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Juno Mission (NASA)
Mission Juno (Southwest Research Institute)



Physical Realm
Universe Astronomical Instrument
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Solar System Exploration: Jupiter (NASA)
Jupiter Portal (Wikipedia)


Jupiter : the largest of the planets and fifth in order from the sun — Webster

Oxford, OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a giant planet with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two and a half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter is a gas giant, along with Saturn, with the other two giant planets, Uranus and Neptune, being ice giants. Jupiter was known to astronomers of ancient times. The Romans named it after their god Jupiter.

Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium, though helium comprises only about a tenth of the number of molecules. It may also have a rocky core of heavier elements, but like the other giant planets, Jupiter lacks a well-defined solid surface. Because of its rapid rotation, the planet’s shape is that of an oblate spheroid (it has a slight but noticeable bulge around the equator). The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries. A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the 17th century when it was first seen by telescope. Surrounding Jupiter is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. Jupiter has at least 67 moons, including the four large Galilean moons discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Ganymede, the largest of these, has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury. — Wikipedia

Jupiter (Eric Weisstein’s World of Astronomy, Wolfram Research)
David Darling’s Internet Encyclopedia of Science
Encyclopædia Britannica





NASA Investigates Invisible Magnetic Bubbles in Outer Solar System (NASA Goddard)
Juno shows Jupiter’s magnetic field is very different from Earth’s (Bob Yirka, Phys.org)

In this animation the viewer is taken low over Jupiter’s north pole to illustrate the 3-D aspects of the region’s central cyclone and the eight cyclones that encircle it.

The movie utilizes imagery derived from data collected by the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) instrument aboard NASA’s Juno mission during its fourth pass over the massive planet. Infrared cameras are used to sense the temperature of Jupiter’s atmosphere and provide insight into how the powerful cyclones at Jupiter’s poles work. In the animation, the yellow areas are warmer (or deeper into Jupiter’s atmosphere) and the dark areas are colder (or higher up in Jupiter’s atmosphere). In this picture the highest “brightness temperature” is around 260K (about -13°C) and the lowest around 190K (about -83°C). The “brightness temperature” is a measurement of the radiance, at 5 µm, traveling upward from the top of the atmosphere towards Juno, expressed in units of temperature.

NASA’s Juno Mission Provides Infrared Tour of Jupiter’s North Pole (NASA)

How a NASA scientist looks in the depths of the Great Red Spot to find water on Jupiter (Lonnie Shekhtman, NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center)



Babylonian astronomers used geometry to track Jupiter (Philip Ball, Nature)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



All About Jupiter (Space Place, NASA)
Jupiter (Cosmos4Kids)


Crash Course Astronomy (YouTube)

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Science Daily, Phys.org




Jupiter (NASA)




Gaze Upon Jupiter’s Enormity in this Amazing Fly-By Video (Harley Locke, Wired)
NASA gives Jupiter the Van Gogh treatment with magnificent new image (Jackson Ryan, CNET)


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OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form



Jupiter News -- ScienceDaily Jupiter Research. From Hubble's latest pictures of Jupiter's new red spot to astronomy articles on Jupiter's moons, learn all the Jupiter facts here.

  • Gas 'waterfalls' reveal infant planets around...
    on October 16, 2019 at 5:12 pm

    For the first time, astronomers have witnessed 3D motions of gas in a planet-forming disk. At three locations in the disk around a young star called HD 163296, gas is flowing like a waterfall into gaps that are most likely caused by planets in formation. These gas flows have long been predicted and would directly influence the chemical composition of planet atmospheres.

  • Analysis of Galileo's Jupiter entry probe reveals...
    on October 15, 2019 at 3:06 pm

    The entry probe of the Galileo mission to Jupiter entered the planet's atmosphere in 1995 in fiery fashion, generating enough heat to cause plasma reactions on its surface. The data relayed about the burning of its heat shield differed from the effects predicted in fluid dynamics models, and new work examines what might have caused such a discrepancy. Researchers now report their findings from new fluid radiative dynamics models.

  • Saturn surpasses Jupiter after the discovery of...
    on October 7, 2019 at 4:32 pm

    Move over Jupiter; Saturn is the new moon king. A team has found 20 new moons orbiting Saturn. This brings the ringed planet's total number of moons to 82, surpassing Jupiter, which has 79.

  • Many gas giant exoplanets waiting to be discovered
    on September 27, 2019 at 5:51 pm

    There is an as-yet-unseen population of Jupiter-like planets orbiting nearby Sun-like stars, awaiting discovery by future missions like NASA's WFIRST space telescope, according to new models of gas giant planet formation.

  • A Goldilocks zone for planet size
    on September 11, 2019 at 6:27 pm

    Researchers have described a new, lower size limit for planets to maintain surface liquid water for long periods of time, extending the so-called Habitable or 'Goldilocks'' Zone for small, low-gravity planets. This research expands the search area for life in the universe and sheds light on the important process of atmospheric evolution on small planets.

Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • NASA scientists confirm water vapor on Europa
    on November 19, 2019 at 2:33 pm

    Forty years ago, a Voyager spacecraft snapped the first closeup images of Europa, one of Jupiter's 79 moons. These revealed brownish cracks slicing the moon's icy surface, which give Europa the look of a veiny eyeball. Missions to the outer solar system in the decades since have amassed enough additional information about Europa to make it a high-priority target of investigation in NASA's search for life.

  • How large can a planet be?
    on November 19, 2019 at 2:13 pm

    Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system. In terms of mass, Jupiter dwarfs the other planets. If you were to gather all the other planets together into a single mass, Jupiter would still be 2.5 times more massive. It is hard to understate just how huge Jupiter is. But as we've discovered thousands of exoplanets in recent decades, it raises an interesting question about how Jupiter compares. Put another way, just how large can a planet be? The answer is more subtle than you might think.

  • Subaru telescope detects the mid-infrared...
    on November 19, 2019 at 1:48 pm

    Using the Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer (COMICS) on the Subaru Telescope, astronomers have detected an unidentified infrared emission band from comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner (hereafter, comet 21P/G-Z) in addition to the thermal emissions from silicate and carbon grains. These unidentified infrared emissions are likely due to complex organic molecules, both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, contaminated by N- or O-atoms. Considering the properties of the dust and organic molecules, […]

  • Exoplanet axis study boosts hopes of complex...
    on November 19, 2019 at 1:00 pm

    "They're out there," goes a saying about extraterrestrials. It would seem more likely to be true in light of a new study on planetary axis tilts.

  • How LISA pathfinder detected dozens of 'comet...
    on November 18, 2019 at 9:50 pm

    LISA Pathfinder, a mission led by ESA (the European Space Agency) that included NASA contributions, successfully demonstrated technologies needed to build a future space-based gravitational wave observatory, a tool for detecting ripples in space-time produced by, among other things, merging black holes. A team of NASA scientists leveraged LISA Pathfinder's record-setting sensitivity for a different purpose much closer to home—mapping microscopic dust shed by comets and asteroids.