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land : the surface of the earth and all its natural resources — Webster

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lithosphere : the outer part of the solid earth composed of rock essentially like that exposed at the surface, consisting of the crust and outermost layer of the mantle, and usually considered to be about 60 miles (100 kilometers) in thickness — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary


Lithosphere is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater. The outermost shell of a rocky planet, the crust, is defined on the basis of its chemistry and mineralogy. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

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Geology is an science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science.

Geology describes the structure of the Earth beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earth’s past climates. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Geology Resources (Library of Congress)
Geology (Wolfram Alpha)




Project Mohole (National Academies of Sciences)
Project Mohole (Wikipedia)




Earth’s Structure: About the Earth (Geography4Kids)
Geology for Kids


OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Science Daily,, NPR Archives





More News … - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Mapping heat flow beneath Greenland highlights...
    on May 13, 2022 at 3:07 pm

    In our understanding of global geothermal heat flow, Greenland and the surrounding ocean floor has effectively been a blind spot. Now, scientist have dug up all available and somewhat unavailable heat flow data, creating common ground for working with Greenland geothermal heat as an alternative energy source, a factor in melting of the ice cap and much more.

  • Seismic study reveals key reason why Patagonia is...
    on February 28, 2022 at 7:46 am

    The icefields that stretch for hundreds of miles atop the Andes mountain range in Chile and Argentina are melting at some of the fastest rates on the planet. The ground that was beneath this ice is also shifting and rising as these glaciers disappear. Geologists have discovered a link between recent ice mass loss, rapid rock uplift and a gap between tectonic plates that underlie Patagonia.

  • How does a major subduction zone get started? It...
    on February 16, 2022 at 12:55 pm

    One longstanding enigma in geology is how one tectonic plate can break Earth's rock-hard shell and begin diving under another in the process known as subduction.

  • Clues to Pluto's history lie in its faults
    on February 1, 2022 at 2:14 pm

    The world first glimpsed Pluto up close when NASA's New Horizons spacecraft whizzed by it in July 2015. One of the most exciting discoveries scientists made based on New Horizons data was that Pluto, despite orbiting at more than 5 billion kilometers from the sun, may contain a liquid water ocean under its water ice surface.

  • Tug of sun, moon could be driving plate motions...
    on January 21, 2022 at 9:57 pm

    A study led by geophysicist Anne M. Hofmeister in Arts & Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis proposes that imbalanced forces and torques in the Earth-moon-sun system drive circulation of the whole mantle.

Geology News -- ScienceDaily Geology news. From the discovery of new properties of deep earth and finds in fossil magma chambers to fossil fuels and more.

  • Earth's core: Unexpected flow behavior in liquid...
    on May 20, 2022 at 2:13 pm

    Some metals are in liquid form, the prime example being mercury. But there are also enormous quantities of liquid metal in the Earth's core, where temperatures are so high that part of the iron is molten and undergoes complex flows. A team has now simulated a similar process in the laboratory and made a surprising discovery: Under certain circumstances, the flow of liquid metal is far more turbulent than expected -- and this has a significant impact on heat transport.

  • Environment scientists close in on 'golden spike'...
    on May 19, 2022 at 6:09 pm

    Researchers searching for a 'golden spike' to formally define humanity's current geological period -- and acknowledge human impact on our planet -- have announced a major step in their analysis.

  • Puzzling features deep in Earth's interior...
    on May 19, 2022 at 12:11 pm

    New research examines an unusual pocket of rock at the boundary layer with Earth's core, some three thousand kilometers beneath the surface.

  • For wetland plants, sea-level rise stamps out...
    on May 18, 2022 at 6:07 pm

    Wetlands across the globe are in danger of drowning from rising seas. But for decades, scientists held out hope that another aspect of climate change -- rising carbon dioxide (CO2) -- could trigger extra plant growth, enabling coastal wetlands to grow fast enough to outpace sea-level rise. That helpful side effect is disappearing, scientists have discovered.

  • Major infrared breakthrough could lead to solar...
    on May 17, 2022 at 3:22 pm

    Using technology similar to night-vision goggles, researchers have developed a device that can generate electricity from thermal radiation.



Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Life Cell, Gene, Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Cuttlefish, Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.