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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Genetics Portal (Wikipedia)


gene : a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Glossary of Genetic Terms (National Human Genome Research Institute)


Gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. The RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism’s offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions. Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life.. — Wikipedia

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
Encyclopædia Britannica


DNA from the Beginning (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Outline of Genetics (Wikipedia)


Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. In contrast to genetics, which refers to the study of individual genes and their roles in inheritance, genomics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of genes, which direct the production of proteins with the assistance of enzymes and messenger molecules. In turn, proteins make up body structures such as organs and tissues as well as control chemical reactions and carry signals between cells. Genomics also involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes through uses of high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to assemble and analyze the function and structure of entire genomes.[Advances in genomics have triggered a revolution in discovery-based research and systems biology to facilitate understanding of even the most complex biological systems such as the brain. — Wikipedia

Genomics (Wolfram Alpha)
Encyclopædia Britannica


How to sequence the human genome (Mark J. Kiel, TED-Ed)



Mendel’s principles of inheritance (Science Learning Hub)


From DNA to Genomics (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



The American Society of Human Genetics
Genetics Society of America


Genome News Network, Nature Genetics,, NPR Archives




National Center for Biotechnology Information (National Institutes of Health)








OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Nature Genetics - Issue - science feeds Nature Genetics publishes the very highest quality research in genetics. It encompasses genetic and functional genomic studies on human traits and on other model organisms, including mouse, fly, nematode and yeast. Current emphasis is on the genetic basis for common and complex diseases and on the functional mechanism, architecture and evolution of gene networks, studied by experimental perturbation.

  • Common genetic variants and modifiable risk...
    by Andrew R. Harper on January 25, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 25 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41588-020-00764-0Genome-wide association analyses identify 12 susceptibility loci for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). A genetic risk score for HCM was associated with disease status in a validation study and influenced phenotypic severity in carriers of risk variants in sarcomere genes.

  • Shared genetic pathways contribute to risk of...
    by Rafik Tadros on January 25, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 25 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41588-020-00762-2Genome-wide analyses identify multiple loci associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and left ventricular (LV) traits. Cardiomyopathies exhibit strong genetic correlations with LV traits, with opposing effects in HCM and DCM.

  • Mutation load at a mimicry supergene sheds new...
    by Paul Jay on January 25, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 25 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41588-020-00771-1Chromosomal inversions at the mimicry locus of Heliconius numata butterflies accumulate deleterious variants. This leads to selection against homozygosity, in opposition to positive selection for mimicry, resulting in intermediate allele frequency.

  • Publisher Correction: Trans-ancestry genome-wide...
    by David V. Conti on January 20, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 20 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41588-021-00786-2Publisher Correction: Trans-ancestry genome-wide association meta-analysis of prostate cancer identifies new susceptibility loci and informs genetic risk prediction

  • Publisher Correction: Efficient phasing and...
    by Simone Rubinacci on January 20, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 20 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41588-021-00788-0Publisher Correction: Efficient phasing and imputation of low-coverage sequencing data using large reference panels - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Researcher expands plant genome editing with...
    on January 22, 2021 at 5:42 pm

    Alongside Dennis van Engelsdorp, associate professor at the University of Maryland (UMD) in Entomology named for the fifth year in a row for his work in honey bee and pollinator health, Yiping Qi, associate professor in Plant Science, represented the College of Agriculture & Natural Resources on the Web of Science 2020 list of Highly Cited Researchers for the first time. This list includes influential scientists based on the impact of their academic publications over the course of the year. […]

  • Proteins unspool DNA so cells can take on unique...
    on January 22, 2021 at 4:39 pm

    Biologists have long wondered how complex organisms contain a variety of dramatically different types of cells with specialized functions, even though all of those cells are genetically identical.

  • Genetic sequence for parasitic flowering plant...
    on January 22, 2021 at 4:00 pm

    On January 22 in Current Biology, a team of Harvard-led researchers presented the most complete genome yet assembled of one of the major Rafflesiaceae lineages, Sapria himalayana.

  • Microbiome Search Engine 2 helps researchers...
    on January 22, 2021 at 3:55 pm

    Metagenomics—the study of genetic material from an environmental sample—is growing as species evolve or are discovered across the globe. To correlate the newly developed microbiomes with existing data sets, a team of researchers based in China has developed the Microbiome Search Engine 2 (MSE 2). It was published on Jan. 19 in mSystems, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology.

  • Regulating the ribosomal RNA production line
    on January 22, 2021 at 2:43 pm

    The enzyme that makes RNA from a DNA template is altered to slow the production of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), the most abundant type of RNA within cells, when resources are scarce and the bacteria Escherichia coli needs to slow its growth. Researchers used cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to capture the structures of the RNA polymerase while in complex with DNA and showed how its activity is changed in response to poor-growth conditions.