Force

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Physicists confirm possible discovery of fifth force of nature (Phys.org)
A Fifth Force: Fact or Fiction? (Don Lincoln, Senior Scientist, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Live Science)

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Physical Universe (Force)
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force : any of the natural influences (as electromagnetism, gravity, the strong force, and the weak force) that exist especially between particles and determine the structure of the universe — Webster

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Forces in the universe are based on four fundamental interactions. The strong and weak forces are nuclear forces that act only at very short distances, and are responsible for the interactions between subatomic particles, including nucleons and compound nuclei. The electromagnetic force acts between electric charges, and the gravitational force acts between masses. All other forces in nature derive from these four fundamental interactions. For example, friction is a manifestation of the electromagnetic force acting between the atoms of two surfaces, and the Pauli exclusion principle, which does not permit atoms to pass through each other. Similarly, the forces in springs, modeled by Hooke’s law, are the result of electromagnetic forces and the Exclusion Principle acting together to return an object to its equilibrium position. Centrifugal forces are acceleration forces that arise simply from the acceleration of rotating frames of reference — Wikipedia

David Darling’s Internet Encyclopedia of Science, Britannica

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Introduction to Forces (Practical Physics)

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The story of force: from Aristotle to Einstein (Arthur Stinner)

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Physics News -- ScienceDaily Physics News and Research. Why is the universe more partial to matter than antimatter? How could fuel cells be more efficient? Read current science articles on physics.

  • Template to create superatoms could make for...
    on June 21, 2018 at 9:24 pm

    Researchers have discovered a novel strategy for creating superatoms -- combinations of atoms that can mimic the properties of more than one group of elements of the periodic table. These superatoms could be used to create new materials, including more efficient batteries and better semiconductors; a core component of microchips, transistors and most computerized devices. […]

  • Unprecedented control of polymer grids achieved
    on June 21, 2018 at 6:11 pm

    The first examples of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) were discovered in 2005, but quality has been poor and preparation methods uncontrolled. Now researchers have produced high-quality versions of these materials, demonstrate their superior properties and control their growth. The team's two-step process produces organic polymers with crystalline, two-dimensional structures. The precision of the material's structure and the empty space its hexagonal pores provide will allow scientists to […]

  • Einstein proved right in another galaxy
    on June 21, 2018 at 6:10 pm

    Astronomers have made the most precise test of gravity outside our own solar system. By combining data taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, the researchers show that gravity in this galaxy behaves as predicted by Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, confirming the theory's validity on galactic scales. […]

  • Discovery of 12-sided silica cages
    on June 20, 2018 at 9:10 pm

    Scientists report the discovery of 10-nanometer, individual, self-assembled dodecahedral structures -- 12-sided silica cages that could have applications in mesoscale material assembly, as well as medical diagnosis and therapeutics. […]

  • Better model of water under extreme conditions...
    on June 20, 2018 at 8:24 pm

    A team of scientists ran quantum simulations to develop a new model of the behavior of water at extremely high temperatures and pressures. The computational measurements should help scientists understand water's role in the makeup of the mantle and potentially in other planets. […]