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Physical Realm
Universe Astronomical Instrument
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



galaxy : any of the very large groups of stars and associated matter that are found throughout the universe — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Galaxy is a massive, gravitationally bound system that consists of stars and stellar remnants, an interstellar medium of gas and dust, and an important but poorly understood component tentatively dubbed dark matter. Galaxies contain varying amounts of star systems, star clusters and types of interstellar clouds. In between these objects is a sparse interstellar medium of gas, dust, and cosmic rays. Dark matter appears to account for around 90% of the mass of most galaxies. — Wikipedia

Galactic Astronomy (Eric Weisstein’s World of Astronomy, Wolfram Research)
David Darling’s Internet Encyclopedia of Science


Galaxy Introduction (Astronomy Online)


Galaxies (Wolfram Alpha)



Historical Overview of the Discovery of Galaxies (Earth Guide)
Timeline of knowledge about galaxies, clusters of galaxies… (Wikipedia)


Quotations Page


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



What is a Galaxy? (Space Place, NASA)
Galaxies (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)
Galaxies (Cosmos4Kids)


Crash Course Astronomy (YouTube)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Science Daily,, NPR Archives




Stars & Galaxies (NASA JPL)



OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Galaxies News -- ScienceDaily News and research on the formation of galaxies. From the Milky Way to Andromeda Galaxy, see astronomy images of splendid galaxies in the universe. Read the latest research discoveries.

  • Bizarre worlds orbiting a black hole?
    on November 25, 2019 at 3:04 pm

    Theoreticians in two different fields defied the common knowledge that planets orbit stars like the Sun. They proposed the possibility of thousands of planets around a supermassive black hole.

  • The simultaneous merging of giant galaxies
    on November 21, 2019 at 5:17 pm

    Scientists proved for the first time that the galaxy NGC 6240 contains three supermassive black holes. The unique observations show the black holes close to each other in the core of the galaxy. The study points to simultaneous merging processes during the formation of the largest galaxies in the universe.

  • Outback telescope captures Milky Way center,...
    on November 20, 2019 at 12:07 pm

    A radio telescope in the Western Australian outback has captured a spectacular new view of the center of the galaxy in which we live, the Milky Way. The image from the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) telescope shows what our galaxy would look like if human eyes could see radio waves.

  • Spin doctors: Astrophysicists find when galaxies...
    on November 15, 2019 at 3:10 pm

    The direction in which a galaxy spins depends on its mass, researchers have found.

  • Two cosmic peacocks show violent history of the...
    on November 14, 2019 at 4:58 pm

    Two peacock-shaped gaseous clouds were revealed in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). A team of astronomers found several massive baby stars in the complex filamentary clouds, which agrees well with computer simulations of giant collisions of gaseous clouds. The researchers interpret this to mean that the filaments and young stars are telltale evidence of violent interactions between the LMC and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) 200 million years ago. - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • SN Now: The final installment of SCaN Now
    on December 9, 2019 at 2:52 pm

    NASA satellites, no matter the destination, have to communicate their data to mission control and scientists on Earth. These missions capture extraordinary data that make communications an essential part of each mission: pictures of galaxies, critical information on solar flares and much more. An interactive online tool now shows live data transmissions from each of NASA's three space communications networks and the missions supported by those data.

  • Image: Hubble spots galaxy's dramatic details
    on December 9, 2019 at 2:52 pm

    Some of the most dramatic events in the universe occur when certain stars die—and explode catastrophically in the process.

  • IRAS 18379–1707 is a metal-poor high-velocity...
    on December 9, 2019 at 2:10 pm

    Astronomers have conducted high-resolution spectroscopic observations of IRAS 18379–1707 (or LS 5112), a candidate post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) star in the Milky Way galaxy. Results of the observations provide more details about the properties of this object, revealing that it is a metal-poor, high-velocity star. The findings are detailed in a paper published November 28 on

  • How did supermassive black holes grow so fast?
    on December 9, 2019 at 11:30 am

    Black holes in the early universe pose a bit of a problem. Based on observations from telescopes on Earth and in space, we know that some black holes grew to be a billion times the mass of the sun just one billion years after the Big Bang. Our current models of black hole growth, however, can't explain this speed of growth. So how did these supermassive black holes come about?

  • Looking for exoplanet life in all the right...
    on December 4, 2019 at 9:34 pm

    A Cornell senior has come up with a way to discern life on exoplanets loitering in other cosmic neighborhoods: a spectral field guide.