Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Realm / Terrestrial / Life / Gene



DNA from the Beginning (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


gene : a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary


Glossary of Genetic Terms (National Human Genome Research Institute)


Gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. The RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism’s offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions. Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life.. — Wikipedia

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
Encyclopædia Britannica


Outline of Genetics (Wikipedia)


Genetics Portal (Wikipedia)



Note: This is a 360° Video — press and hold to explore it!




Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. In contrast to genetics, which refers to the study of individual genes and their roles in inheritance, genomics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of genes, which direct the production of proteins with the assistance of enzymes and messenger molecules. In turn, proteins make up body structures such as organs and tissues as well as control chemical reactions and carry signals between cells. Genomics also involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes through uses of high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to assemble and analyze the function and structure of entire genomes.[Advances in genomics have triggered a revolution in discovery-based research and systems biology to facilitate understanding of even the most complex biological systems such as the brain. — Wikipedia

Genomics (Wolfram Alpha)
Encyclopædia Britannica


How to sequence the human genome (Mark J. Kiel, TED-Ed)




Mendel’s principles of inheritance (Science Learning Hub)


From DNA to Genomics (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




The DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



The American Society of Human Genetics
Genetics Society of America


Genome News Network, Nature Genetics,, NPR Archives




National Center for Biotechnology Information (National Institutes of Health)









OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics


More News … - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Exploring fish flow from fisheries to supper
    on January 21, 2022 at 11:00 pm

    Recent breakthroughs in multiple fields of study now allow researchers to follow the entire life cycle of ocean fishes—from when and where they are spawned, to where they disperse and grow, to when and where they are captured, transported, and eaten.

  • Sex-typical behavior of male, female mice guided...
    on January 21, 2022 at 4:00 pm

    Male and female mouse brains differ in important ways, according to a new study led by Stanford Medicine investigators.

  • Changing the genetic 'recipe' for protovertebrates
    on January 21, 2022 at 3:13 pm

    When baking a cake, even a small change to your recipe can have a major impact on the final product. Recently, researchers in Japan have demonstrated that a small alteration in the gene expression "recipe" of the model organism Ciona intestinalis leads to a significant change in the development of sensory cells.

  • Dinosaur food and Hiroshima bomb survivors:...
    on January 21, 2022 at 2:33 pm

    Most of us are captivated by the thought of a "living fossil," which is any organism that appeared millions of years ago in the fossil record and survives today, relatively unchanged.

  • Size selective fishing can ruin chance of...
    on January 21, 2022 at 12:20 pm

    Fishermen have always competed to get the biggest fish. New research show that this has a negative, long term impact on the whole ecosystem.

Nature Genetics - Issue - science feeds Nature Genetics publishes the very highest quality research in genetics. It encompasses genetic and functional genomic studies on human traits and on other model organisms, including mouse, fly, nematode and yeast. Current emphasis is on the genetic basis for common and complex diseases and on the functional mechanism, architecture and evolution of gene networks, studied by experimental perturbation.

  • A chromosomal loop anchor mediates bacterial...
    by Gaurav Dugar on January 24, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 24 January 2022; doi:10.1038/s41588-021-00988-8Hi-C and live-imaging data show that nucleoprotein complexes containing the transcription factor Rok interact over long distances in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Rok-dependent interactions contribute to anchored chromosomal loop formation.

  • Author Correction: Mutations in PYCR1...
    by Bruno Reversade on January 21, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 21 January 2022; doi:10.1038/s41588-022-01013-2Author Correction: Mutations in PYCR1 cause cutis laxa with progeroid features

  • Multi-ancestry eQTL meta-analysis of human brain...
    by Biao Zeng on January 20, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 20 January 2022; doi:10.1038/s41588-021-00987-9A multi-ancestry expression quantitative trait locus meta-analysis of 3,983 RNA-seq samples from 2,119 donors using the multivariate multiple QTL (mmQTL) approach characterizes the genetics of gene expression in the human brain and identifies candidate causal variants for brain-related traits.

  • Walking the LINEs hidden in the dark matter of...
    by Marina Lusic on January 20, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 20 January 2022; doi:10.1038/s41588-021-01003-wThe function of transposable elements present in mammalian genomes remains an enigma. In this issue, Bodega, Abrignani and colleagues show that LINE1-containing transcripts are key regulators of T cell effector function and exhaustion.

  • LINE1 are spliced in non-canonical transcript...
    by Federica Marasca on January 17, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 17 January 2022; doi:10.1038/s41588-021-00989-7Non-canonical transcripts containing LINE1 transposable elements maintain naive CD4+ T cell quiescence and interfere with gene expression in cis. LINE1-containing transcripts are downregulated upon T cell activation.


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Life Cell, Gene, Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Cuttlefish, Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.