Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid
These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
Jupiter : the largest of the planets and fifth in order from the sun — Webster
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a giant planet with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two and a half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter is a gas giant, along with Saturn, with the other two giant planets, Uranus and Neptune, being ice giants. Jupiter was known to astronomers of ancient times. The Romans named it after their god Jupiter.
Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium, though helium comprises only about a tenth of the number of molecules. It may also have a rocky core of heavier elements, but like the other giant planets, Jupiter lacks a well-defined solid surface. Because of its rapid rotation, the planet’s shape is that of an oblate spheroid (it has a slight but noticeable bulge around the equator). The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries. A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the 17th century when it was first seen by telescope. Surrounding Jupiter is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. Jupiter has at least 67 moons, including the four large Galilean moons discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Ganymede, the largest of these, has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury. — Wikipedia
In this animation the viewer is taken low over Jupiter’s north pole to illustrate the 3-D aspects of the region’s central cyclone and the eight cyclones that encircle it.
The movie utilizes imagery derived from data collected by the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) instrument aboard NASA’s Juno mission during its fourth pass over the massive planet. Infrared cameras are used to sense the temperature of Jupiter’s atmosphere and provide insight into how the powerful cyclones at Jupiter’s poles work. In the animation, the yellow areas are warmer (or deeper into Jupiter’s atmosphere) and the dark areas are colder (or higher up in Jupiter’s atmosphere). In this picture the highest “brightness temperature” is around 260K (about -13°C) and the lowest around 190K (about -83°C). The “brightness temperature” is a measurement of the radiance, at 5 µm, traveling upward from the top of the atmosphere towards Juno, expressed in units of temperature.
Note: This is a 360° Video — press and hold to explore it!
Jupiter News -- ScienceDaily Jupiter Research. From Hubble's latest pictures of Jupiter's new red spot to astronomy articles on Jupiter's moons, learn all the Jupiter facts here.
A Goldilocks zone for planet size
on September 11, 2019 at 6:27 pm
Researchers have described a new, lower size limit for planets to maintain surface liquid water for long periods of time, extending the so-called Habitable or 'Goldilocks'' Zone for small, low-gravity planets. This research expands the search area for life in the universe and sheds light on the important process of atmospheric evolution on small planets.
Hints of a volcanically active exo-moon
on August 29, 2019 at 3:54 pm
A rocky extrasolar moon (exomoon) with bubbling lava may orbit a planet 550 light-years away from us. This is suggested by an international team of researchers on the basis of theoretical predictions matching observations. The 'exo-Io' would appear to be an extreme version of Jupiter's moon Io.
The dark side of extrasolar planets share...
on August 27, 2019 at 3:11 pm
A new study by astronomers has found that the temperature on the nightsides of different hot Jupiters -- planets that are similar size in to Jupiter, but orbit other stars -- is surprisingly uniform, suggesting the dark sides of these massive gaseous planets have clouds made of minerals and rocks.
Mission to Jupiter's icy moon confirmed
on August 22, 2019 at 6:32 pm
An icy ocean world in our solar system that could tell us more about the potential for life on other worlds is coming into focus with confirmation of the Europa Clipper mission's next phase.
Storms on Jupiter are disturbing the planet's...
on August 22, 2019 at 5:04 pm
Coordinated observations of Jupiter in early 2017 by six ground-based telescopes and Hubble allowed astronomers to study the evolution of bright plumes and connect them with cloud movements deep in the planet. They show that these plumes originate 80 kilometers below the surface cloud deck and rise up quickly into the stratosphere, where supercooled ammonia freezes to form ammonia ice clouds. The plumes create disturbances in the belts and even change their color.
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Dust from a giant asteroid crash caused an...
on September 18, 2019 at 6:00 pm
About 466 million years ago, long before the age of the dinosaurs, the Earth froze. The seas began to ice over at the Earth's poles, and the new range of temperatures around the planet set the stage for a boom of new species evolving. The cause of this ice age was a mystery, until now: a new study in Science Advances argues that the ice age was caused by global cooling, triggered by extra dust in the atmosphere from a giant asteroid collision in outer space.
Could we intercept interstellar comet C/2019 Q4...
on September 18, 2019 at 12:53 pm
When 'Oumuamua passed through our solar system two years ago, it set off a flurry of excitement in the astronomical community. Here was the first-ever interstellar object that be observed by human trackers, and the mysteries surrounding its true nature and composition led to some pretty interesting theories. There were even some proposals for a rapid mission that would be able to rendezvous with it.
Stony-iron meteor caused August impact flash at...
on September 17, 2019 at 11:45 am
Analysis of a bright flash in Jupiter's atmosphere observed by an amateur astronomer in August 2019 has revealed that the likely cause was a small asteroid with a density typical of stony-iron meteors. The impact is estimated to have released energy equivalent to an explosion of 240 kilotons of TNT—around half the energy released in the 2013 Chelyabinsk event at Earth. The results have been presented today at the EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2019 in Geneva.
How astronomers detected water on a potentially...
on September 12, 2019 at 12:36 pm
With more than 4,000 exoplanets—planets orbiting stars other than our sun—discovered so far, it may seem like we are on the cusp of finding out whether we are alone in the universe. Sadly though, we don't know much about these planets—in most cases just their mass and their radius.
Research redefines lower limit for planet size...
on September 11, 2019 at 12:20 pm
In The Little Prince, the classic novella by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, the titular prince lives on a house-sized asteroid so small that he can watch the sunset any time of day by moving his chair a few steps.