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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Genetics Portal (Wikipedia)


gene : a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Glossary of Genetic Terms (National Human Genome Research Institute)


Gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. The RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism’s offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions. Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life.. — Wikipedia

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
Encyclopædia Britannica


DNA from the Beginning (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Outline of Genetics (Wikipedia)


Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. In contrast to genetics, which refers to the study of individual genes and their roles in inheritance, genomics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of genes, which direct the production of proteins with the assistance of enzymes and messenger molecules. In turn, proteins make up body structures such as organs and tissues as well as control chemical reactions and carry signals between cells. Genomics also involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes through uses of high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to assemble and analyze the function and structure of entire genomes.[Advances in genomics have triggered a revolution in discovery-based research and systems biology to facilitate understanding of even the most complex biological systems such as the brain. — Wikipedia

Genomics (Wolfram Alpha)
Encyclopædia Britannica


How to sequence the human genome (Mark J. Kiel, TED-Ed)



Mendel’s principles of inheritance (Science Learning Hub)


From DNA to Genomics (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



The American Society of Human Genetics
Genetics Society of America


Genome News Network, Nature Genetics,, NPR Archives




National Center for Biotechnology Information (National Institutes of Health)








OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Nature Genetics - Issue - science feeds Nature Genetics publishes the very highest quality research in genetics. It encompasses genetic and functional genomic studies on human traits and on other model organisms, including mouse, fly, nematode and yeast. Current emphasis is on the genetic basis for common and complex diseases and on the functional mechanism, architecture and evolution of gene networks, studied by experimental perturbation.

  • Publisher Correction: Selective effects of...
    by Brian Charlesworth on December 12, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Publisher Correction: Selective effects of heterozygous protein-truncating variantsPublisher Correction: Selective effects of heterozygous protein-truncating variants, Published online: 12 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41588-018-0325-3Publisher Correction: Selective effects of heterozygous protein-truncating variants […]

  • Publisher Correction: Cancer genetics, precision...
    by Clare Turnbull on December 12, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Publisher Correction: Cancer genetics, precision prevention and a call to actionPublisher Correction: Cancer genetics, precision prevention and a call to action, Published online: 12 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41588-018-0326-2Publisher Correction: Cancer genetics, precision prevention and a call to action […]

  • Immune genes are primed for robust transcription...
    by Stephanie Fanucchi on December 10, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Immune genes are primed for robust transcription by proximal long noncoding RNAs located in nuclear compartmentsImmune genes are primed for robust transcription by proximal long noncoding RNAs located in nuclear compartments, Published online: 10 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41588-018-0298-2This study shows that immune-related genes are primed for transcription by proximal lncRNAs. One such lncRNA, UMLILO, directs the WDR5–MLL1 complex to CXCL chemokine promoters, facilitating H3K4me3 […]

  • A map of constrained coding regions in the human...
    by James M. Havrilla on December 10, 2018 at 12:00 am

    A map of constrained coding regions in the human genomeA map of constrained coding regions in the human genome, Published online: 10 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41588-018-0294-6This study leverages coding variation observed among 123,136 individuals to create a detailed map of constrained coding regions in the human genome. This map may help identify critical regions within genes that, when mutated, cause embryonic lethality or severe developmental phenotypes. […]

  • Acquired HER2 mutations in...
    by Utthara Nayar on December 10, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Acquired HER2 mutations in ER+ metastatic breast cancer confer resistance to estrogen receptor–directed therapiesAcquired HER2 mutations in ER<sup>+</sup> metastatic breast cancer confer resistance to estrogen receptor–directed therapies, Published online: 10 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41588-018-0287-5Activating HER2 mutations are shown to confer resistance to ER-directed therapies in patients with ER+ metastatic breast cancer. Drug resistance caused by HER2 mutations […] - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Cardinals living in adjacent deserts are sharply...
    on December 12, 2018 at 8:33 pm

    New research suggests that populations of the Northern Cardinal —one of the most ubiquitous backyard birds in the United States— are undergoing speciation in two adjacent deserts. This study, which analyzed genetics and vocal behavior, gives clues about the early steps in bird speciation. The study is published in the journal Ecology and Evolution. […]

  • Pew study: Artificial intelligence will mostly...
    on December 12, 2018 at 5:43 pm

    The year is 2030, and artificial intelligence has changed practically everything. Is it a change for the better or has AI threatened what it means to be human, to be productive and to exercise free will? […]

  • Seeing small-molecule interactions inside cells
    on December 12, 2018 at 5:04 pm

    Like people in a large company, proteins in cells constantly interact with each other to perform various jobs. To develop new disease therapies, researchers are trying to control these interactions with small-molecule drugs that cause specific proteins to associate more or less with their "coworkers." Now, researchers reporting in ACS' journal Analytical Chemistry have developed a method to visualize whether drugs are regulating protein-protein interactions inside cells. […]

  • Researchers reverse engineer way pine trees...
    on December 12, 2018 at 3:31 pm

    Washington State University researchers have reverse engineered the way a pine tree produces a resin, which could serve as an environmentally friendly alternative to a range of fossil-fuel based products worth billions of dollars. […]

  • Lung lavage as new test method improves...
    on December 12, 2018 at 3:19 pm

    Diseases and tuberculosis in particular can pose considerable challenges for wildlife. In order to avoid epidemics within populations or to treat individual animals belonging to highly endangered species, fast and reliable tests are paramount. However present tuberculosis testing in rhinos relies on skin tests developed in the 1960s and designed for cattle bearing high risk of false diagnosis in rhinos. To improve diagnostic standards an international team of scientists lead by institutes in […]