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Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human
These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
gene : a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material — Webster
Gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. The RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism’s offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions. Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life.. — Wikipedia
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. — Wikipedia
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. In contrast to genetics, which refers to the study of individual genes and their roles in inheritance, genomics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of genes, which direct the production of proteins with the assistance of enzymes and messenger molecules. In turn, proteins make up body structures such as organs and tissues as well as control chemical reactions and carry signals between cells. Genomics also involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes through uses of high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to assemble and analyze the function and structure of entire genomes.[Advances in genomics have triggered a revolution in discovery-based research and systems biology to facilitate understanding of even the most complex biological systems such as the brain. — Wikipedia
Nature Genetics - Issue - nature.com science feeds Nature Genetics publishes the very highest quality research in genetics. It encompasses genetic and functional genomic studies on human traits and on other model organisms, including mouse, fly, nematode and yeast. Current emphasis is on the genetic basis for common and complex diseases and on the functional mechanism, architecture and evolution of gene networks, studied by experimental perturbation.
Stories in the DNA
on September 30, 2020 at 12:00 am
Nature Genetics, Published online: 30 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41588-020-00719-5Genetic tools can help uncover evolutionary histories, migration patterns and admixture events of domesticated animals and their wild ancestors. The genetic window into the past can help shape breeding strategies and inform animal agricultural practices that should lead to a more resilient and sustainable future.
Targeting LSD1 and FOXA1 in prostate cancer
by Soleilmane Omarjee on September 30, 2020 at 12:00 am
Nature Genetics, Published online: 30 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41588-020-0702-6FOXA1 is a key pioneer factor in androgen-receptor activity but has been an elusive drug target. A new study shows that inhibition of the associated cofactor LSD1 modifies the methylation state of FOXA1, thus resulting in chromatin dissociation and tumor inhibition, even in models of treatment-resistant prostate cancer.
Setting new boundaries with transcription and CTCF
by Erika C. Anderson on September 30, 2020 at 12:00 am
Nature Genetics, Published online: 30 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41588-020-0704-4How do boundary elements divide chromosomes into domains? A new study uses random genomic insertions to show how small genomic fragments can shape chromatin folding through the interplay of loop extrusion and compartmentalization. Spoiler: context matters.
Discovering functional evolutionary dependencies...
by Marco Mina on September 28, 2020 at 12:00 am
Nature Genetics, Published online: 28 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41588-020-0703-5Computational analysis of over 9,000 cancer genomes, coupled with functional validation in cell lines, highlights combinations of mutations required for tumor progression. This integrated approach provides a framework to stratify patients on the basis of interdependent genetic aberrations.
Mutations disrupting neuritogenesis genes confer...
by Sheng Chih Jin on September 28, 2020 at 12:00 am
Nature Genetics, Published online: 28 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41588-020-0695-1Whole-exome sequencing of 250 parent–offspring trios identifies an enrichment of rare damaging de novo mutations in individuals with cerebral palsy and implicates genetically mediated dysregulation of early neuronal connectivity in the etiology of this disorder.
Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.
Healthy corals in Biscayne Bay surprised...
on October 1, 2020 at 5:29 pm
During a scouting mission to check on coral colonies in inshore Biscayne Bay last year, Caroline Dennison and a few other marine biology graduate students found something astounding: healthy populations of brain corals.
New type of plastic made from reclaimed waste
on October 1, 2020 at 2:25 pm
A new type of plastic made of reclaimed waste readily degrades in less than a year. The substance that will soon serve to manufacture and break down mainly disposable products in an ecofriendly way goes by the name of polyhydroxybutyrate. This innovative material can be produced on an industrial scale in a new process developed by the Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology IPK and its partners.
Can organic plant protection products damage...
on October 1, 2020 at 8:28 am
Protecting crops against pests and diseases is essential to ensure a secure food supply. Around 95 percent of food comes from conventional agriculture, which uses chemical pesticides to keep crops healthy. Increasingly, however, organic pesticides are also being sought as an alternative. Some organic pesticides contain live spores of the fungus Trichoderma, which have the ability to suppress other pathogens. Researchers at the University of Göttingen have now discovered that one Trichoderma […]
Acropora spp. coral still thrives in the holdout...
on September 30, 2020 at 6:00 pm
Coral Gardens Reef in Belize remains a refuge for Acropora spp. coral despite widespread devastation in other areas of the western North Atlantic/Caribbean, according to a study published September 30, 2020 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Lisa Greer from Washington and Lee University, Virginia, U.S., and colleagues.
Problems with reproduction in birds
on September 30, 2020 at 4:57 pm
In birds and other species alike, pairs can face considerable difficulties with reproduction. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology in Seewiesen have now shown in an extensive analysis of 23,000 zebra finch eggs that infertility is mainly due to males, while high embryo mortality is more a problem of the females. Inbreeding, age of the parents and conditions experienced when growing up had surprisingly little influence on reproductive failures.