed new sunlight-photosensitive-nanostructured electrodes. The results of their research were published in the November 2020 issue of the […]