Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human
These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
ice : a sheet or stretch of ice — Webster
Ice is water frozen into a solid state. Depending on the presence of impurities such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a more or less opaque bluish-white color.
In the Solar System, ice is abundant and occurs naturally from as close to the Sun as Mercury to as far away as the Oort cloud objects. Beyond the Solar System, it occurs as interstellar ice. It is abundant on Earth’s surface – particularly in the polar regions and above the snow line – and, as a common form of precipitation and deposition, plays a key role in Earth’s water cycle and climate. It falls as snowflakes and hail or occurs as frost, icicles or — Wikipedia
Cryosphere consists of those portions of Earth’s surface where water is in solid form, including sea ice, lake ice, river ice, snow cover, glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, and frozen ground (which includes permafrost). Thus, there is a wide overlap with the hydrosphere. The cryosphere is an integral part of the global climate system with important linkages and feedbacks generated through its influence on surface energy and moisture fluxes, clouds, precipitation, hydrology, atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Through these feedback processes, the cryosphere plays a significant role in the global climate and in climate model response to global changes. The term deglaciation describes the retreat of cryospheric features. — Wikipedia
Glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses, seracs, and other distinguishing features. They also abrade rock and debris from their substrate to create landforms such as cirques and moraines. Glaciers form only on land and are distinct from the much thinner sea ice and lake ice that form on the surface of bodies of water.
On Earth, 99% of glacial ice is contained within vast ice sheets (also known as “continental glaciers”) in the polar regions, but glaciers may be found in mountain ranges on every continent including Oceania’s high-latitude oceanic islands such as New Zealand and Papua New Guinea. Between 35°N and 35°S, glaciers occur only in the Himalayas, Andes, Rocky Mountains, a few high mountains in East Africa, Mexico, New Guinea and on Zard Kuh in Iran. Glaciers cover about 10 percent of Earth’s land surface. Continental glaciers cover nearly 13 million km2 (5 million sq mi) or about 98 percent of Antarctica’s 13.2 million km2 (5.1 million sq mi), with an average thickness of 2,100 m (7,000 ft). Greenland and Patagonia also have huge expanses of continental glaciers.
Glacial ice is the largest reservoir of fresh water on Earth. Many glaciers from temperate, alpine and seasonal polar climates store water as ice during the colder seasons and release it later in the form of meltwater as warmer summer temperatures cause the glacier to melt, creating a water source that is especially important for plants, animals and human uses when other sources may be scant. Within high-altitude and Antarctic environments, the seasonal temperature difference is often not sufficient to release meltwater. — Wikipedia
TC - recent papers Combined list of the recent articles of the journal The Cryosphere and the recent discussion forum The Cryosphere Discussions
Blowing snow in East Antarctica: comparison of...
on February 21, 2019 at 4:12 am
Blowing snow in East Antarctica: comparison of ground-based and space-borne retrievals Alexandra Gossart, Stephen P. Palm, Niels Souverijns, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, Stef Lhermitte, and Nicole P. M. van Lipzig The Cryosphere Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/tc-2019-25,2019Manuscript under review for TC (discussion: open, 0 comments) Blowing snow measurements are scarce, both in time and space over the […]
Kinematic response of ice-rise divides to changes...
on February 21, 2019 at 4:12 am
Kinematic response of ice-rise divides to changes in oceanic and atmospheric forcing Clemens Schannwell, Reinhard Drews, Todd A. Ehlers, Olaf Eisen, Christoph Mayer, and Fabien Gillet-Chaulet The Cryosphere Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/tc-2019-26,2019Manuscript under review for TC (discussion: open, 0 comments) Ice rises are important ice sheet features that archive the ice-sheet's history in their internal structure. Here […]
Changes of the tropical glaciers throughout Peru...
on February 21, 2019 at 4:12 am
Changes of the tropical glaciers throughout Peru between 2000 and 2016 – Mass balance and area fluctuations Thorsten Seehaus, Philipp Malz, Christian Sommer, Stefan Lippl, Alejo Cochachin, and Matthias Braun The Cryosphere Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/tc-2018-289,2019Manuscript under review for TC (discussion: open, 0 comments) The glaciers in Peru are strongly affected by climate change and have shown significant ice […]
Assessing snow cover changes in the Kola...
on February 20, 2019 at 4:12 am
Assessing snow cover changes in the Kola Peninsula, Arctic Russia, using a synthesis of MODIS snow products and station observations Rebecca M. Vignols, Gareth J. Marshall, W. Gareth Rees, Yulia Zaika, Tony Phillips, and Ilona Blinova The Cryosphere Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/tc-2019-9,2019Manuscript under review for TC (discussion: open, 0 comments) We examine recent changes in snow cover (2000–2016) in the western […]
Sensitivity of calving glaciers to ice-ocean...
on February 20, 2019 at 4:12 am
Sensitivity of calving glaciers to ice-ocean interactions under climate change: New insights from a 3D full-Stokes model Joe Todd, Poul Christoffersen, Thomas Zwinger, Peter Råback, and Douglas I. Benn The Cryosphere Discuss., https//doi.org/10.5194/tc-2019-20,2019Manuscript under review for TC (discussion: open, 0 comments) The Greenland Ice Sheet loses 30–60 % of its ice through iceberg calving. Calving […]
Arctic Sea Ice News and Analysis Sea ice data updated daily with one-day lag
Polar vortex breakdown
by Agnieszka Gautier on February 5, 2019 at 6:30 pm
In January 2019, a pattern of high-altitude winds in the Arctic, better known as the polar vortex, weakened, sweeping frigid air over North America and Europe in the second half of the month. Arctic sea ice extent remained well below … Continue reading &rarr […]
New year lows once again
by Agnieszka Gautier on January 7, 2019 at 7:20 pm
As 2018 came to a close, Arctic sea ice extent was tracking at its third lowest level in the satellite record, while sea ice in the Antarctic remained at historic lows. Slightly faster growth in the first few days of … Continue reading &rarr […]
A record-low start to the new year in Antarctica
by Michon Scott on January 3, 2019 at 5:24 pm
As of January 1, 2019, Antarctic sea ice extent had experienced several days of record lows. These record-low extents, which followed a period of rapid ice loss in December, exemplify the high seasonal and year-to-year variability in Antarctic sea ice. … Continue reading &rarr […]
Autumn freeze-up amps up
by Agnieszka Gautier on December 4, 2018 at 8:05 pm
The Arctic freeze-up season is well underway, with ice extent increasing faster than average for most regions in November. Exceptions were in the Chukchi and Barents Seas, where the ice has been slow to form. November snow cover over North … Continue reading &rarr […]
Unusual warmth continues
by Agnieszka Gautier on November 6, 2018 at 3:30 pm
Over the Pacific side of the Arctic, a pattern of unusual warmth noted in last month’s post continued. While sea ice extent in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas remains below average, extent remains especially low on the Atlantic side of … Continue reading &rarr […]
Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.
Uncovering the future of Greenland's ice sheet
on January 23, 2019 at 1:49 pm
Joerg Schaefer and Gisela Winckler, geochemists and paleoclimatologists at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, were awarded funding from the Center for Climate and Life to examine the vulnerability of Greenland's massive ice sheet. […]
Warmer winters mean more rain on the Svalbard...
on December 13, 2018 at 2:50 pm
It's often said that the Arctic is one of the places most vulnerable to climate change. Temperatures are climbing faster there than anywhere else on the planet. Increasing winter temperatures mean increasing amounts of rain instead of snow, and scientists are still working to understand exactly what this means on the ground. […]
New climate model to be built from the ground up
on December 13, 2018 at 12:50 pm
Facing the certainty of a changing climate coupled with the uncertainty that remains in predictions of how it will change, scientists and engineers from across the country are teaming up to build a new type of climate model that is designed to provide more precise and actionable predictions. […]
ICESat-2 reveals profile of ice sheets, sea ice,...
on December 11, 2018 at 4:16 pm
Less than three months into its mission, NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite-2, or ICESat-2, is already exceeding scientists' expectations. The satellite is measuring the height of sea ice to within an inch, tracing the terrain of previously unmapped Antarctic valleys, surveying remote ice sheets, and peering through forest canopies and shallow coastal waters. […]
Slow flow for glaciers thinning in Asia
on December 11, 2018 at 12:31 pm
Providing water for drinking, irrigation and power, glaciers in the world's highest mountains are a lifeline for more than a billion people. As climate change takes a grip and glaciers lose mass, one might think that, lubricated by more meltwater, they flow more quickly. However, satellite images from over the last 30 years show that it isn't as simple as that. […]