Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Realm / Terrestrial / Sphere / Ice


NASA Goddard (YouTube Channel)
NASA Goddard (official Website)


ice : a sheet or stretch of ice — Merriam-Webster   See also   OneLook


Ice is water frozen into a solid state. Depending on the presence of impurities such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a more or less opaque bluish-white color. — Wikipedia

Cryosphere is the frozen water part of the Earth system. There are places on Earth that are so cold that water is frozen solid. These areas of snow or ice, which are subject to temperatures below 0°C 32°F for at least part of the year, compose the cryosphere. The term “cryosphere” comes from the Greek word, “krios,” which means cold. Ice and snow on land are one part of the cryosphere. This includes the largest parts of the cryosphere, the continental ice sheets found in Greenland and Antarctica, as well as ice caps, glaciers, and areas of snow and permafrost. When continental ice flows out from land and to the sea surface, we get shelf ice. The other part of the cryosphere is ice that is found in water. This includes frozen parts of the ocean, such as waters surrounding Antarctica and the Arctic. It also includes frozen rivers and lakes, which mainly occur in polar areas.– What is the Cryosphere? (National Ocean Service, NOAA)

What is the Cryosphere? (National Snow and Ice Data Center)



Talks about Ice (TED: Ideas Worth Spreading)
Articles about Ice (Big Think)




Glaciology is the scientific study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice. Glaciology is an interdisciplinary Earth science that integrates geophysics, geology, physical geography, geomorphology, climatology, meteorology, hydrology, biology, and ecology. — Wikipedia

Glaciology (Encyclopædia Britannica)




DDC: 551.31 Glaciology (Library Thing)
Subject: Glaciology (Library Thing)

Subject: Glaciology (Open Library)

LCC: GB 2401 Glaciology (UPenn Online Books)
Subject: Glaciology (UPenn Online Books)

LCC: GB 2401 Glaciology (Library of Congress)
Subject: Glaciology (Library of Congress)

Subject: Glaciology (WorldCat)




Glaciers (Science Trek)

MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



The Cryosphere Journal (European Geosciences Union)
Cryosphere (JSTOR)
Cryosphere (EurekaAlert, American Association for the Advancement of Science)
Cryosphere (Science News)
Snow and Avalanches (Science Daily)


Polar Studies (National Academies Press)


National Snow and Ice Data Center
Cyrosphere (National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)
Snow and Ice (Earth Observatory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration)
Office of Polar Programs (National Science Foundation)


Cryosphere (



Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm

Terrestrial   (Earth)

Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism Virus
Prokaryote Archaea, Bacteria
Eukaryote Protist, Fungi, Algae, Protozoa (Tardigrade)
Plant Flower, Tree
Cnidaria Coral, Jellyfish
Cephalopod Cuttlefish, Octopus
Crustacean Lobster, Shrimp
Arachnid Spider, Scorpion
Insect Ant, Bee, Beetle, Butterfly
Fish Seahorse, Ray, Shark
Amphibian Frog, Salamander
Reptile Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird Penguin, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Platypus, Bat, Mouse, Rabbit, Goat, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Panda, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Cetacean Whale, Dolphin
Primate Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.