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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Genetics Portal (Wikipedia)


gene : a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Glossary of Genetic Terms (National Human Genome Research Institute)


Gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. The RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism’s offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions. Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life.. — Wikipedia

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
Encyclopædia Britannica


DNA from the Beginning (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Outline of Genetics (Wikipedia)


Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. In contrast to genetics, which refers to the study of individual genes and their roles in inheritance, genomics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of genes, which direct the production of proteins with the assistance of enzymes and messenger molecules. In turn, proteins make up body structures such as organs and tissues as well as control chemical reactions and carry signals between cells. Genomics also involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes through uses of high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to assemble and analyze the function and structure of entire genomes.[Advances in genomics have triggered a revolution in discovery-based research and systems biology to facilitate understanding of even the most complex biological systems such as the brain. — Wikipedia

Genomics (Wolfram Alpha)
Encyclopædia Britannica


How to sequence the human genome (Mark J. Kiel, TED-Ed)



Mendel’s principles of inheritance (Science Learning Hub)


From DNA to Genomics (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



The American Society of Human Genetics
Genetics Society of America


Genome News Network, Nature Genetics,, NPR Archives




National Center for Biotechnology Information (National Institutes of Health)








OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Nature Genetics - Issue - science feeds Nature Genetics publishes the very highest quality research in genetics. It encompasses genetic and functional genomic studies on human traits and on other model organisms, including mouse, fly, nematode and yeast. Current emphasis is on the genetic basis for common and complex diseases and on the functional mechanism, architecture and evolution of gene networks, studied by experimental perturbation.

  • Determining protein structures using deep...
    by Jörn M. Schmiedel on June 17, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 17 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0431-xThis method predicts three-dimensional protein structures based on the activity of mutant variants. The approach relies on quantifying genetic interactions between mutations to infer direct contacts between residues. […]

  • Inferring protein 3D structure from deep mutation...
    by Nathan J. Rollins on June 17, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 17 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0432-9The authors present a method for determining 3D protein structures using high-throughput mutation experiments. Pairs of residues with the largest positive epistasis are sufficient to determine the 3D fold. […]

  • Quantitative evidence for early metastatic...
    by Zheng Hu on June 17, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 17 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0423-xAnalysis of evolutionary dynamics of colorectal cancers and paired distant brain or liver metastases provides evidence that early disseminated cancer cells seed metastases before the carcinoma is clinically detectable. […]

  • Genome sequencing analysis identifies...
    by Miao Xu on June 17, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 17 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0436-5Whole-genome sequencing and association analysis of 270 Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) isolates from China identify two non-synonymous EBV variants within BALF2 that are strongly associated with the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. […]

  • Recessive gene disruptions in autism spectrum...
    by Ryan N. Doan on June 17, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 17 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0433-8Analysis of whole-exome sequencing data from 2,343 individuals with autism spectrum disorder compared to 5,852 unaffected individuals demonstrates an excess of biallelic, autosomal mutations for both loss-of-function and damaging missense variants. […] - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Neutrons get a wider angle on DNA and RNA to...
    on June 19, 2019 at 7:29 pm

    Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and enable more accurate computer simulations of how they interact with everything from proteins to viruses. Resolving the 3-D structures of the body's fundamental genetic materials in solution will play a vital role in drug discovery and development for critical medical […]

  • Scientists chart course toward a new world of...
    on June 19, 2019 at 7:13 pm

    Genetically engineered trees that provide fire-resistant lumber for homes. Modified organs that won't be rejected. Synthetic microbes that monitor your gut to detect invading disease organisms and kill them before you get sick. […]

  • Human migration in Oceania recreated through...
    on June 19, 2019 at 6:00 pm

    The migration and interaction routes of prehistoric humans throughout the islands of Oceania can be retraced using genetic differences between paper mulberry plants, a tree native to Asia cultivated for fibers to make paper and introduced into the Pacific in prehistoric times to make barkcloth. Daniela Seelenfreund of the University of Chile and Andrea Seelenfreund of the Academia de Humanismo Cristiano University, Chile report on prehistoric human movements based on the genetic analysis of […]

  • Successful 'alien' bird invasions are location...
    on June 19, 2019 at 5:00 pm

    Published today in Nature, researchers show that alien bird introductions are most successful in locations and climates similar to their native habitats and in places where other alien species are already established. […]

  • Making systems robust
    on June 19, 2019 at 5:00 pm

    The human body keeps the calcium concentration in the blood constant, similarly to an aircraft's autopilot keeping the plane at a constant altitude. What they have in common is that both the body and the autopilot employ sophisticated integral feedback control mechanisms. […]