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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Genetics Portal (Wikipedia)


gene : a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Glossary of Genetic Terms (National Human Genome Research Institute)


Gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. The RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism’s offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions. Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life.. — Wikipedia

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
Encyclopædia Britannica


DNA from the Beginning (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Outline of Genetics (Wikipedia)


Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. In contrast to genetics, which refers to the study of individual genes and their roles in inheritance, genomics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of genes, which direct the production of proteins with the assistance of enzymes and messenger molecules. In turn, proteins make up body structures such as organs and tissues as well as control chemical reactions and carry signals between cells. Genomics also involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes through uses of high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to assemble and analyze the function and structure of entire genomes.[Advances in genomics have triggered a revolution in discovery-based research and systems biology to facilitate understanding of even the most complex biological systems such as the brain. — Wikipedia

Genomics (Wolfram Alpha)
Encyclopædia Britannica


How to sequence the human genome (Mark J. Kiel, TED-Ed)



Mendel’s principles of inheritance (Science Learning Hub)


From DNA to Genomics (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



The American Society of Human Genetics
Genetics Society of America


Genome News Network, Nature Genetics,, NPR Archives




National Center for Biotechnology Information (National Institutes of Health)








OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Nature Genetics - Issue - science feeds Nature Genetics publishes the very highest quality research in genetics. It encompasses genetic and functional genomic studies on human traits and on other model organisms, including mouse, fly, nematode and yeast. Current emphasis is on the genetic basis for common and complex diseases and on the functional mechanism, architecture and evolution of gene networks, studied by experimental perturbation.

  • Recent ultra-rare inherited variants implicate...
    by Amy B. Wilfert on July 26, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 26 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41588-021-00899-8Analysis of whole-genome sequence data from 3,474 families finds an excess of private, likely gene-disrupting variants in individuals with autism. These variants are under purifying selection and suggest candidate genes not previously associated with autism.

  • Publisher Correction: Germline de novo mutation...
    by Jakob M. Goldmann on July 23, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 23 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41588-021-00905-zPublisher Correction: Germline de novo mutation clusters arise during oocyte aging in genomic regions with high double-strand-break incidence

  • Simultaneous disruption of PRC2 and enhancer...
    by Gerard L. Brien on July 22, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 22 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41588-021-00897-wThe oncohistone H3.3-K27M decreases chromatin accessibility and H3K27ac at some active enhancers and downregulates nearby neurodevelopmental genes, while increasing transcriptional repression of a subset of PRC2-bound neurodevelopment genes.

  • Distinction between the effects of parental and...
    by Thorhildur Juliusdottir on July 19, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 19 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41588-021-00896-xGenome-wide association analyses using parental and offspring genotypes provide insights into fetal and maternal genetic effects on fetal growth. The results show that maternal and fetal genomes influence birth weight through distinct mechanisms.

  • Shedding light on the genetics of fetal growth
    by David M. Evans on July 19, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 19 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41588-021-00902-2Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants in maternal and fetal genomes associated with early-life growth traits but have been limited by the paucity of large-scale family-based cohorts that would enable the resolution of informative transmissions between parents and their offspring. A new study uses extensive pedigree data from the Icelandic population to identify genetic effects on birth […] - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • New 'atlas' charts how antibodies attack spike...
    on July 23, 2021 at 4:17 pm

    As the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 continues to evolve, immunologists and infectious diseases experts are eager to know whether new variants are resistant to the human antibodies that recognized initial versions of the virus. Vaccines against COVID-19, which were developed based on the chemistry and genetic code of this initial virus, may confer less protection if the antibodies they help people produce do not fend off new viral strains. Now, researchers from Brigham and Women's […]

  • Philippines approves GMO 'golden rice' for...
    on July 23, 2021 at 12:24 pm

    The Philippines became the world's first country Friday to approve the commercial production of genetically modified "golden rice" that experts hope will combat childhood blindness and save lives in the developing world.

  • Bees, mites and viruses: Assessing the risk to...
    on July 23, 2021 at 12:10 pm

    The world's bees face a major threat from deformed wing virus, a pathogen transmitted by the parasitic varroa mite. It is responsible for causing the death of millions of colonies in the US, Europe and Asia. The major losses started in the early 1990s with at least 30% of colonies dying each year.

  • Cattle losing adaptations to environmental...
    on July 22, 2021 at 8:46 pm

    As a fourth-generation cattle farmer, Jared Decker knows that cattle suffer from health and productivity issues when they are taken from one environment—which the herd has spent generations adapting to—to a place with a different climate, a different elevation or even different grass. But as a researcher at the University of Missouri, Decker also sees an opportunity to use science to solve this problem, both to improve the welfare of cattle and to plug a leak in a nearly $50 billion […]

  • Researchers develop tool to drastically speed up...
    on July 22, 2021 at 7:13 pm

    For much of human history, animals and plants were perceived to follow a different set of rules than the rest of the universe. In the 18th and 19th centuries, this culminated in a belief that living organisms were infused by a non-physical energy or "life force" that allowed them to perform remarkable transformations that couldn't be explained by conventional chemistry or physics alone.