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Juno Mission (NASA)
Mission Juno (Southwest Research Institute)



Physical Realm
Universe Astronomical Instrument
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Solar System Exploration: Jupiter (NASA)
Jupiter Portal (Wikipedia)


Jupiter : the largest of the planets and fifth in order from the sun — Webster

Oxford, OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a giant planet with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two and a half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter is a gas giant, along with Saturn, with the other two giant planets, Uranus and Neptune, being ice giants. Jupiter was known to astronomers of ancient times. The Romans named it after their god Jupiter.

Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium, though helium comprises only about a tenth of the number of molecules. It may also have a rocky core of heavier elements, but like the other giant planets, Jupiter lacks a well-defined solid surface. Because of its rapid rotation, the planet’s shape is that of an oblate spheroid (it has a slight but noticeable bulge around the equator). The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries. A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the 17th century when it was first seen by telescope. Surrounding Jupiter is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. Jupiter has at least 67 moons, including the four large Galilean moons discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Ganymede, the largest of these, has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury. — Wikipedia

Jupiter (Eric Weisstein’s World of Astronomy, Wolfram Research)
David Darling’s Internet Encyclopedia of Science
Encyclopædia Britannica





NASA Investigates Invisible Magnetic Bubbles in Outer Solar System (NASA Goddard)
Juno shows Jupiter’s magnetic field is very different from Earth’s (Bob Yirka, Phys.org)

In this animation the viewer is taken low over Jupiter’s north pole to illustrate the 3-D aspects of the region’s central cyclone and the eight cyclones that encircle it.

The movie utilizes imagery derived from data collected by the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) instrument aboard NASA’s Juno mission during its fourth pass over the massive planet. Infrared cameras are used to sense the temperature of Jupiter’s atmosphere and provide insight into how the powerful cyclones at Jupiter’s poles work. In the animation, the yellow areas are warmer (or deeper into Jupiter’s atmosphere) and the dark areas are colder (or higher up in Jupiter’s atmosphere). In this picture the highest “brightness temperature” is around 260K (about -13°C) and the lowest around 190K (about -83°C). The “brightness temperature” is a measurement of the radiance, at 5 µm, traveling upward from the top of the atmosphere towards Juno, expressed in units of temperature.

NASA’s Juno Mission Provides Infrared Tour of Jupiter’s North Pole (NASA)

How a NASA scientist looks in the depths of the Great Red Spot to find water on Jupiter (Lonnie Shekhtman, NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center)



Babylonian astronomers used geometry to track Jupiter (Philip Ball, Nature)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



All About Jupiter (Space Place, NASA)
Jupiter (Cosmos4Kids)


Crash Course Astronomy (YouTube)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Science Daily, Phys.org




Jupiter (NASA)




Gaze Upon Jupiter’s Enormity in this Amazing Fly-By Video (Harley Locke, Wired)
NASA gives Jupiter the Van Gogh treatment with magnificent new image (Jackson Ryan, CNET)


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OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form



Jupiter News -- ScienceDaily Jupiter Research. From Hubble's latest pictures of Jupiter's new red spot to astronomy articles on Jupiter's moons, learn all the Jupiter facts here.

  • Hubble captures crisp new portrait of Jupiter's...
    on September 17, 2020 at 10:04 pm

    Hubble's sharp view is giving researchers an updated weather report on the monster planet's turbulent atmosphere, including a remarkable new storm brewing, and a cousin of the famous Great Red Spot region gearing up to change color -- again.

  • A warm Jupiter orbiting a cool star
    on September 14, 2020 at 3:41 pm

    A planet observed crossing in front of, or transiting, a low-mass star has been determined to be about the size of Jupiter.

  • Jupiter's moons could be warming each other
    on September 10, 2020 at 7:02 pm

    The gravitational push and pull by Jupiter's moons could account for more warming than the gas giant Jupiter alone.

  • Meteorites show transport of material in early...
    on September 8, 2020 at 5:11 pm

    New studies of a rare type of meteorite show that material from close to the Sun reached the outer solar system even as the planet Jupiter cleared a gap in the disk of dust and gas from which the planets formed. The results add to an emerging understanding of how our Solar System formed and how planets form around other stars.

  • The most sensitive instrument in the search for...
    on August 19, 2020 at 4:07 pm

    Researchers have developed the highly sensitive ORIGIN instrument, which can provide proof of the smallest amounts of traces of life, for future space missions. The instrument may be used on missions to the ice moons of Europa (Jupiter) and Enceladus (Saturn), for example.

Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Water on exoplanet cloud tops could be found with...
    on September 22, 2020 at 1:40 pm

    University of Warwick astronomers have shown that water vapor can potentially be detected in the atmospheres of exoplanets by peering literally over the tops of their impenetrable clouds.

  • The four most promising worlds for alien life in...
    on September 18, 2020 at 1:40 pm

    The Earth's biosphere contains all the known ingredients necessary for life as we know it. Broadly speaking these are: liquid water, at least one source of energy, and an inventory of biologically useful elements and molecules.

  • How planetary nebulae get their shapes
    on September 18, 2020 at 1:29 pm

    About 7.5 billion years from now, our sun will have converted most of its hydrogen fuel into helium through fusion, and then burned most of that helium into carbon and oxygen. It will have swollen to a size large enough to fill the solar system nearly to the current orbit of Mars, and lost almost half of its mass in winds. At this stage the very hot remnant star will ionize the ejected material, lighting it up and causing it to glow as a planetary nebula (so-called not because it is a planet […]

  • Hubble captures crisp new portrait of Jupiter's...
    on September 17, 2020 at 6:35 pm

    This latest image of Jupiter, taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope on Aug. 25, 2020, was captured when the planet was 406 million miles from Earth. Hubble's sharp view is giving researchers an updated weather report on the monster planet's turbulent atmosphere, including a remarkable new storm brewing, and a cousin of the famous Great Red Spot region gearing up to change color—again.

  • Astronomers capture stellar winds in...
    on September 17, 2020 at 6:00 pm

    Astronomers have presented an explanation for the shapes of planetary nebulae. The discovery is based on a set of observations of stellar winds around aging stars. Contrary to common consensus, the team found that stellar winds are not spherical, but have a shape similar to that of planetary nebulae. The team concludes that interaction with an accompanying star or exoplanet shapes both the stellar winds and planetary nebulae. The findings were published in Science.