Land

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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism
Plant Flower, Tree
Animal
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human

Resources

These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…

General

Dictionary

land : the surface of the earth and all its natural resources — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

lithosphere : the outer part of the solid earth composed of rock essentially like that exposed at the surface, consisting of the crust and outermost layer of the mantle, and usually considered to be about 60 miles (100 kilometers) in thickness — Webster

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Encyclopedia

Lithosphere is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater. The outermost shell of a rocky planet, the crust, is defined on the basis of its chemistry and mineralogy. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

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http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=Lithosphere (WolframAlpha)

Introduction


Science

Geology is an science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science.

Geology describes the structure of the Earth beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earth’s past climates. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Geology Resources (Library of Congress)
Geology (Wolfram Alpha)

History




Project Mohole (National Academies of Sciences)
Project Mohole (Wikipedia)

Participation

Education




Earth’s Structure: About the Earth (Geography4Kids)
Geology for Kids


Course

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

News

Science Daily, Phys.org, NPR Archives

Expression


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returntotop

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Geology News -- ScienceDaily Geology news. From the discovery of new properties of deep earth and finds in fossil magma chambers to fossil fuels and more.

  • Studying largest impact crater in the US, buried...
    on August 13, 2019 at 8:05 pm

    About 35 million years ago, an asteroid hit the ocean off the East Coast of North America. Its impact formed a 25-mile diameter crater that now lies buried beneath the Chesapeake Bay. A team of researchers has obtained drilling samples from the Ocean Drilling Project site 1073 and dated them with the ''uranium-thorium-helium technique'' for the first time.

  • Near-Earth asteroid 2006 QV89 not a threat for...
    on August 13, 2019 at 2:19 pm

    Observations of the near-Earth asteroid 2006 QV89 made on August 11, 2019 with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) have ruled out any potential future impact threat to the Earth by this asteroid for the next century.

  • Jurassic world of volcanoes found in central...
    on August 13, 2019 at 2:18 pm

    Subsurface explorers have uncovered a previously undescribed 'Jurassic World' of around 100 ancient volcanoes buried deep within the Cooper-Eromanga Basins of central Australia.

  • A new timeline of Earth's cataclysmic past
    on August 12, 2019 at 5:08 pm

    Recent research shows that our planet may have been pummeled with asteroids long before some scientists had previously thought.

  • Ten years of icy data show the flow of heat from...
    on August 8, 2019 at 10:57 pm

    In addition to 10 years of data on the flow of heat in the Arctic ocean seafloor, researchers have published an analysis of that data using modern seismic data.


Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Ultra-small microbes exhibit extreme survival...
    on May 28, 2019 at 1:30 pm

    The first study of ultra-small bacteria living in the extreme environment of Ethiopia's Dallol hot springs shows that life can thrive in conditions similar to those thought to have been found on the young planet Mars. An international team of researchers lead by Dr. Felipe Gómez from Astrobiology Center in Spain (CAB (CSIC-INTA)) has found a strain of the Nanohaloarchaeles Order bacteria embedded in samples taken from a salt chimney deposited by supersaturated water at temperatures of 89 […]

  • Rewriting the textbook on fossil fuels: New...
    on April 22, 2019 at 2:46 pm

    Experts say scientific understanding of deep hydrocarbons has been transformed, with new insights gained into the sources of energy that could have catalyzed and nurtured Earth's earliest forms of life.

  • Permian volcanism contributed to atmospheric...
    on April 2, 2019 at 5:03 pm

    The Choiyoi magmatic Province, with an estimated volume of ~1.3 million square kilometers, represents a voluminous Permian subduction-related volcanic episode that has thus far been described only from South America. In their new paper for Lithosphere, Demian Nelson and John Cottle investigated Permian volcaniclastic rocks from central Antarctica to determine the potential magmatic source of volcanic detritus in southwestern Gondwana.

  • New model shows southern and central Rocky...
    on March 20, 2019 at 1:55 pm

    A new model built in part by a University of Alberta geophysicist contradicts a long-held idea about how the southern and central central Rocky Mountains were formed.

  • New study quantifies deep reaction behind...
    on January 17, 2019 at 10:30 am

    Whether they are found in an engagement ring or an antique necklace, diamonds usually generate quick reactions from their recipients. Now, new research shows deep inside the Earth, fast reactions between subducted tectonic plates and the mantle at specific depths may be responsible for generating the most valuable diamonds.