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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Genetics Portal (Wikipedia)


gene : a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is located usually on a chromosome and that is the functional unit of inheritance controlling the transmission and expression of one or more traits by specifying the structure of a particular polypeptide and especially a protein or controlling the function of other genetic material — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Glossary of Genetic Terms (National Human Genome Research Institute)


Gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. The RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism’s offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions. Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life.. — Wikipedia

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
Encyclopædia Britannica


DNA from the Beginning (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Outline of Genetics (Wikipedia)


Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes. A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. In contrast to genetics, which refers to the study of individual genes and their roles in inheritance, genomics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of genes, which direct the production of proteins with the assistance of enzymes and messenger molecules. In turn, proteins make up body structures such as organs and tissues as well as control chemical reactions and carry signals between cells. Genomics also involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes through uses of high throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to assemble and analyze the function and structure of entire genomes.[Advances in genomics have triggered a revolution in discovery-based research and systems biology to facilitate understanding of even the most complex biological systems such as the brain. — Wikipedia

Genomics (Wolfram Alpha)
Encyclopædia Britannica


How to sequence the human genome (Mark J. Kiel, TED-Ed)



Mendel’s principles of inheritance (Science Learning Hub)


From DNA to Genomics (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



The DNA Learning Center (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)


Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



The American Society of Human Genetics
Genetics Society of America


Genome News Network, Nature Genetics,, NPR Archives




National Center for Biotechnology Information (National Institutes of Health)








OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Nature Genetics - Issue - science feeds Nature Genetics publishes the very highest quality research in genetics. It encompasses genetic and functional genomic studies on human traits and on other model organisms, including mouse, fly, nematode and yeast. Current emphasis is on the genetic basis for common and complex diseases and on the functional mechanism, architecture and evolution of gene networks, studied by experimental perturbation.

  • Allele-specific expression changes dynamically...
    by Maria Gutierrez-Arcelus on February 17, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 17 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41588-020-0579-4Deep mRNA sequencing at eight time points during memory CD4+ T cell activation identifies widespread dynamic allele-specific expression events that are enriched in HLA and other autoimmune disease loci.

  • A slipped-CAG DNA-binding small molecule induces...
    by Masayuki Nakamori on February 14, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 14 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41588-019-0575-8Naphthyridine-azaquinolone specifically binds slipped-CAG DNA intermediates, induces contractions of expanded repeats and reduces mutant HTT protein aggregates in cell and animal models of Huntington’s disease.

  • A small molecule kicks repeat expansion into...
    by Michael D. Flower on February 14, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 14 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41588-020-0577-6Huntington’s disease is a severe progressive neurological disorder caused by a CAG-repeat expansion in the HTT gene. A small molecule shows therapeutic potential by inducing contraction of these expanded CAG repeats in cell and mouse models of the disease.

  • Author Correction: Transcription phenotypes of...
    by Michelle Chan-Seng-Yue on February 12, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 12 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41588-020-0588-3Author Correction: Transcription phenotypes of pancreatic cancer are driven by genomic events during tumor evolution

  • Publisher Correction: Comprehensive molecular...
    by Yuan Yuan on February 11, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Genetics, Published online: 11 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41588-020-0587-4Publisher Correction: Comprehensive molecular characterization of mitochondrial genomes in human cancers - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • The strategy of cells to deal with the...
    on February 21, 2020 at 4:56 pm

    A new article by the Oxidative Stress and Cell Cycle research group at UPF identifies the main strategy of cells to deal with the accumulation of misfolded proteins. In the paper, published today in the journal Cell Reports, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe yeast model has been used to investigate the protein quality control process. The study was led by Elena Hidalgo, and postdoctoral researchers Margarita Cabrera and Susanna Boronat are its first authors.

  • Frozen bird turns out to be 46,000-year-old...
    on February 21, 2020 at 4:18 pm

    Scientists have recovered DNA from a well-preserved horned lark found in Siberian permafrost. The results can contribute to explaining the evolution of sub species, as well as how the mammoth steppe transformed into tundra, forest and steppe biomes at the end of the last Ice Age.

  • Genetic study uncovers clues to explain how...
    on February 21, 2020 at 3:10 pm

    A team of researchers at Stanford University working with others from the Stowers Institute for Medical Research, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and The University of British Columbia has uncovered some clues regarding how the African killifish is able to pause the aging process during a diapause. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes a genetic analysis they conducted with the fish and what they learned from it. Marc Van Gilst with the University of […]

  • How do we protect our unique biodiversity from...
    on February 21, 2020 at 2:29 pm

    This summer's devastating Australian fires and their continuing impact on biodiversity serve as a stark reminder of the challenges in nature conservation as we head into an increasingly volatile future driven by climate change.

  • Newly found bacteria fights climate change, soil...
    on February 21, 2020 at 8:36 am

    Cornell researchers have found a new species of soil bacteria—which they named in memory of the Cornell professor who first discovered it—that is particularly adept at breaking down organic matter, including the cancer-causing chemicals that are released when coal, gas, oil and refuse are burned.