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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Genetics Portal (Wikipedia)


gene : a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Glossary of Genetic Terms (National Human Genome Research Institute)


Gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. The RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism’s offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions. Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life.. — Wikipedia

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
Encyclopædia Britannica


DNA from the Beginning (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Outline of Genetics (Wikipedia)


Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. In contrast to genetics, which refers to the study of individual genes and their roles in inheritance, genomics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of genes, which direct the production of proteins with the assistance of enzymes and messenger molecules. In turn, proteins make up body structures such as organs and tissues as well as control chemical reactions and carry signals between cells. Genomics also involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes through uses of high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to assemble and analyze the function and structure of entire genomes.[Advances in genomics have triggered a revolution in discovery-based research and systems biology to facilitate understanding of even the most complex biological systems such as the brain. — Wikipedia

Genomics (Wolfram Alpha)
Encyclopædia Britannica


How to sequence the human genome (Mark J. Kiel, TED-Ed)



Mendel’s principles of inheritance (Science Learning Hub)


From DNA to Genomics (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



The American Society of Human Genetics
Genetics Society of America


Genome News Network, Nature Genetics,, NPR Archives




National Center for Biotechnology Information (National Institutes of Health)








OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Nature Genetics - Issue - science feeds Nature Genetics publishes the very highest quality research in genetics. It encompasses genetic and functional genomic studies on human traits and on other model organisms, including mouse, fly, nematode and yeast. Current emphasis is on the genetic basis for common and complex diseases and on the functional mechanism, architecture and evolution of gene networks, studied by experimental perturbation.

  • Unraveling tumor–immune heterogeneity in...
    by Alejandro Jiménez-Sánchez on June 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 01 June 2020; doi:10.1038/s41588-020-0630-5Immunogenomic analyses of advanced high-grade serous ovarian cancer samples before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy show that the tumor–immune microenvironment is intrinsically heterogeneous and that chemotherapy induces local immune activation.

  • Selective Mediator dependence of...
    by Martin G. Jaeger on June 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 01 June 2020; doi:10.1038/s41588-020-0635-0Analysis with alleles encoding pharmacologically degradable Mediator subunits shows that Mediator acts as a global coactivator that facilitates transcription globally but is acutely required for cell-type-specific gene regulatory circuits.

  • Publisher Correction: Mendelian randomization...
    by Jean Morrison on May 29, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 29 May 2020; doi:10.1038/s41588-020-0655-9Publisher Correction: Mendelian randomization accounting for correlated and uncorrelated pleiotropic effects using genome-wide summary statistics

  • Author Correction: Biallelic mutations in...
    by Andrea Cortese on May 26, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 26 May 2020; doi:10.1038/s41588-020-0649-7Author Correction: Biallelic mutations in SORD cause a common and potentially treatable hereditary neuropathy with implications for diabetes

  • Lymph node metastases develop through a wider...
    by Johannes G. Reiter on May 25, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 25 May 2020; doi:10.1038/s41588-020-0633-2Analysis of metastases using a mathematical framework and multi-region sampling data shows that lymph node metastases have higher levels of intratumor heterogeneity than distant metastases, and that these form via different evolutionary mechanisms. - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Researchers document the first use of maize in...
    on June 3, 2020 at 6:00 pm

    Almost any grocery store is filled with products made from corn, also known as maize, in every aisle: fresh corn, canned corn, corn cereal, taco shells, tortilla chips, popcorn, corn sweeteners in hundreds of products, corn fillers in pet food, in soaps and cosmetics, and the list goes on.

  • Atomic blueprint of 'molecular machine' reveals...
    on June 3, 2020 at 4:32 pm

    Van Andel Institute scientists have revealed the first known atomic structure of a "molecular machine" responsible for installing critical signaling proteins into cellular membranes.

  • Did life emerge in the 'primordial soup' via DNA...
    on June 3, 2020 at 4:21 pm

    Scientists have long debated which genetic information carrier—DNA or RNA—started life on Earth, but a new study suggests life could have begun with a bit of both. The research, led by scientists from the Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB), in Cambridge, shows for the first time how some of the building blocks of both DNA and RNA could have spontaneously formed and co-existed in the 'primordial soup' on Earth.

  • Discovery of proteins that regulate...
    on June 3, 2020 at 2:36 pm

    Korea Brain Research Institute (KBRI headed by Suh Pann-ghill) announced on June 2nd that a joint research team of KBRI (team led by Dr. Mun Ji-young), Seoul National University, and Pohang University of Science and Technology discovered proteins that engage in the formation of mitochondria associated membranes (MAMs), which are the cellular signaling hub.

  • New research explores horizontal gene transfer
    on June 3, 2020 at 1:52 pm

    In science, as in life, timing can be everything.