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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Genetics Portal (Wikipedia)


gene : a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Glossary of Genetic Terms (National Human Genome Research Institute)


Gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. The RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism’s offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions. Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life.. — Wikipedia

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
Encyclopædia Britannica


DNA from the Beginning (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Outline of Genetics (Wikipedia)


Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. In contrast to genetics, which refers to the study of individual genes and their roles in inheritance, genomics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of genes, which direct the production of proteins with the assistance of enzymes and messenger molecules. In turn, proteins make up body structures such as organs and tissues as well as control chemical reactions and carry signals between cells. Genomics also involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes through uses of high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to assemble and analyze the function and structure of entire genomes.[Advances in genomics have triggered a revolution in discovery-based research and systems biology to facilitate understanding of even the most complex biological systems such as the brain. — Wikipedia

Genomics (Wolfram Alpha)
Encyclopædia Britannica


How to sequence the human genome (Mark J. Kiel, TED-Ed)



Mendel’s principles of inheritance (Science Learning Hub)


From DNA to Genomics (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



The American Society of Human Genetics
Genetics Society of America


Genome News Network, Nature Genetics,, NPR Archives




National Center for Biotechnology Information (National Institutes of Health)








OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Nature Genetics - Issue - science feeds Nature Genetics publishes the very highest quality research in genetics. It encompasses genetic and functional genomic studies on human traits and on other model organisms, including mouse, fly, nematode and yeast. Current emphasis is on the genetic basis for common and complex diseases and on the functional mechanism, architecture and evolution of gene networks, studied by experimental perturbation.

  • Long-range interactions between topologically...
    by Jonas Paulsen on April 22, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Long-range interactions between topologically associating domains shape the four-dimensional genome during differentiationLong-range interactions between topologically associating domains shape the four-dimensional genome during differentiation, Published online: 22 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0392-0The authors identify the formation of dynamic topologically associating domain (TAD) cliques during differentiation and reprogramming. Their analysis indicates that TAD cliques stabilize […]

  • Author Correction: Transposable elements drive...
    by Hyo Sik Jang on April 16, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Author Correction: Transposable elements drive widespread expression of oncogenes in human cancersAuthor Correction: Transposable elements drive widespread expression of oncogenes in human cancers, Published online: 16 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0416-9Author Correction: Transposable elements drive widespread expression of oncogenes in human cancers […]

  • Author Correction: An atlas of genetic influences...
    by John A. Morris on April 15, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Author Correction: An atlas of genetic influences on osteoporosis in humans and miceAuthor Correction: An atlas of genetic influences on osteoporosis in humans and mice, Published online: 15 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0415-xAuthor Correction: An atlas of genetic influences on osteoporosis in humans and mic […]

  • Detecting the mutational signature of homologous...
    by Doga C. Gulhan on April 15, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Detecting the mutational signature of homologous recombination deficiency in clinical samplesDetecting the mutational signature of homologous recombination deficiency in clinical samples, Published online: 15 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0390-2Signature Multivariate Analysis is a new computational tool that detects the mutational signature of homologous-recombination deficiency in clinical samples sequenced with targeted panels, enabling the identification of patients who are responsive […]

  • Evolution of buffering in a genetic circuit...
    by Daniel Rodriguez-Leal on April 15, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Evolution of buffering in a genetic circuit controlling plant stem cell proliferationEvolution of buffering in a genetic circuit controlling plant stem cell proliferation, Published online: 15 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0389-8A study of a stem cell receptor–ligand signaling module across tomato, maize and Arabidopsis identifies different genetic mechanisms of compensation that contribute to homeostasis. […] - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Research sheds light on genomic features that...
    on April 25, 2019 at 12:00 am

    New research published this week identifies the genomic features that might have made domestication possible for corn and soybeans, two of the world's most critical crop species. […]

  • With flower preferences, bees have a big gap...
    on April 24, 2019 at 7:38 pm

    For scores of wild bee species, females and males visit very different flowers for food—a discovery that could be important for conservation efforts, according to Rutgers-led research. […]

  • Veritable powerhouses—even without DNA
    on April 24, 2019 at 6:00 pm

    Whether human beings or animals, plants or algae: the cells of most life forms contain special structures that are responsible for energy production. Referred to as mitochondria, they normally have their own genetic material, in addition to that found in the nucleus. Uwe John and colleagues at the Alfred Wegener Institute have now identified the first-ever exception to this rule in a single-celled parasite. The mitochondria of the dinoflagellate Amoebophrya ceratii appear to produce energy just […]

  • Tomato, tomat-oh!—understanding evolution to...
    on April 24, 2019 at 6:00 pm

    Although pesticides are a standard part of crop production, Michigan State University researchers believe pesticide use could be reduced by taking cues from wild plants. […]

  • Crabs, lobsters and shrimp now have a family tree...
    on April 24, 2019 at 5:05 pm

    Researchers have for the first time traced the roots of crabs, lobsters and shrimp to create the family tree of crustaceans people love to eat. […]