Cosma Home > Communication > Knowledge > Realm > Terrestrial > Sphere > Life > Gene


Note: This is a 360° Video — press and hold to explore it!



Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Genetics Portal (Wikipedia)


gene : a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Glossary of Genetic Terms (National Human Genome Research Institute)


Gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. The RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism’s offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions. Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life.. — Wikipedia

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
Encyclopædia Britannica


DNA from the Beginning (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Outline of Genetics (Wikipedia)


Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. In contrast to genetics, which refers to the study of individual genes and their roles in inheritance, genomics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of genes, which direct the production of proteins with the assistance of enzymes and messenger molecules. In turn, proteins make up body structures such as organs and tissues as well as control chemical reactions and carry signals between cells. Genomics also involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes through uses of high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to assemble and analyze the function and structure of entire genomes.[Advances in genomics have triggered a revolution in discovery-based research and systems biology to facilitate understanding of even the most complex biological systems such as the brain. — Wikipedia

Genomics (Wolfram Alpha)
Encyclopædia Britannica


How to sequence the human genome (Mark J. Kiel, TED-Ed)



Mendel’s principles of inheritance (Science Learning Hub)


From DNA to Genomics (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



The American Society of Human Genetics
Genetics Society of America


Genome News Network, Nature Genetics,, NPR Archives




National Center for Biotechnology Information (National Institutes of Health)








OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Nature Genetics - Issue - science feeds Nature Genetics publishes the very highest quality research in genetics. It encompasses genetic and functional genomic studies on human traits and on other model organisms, including mouse, fly, nematode and yeast. Current emphasis is on the genetic basis for common and complex diseases and on the functional mechanism, architecture and evolution of gene networks, studied by experimental perturbation.

  • The dynamic, combinatorial cis-regulatory...
    by Daniel S. Kim on October 14, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 14 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41588-021-00947-3A deep-learning framework interprets multiomic data across epidermal differentiation, identifying cooperative DNA sequence rules that regulate gene modules. Massively parallel reporter assay analysis validates temporal dynamics and cis-regulatory logic.

  • Renal plasticity revealed through reversal of...
    by Ke Dong on October 11, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 11 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41588-021-00946-4Re-expression of Pkd genes in cystic kidneys results in rapid reversal of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease phenotypes in mice, revealing an unexpected capacity for renal plasticity under the control of Pkd gene function.

  • A high-resolution HLA reference panel capturing...
    by Yang Luo on October 5, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 05 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41588-021-00935-7A high-resolution reference panel based on whole-genome sequencing data enables accurate imputation of HLA alleles across diverse populations and fine-mapping of HLA association signals for HIV-1 host response.

  • Polygenic basis and biomedical consequences of...
    by Veryan Codd on October 5, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 05 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41588-021-00944-6Genome-wide association and Mendelian randomization analyses in the UK Biobank identify genetic variants associated with leukocyte telomere length and highlight putative causal links between telomere length and biomedical phenotypes.

  • BRD4 orchestrates genome folding to promote...
    by Ricardo Linares-Saldana on October 5, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 05 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41588-021-00934-8Depletion of BRD4 reduces the chromatin occupancy of NIPBL, resulting in aberrant genome folding. Loss of BRD4 impedes neural crest differentiation, which can be rescued by depletion of WAPL. - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Artificial intelligence suggests a new narrative...
    on October 8, 2021 at 4:17 pm

    Researchers from Estonia and Italy developed an innovative method by combining neural networks and statistics. Using this newly developed method, they refined the "Out of Africa" scenario. The researchers claimed that the African dynamics around the time of the Out of Africa expansion are more complex than previously thought.

  • With the increased number of Javan rhinos, what...
    on October 8, 2021 at 11:21 am

    It's incredible that the Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus) can still be found on the island of Java, one of the world's most densely populated islands. It's even more remarkable that the rhino population in Indonesia has tripled since the 1960s.

  • What makes us human? The answer may be found in...
    on October 8, 2021 at 11:21 am

    Our DNA is very similar to that of the chimpanzee, which in evolutionary terms is our closest living relative. Stem cell researchers at Lund University in Sweden have now found a previously overlooked part of our DNA, so-called non-coded DNA, that appears to contribute to a difference which, despite all our similarities, may explain why our brains work differently. The study is published in the journal Cell Stem Cell.

  • Scientists pinpoint evolutionary genes that allow...
    on October 8, 2021 at 11:20 am

    Scientists studying the evolution of birth in lizards, from egg-laying to live births, have pinpointed the evolutionary genes from which the species is evolving to 'build' a new mode of reproduction.

  • Team discovers invasive-native crayfish hybrids...
    on October 8, 2021 at 7:24 am

    In a study of crayfish in the Current River in southeastern Missouri, researchers discovered—almost by chance—that the virile crayfish, Faxonius virilis, was interbreeding with a native crayfish, potentially altering the native's genetics, life history and ecology. Reported in the journal Aquatic Invasions, the study highlights the difficulty of detecting some of the consequences of biological invasions, the researchers say.