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DNA from the Beginning (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


gene : a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary


Glossary of Genetic Terms (National Human Genome Research Institute)


Gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. The RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism’s offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions. Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life.. — Wikipedia

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
Encyclopædia Britannica


Outline of Genetics (Wikipedia)


Genetics Portal (Wikipedia)



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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. In contrast to genetics, which refers to the study of individual genes and their roles in inheritance, genomics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of genes, which direct the production of proteins with the assistance of enzymes and messenger molecules. In turn, proteins make up body structures such as organs and tissues as well as control chemical reactions and carry signals between cells. Genomics also involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes through uses of high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to assemble and analyze the function and structure of entire genomes.[Advances in genomics have triggered a revolution in discovery-based research and systems biology to facilitate understanding of even the most complex biological systems such as the brain. — Wikipedia

Genomics (Wolfram Alpha)
Encyclopædia Britannica


How to sequence the human genome (Mark J. Kiel, TED-Ed)




Mendel’s principles of inheritance (Science Learning Hub)


From DNA to Genomics (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




The DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



The American Society of Human Genetics
Genetics Society of America


Genome News Network, Nature Genetics,, NPR Archives




National Center for Biotechnology Information (National Institutes of Health)









OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics


More News … - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Shedding light on reptilian health: Researchers...
    on June 29, 2022 at 7:44 am

    Although only recently recognized as an issue in wildlife ecology, snake fungal disease (SFD) is of emerging concern in the U.S., with parallels among other better-known wildlife fungal diseases such as white-nose syndrome in bats. SFD can be deadly to snakes, and even in milder cases disrupts an animal's abilities to perform normal biological functions such as hibernation, eating and avoiding predators.

  • Who trusts gene-edited foods? New study gauges...
    on June 28, 2022 at 5:39 pm

    Through CRISPR and other gene-editing technologies, researchers and developers are poised to bring dozens—if not hundreds—of new products to grocery stores: mushrooms with longer shelf lives, drought-resistant corn and bananas impervious to a fungus threatening the global supply. A few, including a soybean variety that produces a healthier cooking oil, are already being sold commercially in the U.S.

  • Wild tomato genome will benefit domesticated...
    on June 28, 2022 at 5:21 pm

    A team of researchers has assembled a reference genome for Solanum lycopersicoides, a wild relative of the cultivated tomato, and developed web-based tools to help plant researchers and breeders improve the crop.

  • Study reveals sequence and structural divergence...
    on June 28, 2022 at 3:24 pm

    Fragaria, known as strawberries, are among the most popular berry fruits and also the youngest domesticated plants. Southwest China is rich in wild strawberry germplasm resources, and has been recognized as an important distribution center of wild strawberry resources in the world.

  • Drones and DNA tracking: How these high-tech...
    on June 28, 2022 at 2:45 pm

    Technology has undoubtedly contributed to global biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation.

Nature Genetics - Issue - science feeds Nature Genetics publishes the very highest quality research in genetics. It encompasses genetic and functional genomic studies on human traits and on other model organisms, including mouse, fly, nematode and yeast. Current emphasis is on the genetic basis for common and complex diseases and on the functional mechanism, architecture and evolution of gene networks, studied by experimental perturbation.

  • Graph pangenomes find missing heritability
    by David Edwards on June 23, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 23 June 2022; doi:10.1038/s41588-022-01099-8The use of association studies to identify candidate genes for complex biological traits in plants has been challenging due to a reliance on single reference genomes, leading to missing heritability. Graphical pangenomes and the identification of causal variants help overcome this and provide an important advance for crop breeding.

  • Linking genetic variants to kidney disease via...
    on June 23, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 23 June 2022; doi:10.1038/s41588-022-01098-9The largest GWAS for kidney function so far provided the starting point for integrated multi-stage annotation of genetic loci. Whole kidney and single-cell epigenomic information is crucial for translating GWAS information to the identification of causal genes and pathogenetic (and potentially targetable) cellular and molecular mechanisms of kidney disease.

  • Single-cell analyses define a continuum of cell...
    by Winston R. Becker on June 20, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 20 June 2022; doi:10.1038/s41588-022-01088-xSingle-cell ATAC-seq and RNA-seq profiling traces the transformation of healthy colon to precancerous adenomas to colorectal cancer (CRC). A large proportion of polyp and CRC cells show a stem-like phenotype.

  • Author Correction: A genome-wide association...
    by Douglas P. Wightman on June 20, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 20 June 2022; doi:10.1038/s41588-022-01126-8Author Correction: A genome-wide association study with 1,126,563 individuals identifies new risk loci for Alzheimer’s disease

  • Epigenomic and transcriptomic analyses define...
    by Hongbo Liu on June 16, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 16 June 2022; doi:10.1038/s41588-022-01097-wGenome-wide analyses identify hundreds of loci associated with kidney function. Integrated analyses of expression, methylation and single-cell open chromatin and expression data derived from human kidney samples prioritize genes and mechanisms underlying renal disease.


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Life Cell, Gene, Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Cuttlefish, Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.