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gene : a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material — Webster

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Glossary of Genetic Terms (National Human Genome Research Institute)

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Gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. The RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism’s offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions. Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life.. — Wikipedia

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. In contrast to genetics, which refers to the study of individual genes and their roles in inheritance, genomics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of genes, which direct the production of proteins with the assistance of enzymes and messenger molecules. In turn, proteins make up body structures such as organs and tissues as well as control chemical reactions and carry signals between cells. Genomics also involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes through uses of high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to assemble and analyze the function and structure of entire genomes.[Advances in genomics have triggered a revolution in discovery-based research and systems biology to facilitate understanding of even the most complex biological systems such as the brain. — Wikipedia

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Nature Genetics - Issue - nature.com science feeds Nature Genetics publishes the very highest quality research in genetics. It encompasses genetic and functional genomic studies on human traits and on other model organisms, including mouse, fly, nematode and yeast. Current emphasis is on the genetic basis for common and complex diseases and on the functional mechanism, architecture and evolution of gene networks, studied by experimental perturbation.

  • Neuronal impact of patient-specific aberrant...
    by Erin Flaherty on November 29, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 29 November 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0539-zTranscriptome and functional studies in human iPSC-derived neurons suggest that the phenotypic effects of NRXN1 deletions can occur through reduction in wild-type NRXN1α isoform levels and expression of mutant NRXN1α isoforms.

  • A year in genetics
    on November 29, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 29 November 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0553-1As the year comes to a close and we start to look ahead to 2020, we thought that we would highlight some of our favorite Nature Genetics papers from 2019. This snapshot also captures some of the topics and themes in genetics that we are most excited to see develop in the near future.

  • Histone hyperacetylation disrupts core gene...
    by Berkley E. Gryder on November 29, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 29 November 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0534-4High levels of histone acetylation at rhabdomyosarcoma SEs, including SOX8, are detrimental to transcription via exclusion of RNA Pol II, but not BRD4, from phase condensates.

  • Mapping and predicting gene–enhancer...
    by Daniel J. Gaffney on November 29, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 29 November 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0540-6A new study presents a powerful experimental approach, CRISPRi-FlowFISH, for mapping regulatory interactions, and uses it to characterize thousands of putative enhancer–gene pairs. The results suggest that most current approaches for predicting enhancer–gene interactions perform poorly, but a simple mathematical model combining distance with enhancer activity shows promise.

  • Activity-by-contact model of enhancer–promoter...
    by Charles P. Fulco on November 29, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 29 November 2019; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0538-0Combining CRISPRi-FlowFISH to perturb enhancers with an activity-by-contact model to predict complex connections allows systematic mapping of enhancer–gene connections in a given cell type, on the basis of chromatin-state measurements.


Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Wing genes responsible for tiny treehopper's...
    on December 9, 2019 at 5:09 pm

    They sport some of the most impressive headgear in the insect world, yet they're no bigger than a kernel of corn.

  • CRISPR-resistant viruses build 'safe rooms' to...
    on December 9, 2019 at 4:00 pm

    Bacteria and the viruses that infect them are engaged in a molecular arms race as ancient as life itself. Evolution has equipped bacteria with an arsenal of immune enzymes, including CRISPR-Cas systems, that target and destroy viral DNA. But bacteria-killing viruses, also known as phages, have devised their own tools to help them outmaneuver even the most formidable of these bacterial defenses.

  • Finding the smallest genes could yield outsized...
    on December 9, 2019 at 4:00 pm

    While scientists know of about 25,000 genes that code for biologically important proteins, additional, smaller genes hiding in our DNA may be just as important. But these tiny lines of genetic code have proven tough to track down.

  • Scientists show evolutionary principle in...
    on December 9, 2019 at 4:00 pm

    In the waves offshore of Southern California, germ warfare occurs in a struggle as old as life itself.

  • The tips of a plant design its whole shape
    on December 9, 2019 at 3:15 pm

    Plants grow throughout their entire life. This is due to a small structure at the tip of the plant's shoots known as the meristem. This is the control center for the maintenance of stem cells—which can be converted into any cell type—and for the creation of plant organs such as side shoots and leaves. Although all plants have to carry out these basic tasks, the meristem is different in shape and size in differing species such as maize and thale cress. An international team of […]