Force

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Spotlight



New study suggests we might have spotted a fifth force of nature (Fiona MacDonald, Science Alert)
Physicists confirm possible discovery of fifth force of nature (Phys.org)
Has a New, Fifth Force of Nature Been Found? (Mike Wall, Space.com)
A Fifth Force: Fact or Fiction? (Don Lincoln, Senior Scientist, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Live Science)

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Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)

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force : any of the natural influences (as electromagnetism, gravity, the strong force, and the weak force) that exist especially between particles and determine the structure of the universe — Webster

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Forces in the universe are based on four fundamental interactions. The strong and weak forces are nuclear forces that act only at very short distances, and are responsible for the interactions between subatomic particles, including nucleons and compound nuclei. The electromagnetic force acts between electric charges, and the gravitational force acts between masses. All other forces in nature derive from these four fundamental interactions. For example, friction is a manifestation of the electromagnetic force acting between the atoms of two surfaces, and the Pauli exclusion principle, which does not permit atoms to pass through each other. Similarly, the forces in springs, modeled by Hooke’s law, are the result of electromagnetic forces and the Exclusion Principle acting together to return an object to its equilibrium position. Centrifugal forces are acceleration forces that arise simply from the acceleration of rotating frames of reference — Wikipedia

David Darling’s Internet Encyclopedia of Science, Britannica

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Introduction to Forces (Practical Physics)

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The story of force: from Aristotle to Einstein (Arthur Stinner)

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