Land

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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism
Plant Flower, Tree
Animal
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human

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These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…

General

Dictionary

land : the surface of the earth and all its natural resources — Webster

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lithosphere : the outer part of the solid earth composed of rock essentially like that exposed at the surface, consisting of the crust and outermost layer of the mantle, and usually considered to be about 60 miles (100 kilometers) in thickness — Webster

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Encyclopedia

Lithosphere is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater. The outermost shell of a rocky planet, the crust, is defined on the basis of its chemistry and mineralogy. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

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http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=Lithosphere (WolframAlpha)

Introduction


Science

Geology is an science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science.

Geology describes the structure of the Earth beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earth’s past climates. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Geology Resources (Library of Congress)
Geology (Wolfram Alpha)

History




Project Mohole (National Academies of Sciences)
Project Mohole (Wikipedia)

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Earth’s Structure: About the Earth (Geography4Kids)
Geology for Kids


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OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

News

Science Daily, Phys.org, NPR Archives

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Geology News -- ScienceDaily Geology news. From the discovery of new properties of deep earth and finds in fossil magma chambers to fossil fuels and more.

  • Secret of explosive volcanism unlocked
    on November 15, 2019 at 3:11 pm

    When will the next eruption take place? Examination of samples from Indonesia's Mount Merapi show that the explosivity of stratovolcanoes rises when mineral-rich gases seal the pores and microcracks in the uppermost layers of stone. These findings result in new possibilities for the prediction of an eruption.

  • Global climate change concerns for Africa's Lake...
    on November 14, 2019 at 4:58 pm

    Researchers have developed a model to project lake levels in world's largest tropical lake.

  • Fault-slip: AI to simulate tectonic plate...
    on November 13, 2019 at 10:03 pm

    Scientists have transformed the UNICORN computing code into an AI-like algorithm to more quickly simulate tectonic plate deformation due to a phenomenon called a ''fault slip,'' a sudden shift that occurs at the plate boundary. The team ran UNICORN at 416 petaflops and gained a 75-fold speedup from a previous state-of-the-art solver by fully leveraging the world's most powerful and smartest supercomputer, the IBM AC922 Summit.

  • Individual climate models may not provide the...
    on November 12, 2019 at 9:49 pm

    Equilibrium climate sensitivity -- how sensitive the Earth's climate is to changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide -- may be underestimated in individual climate models, according to a team of climate scientists.

  • Ancient rain gauge: New evidence links...
    on November 12, 2019 at 5:26 pm

    Changes in groundwater millions of years ago created alternating layers of vivid yellow and brown in the mineral sphalerite, and those variations align with movements in Earth's orbit that impacted climate in the deep past, scientists found.


Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • What happens under the Yellowstone volcano?
    on October 17, 2019 at 5:12 pm

    Yellowstone National Park in the USA, with its geysers and hot springs, is a major attraction for tourists. However, especially in times of little news, the media often focuses on the Yellowstone supervolcano, which last erupted about 630,000 years ago. Inevitably then, the question of the underlying geological structures will be posed.

  • New map of the seabed reveal more deposits than...
    on September 18, 2019 at 1:20 pm

    There are 30 percent more sediments on the seabed than previously expected, reveal an update of the map GlobSed. This equates to up to two kilometers of extra land mass over today's land area.

  • Mathematical modelling sheds new light on how...
    on September 13, 2019 at 1:45 pm

    Life is unique to our planet. Or is it?

  • What drives plate tectonics?
    on September 3, 2019 at 4:57 pm

    Plate tectonics was founded in the late 1960s, and it concerns the distribution and movements of plates, the uppermost layer of the Earth. Plate movements not only control the distributions of earthquakes, volcanoes, and mineral resources in the crust, but also affect the ocean and atmospheric circulations above the crust. Therefore, plate tectonics has been regarded as the fundamental unifying paradigm for understanding the history of Earth.

  • Ultra-small microbes exhibit extreme survival...
    on May 28, 2019 at 2:30 pm

    The first study of ultra-small bacteria living in the extreme environment of Ethiopia's Dallol hot springs shows that life can thrive in conditions similar to those thought to have been found on the young planet Mars. An international team of researchers lead by Dr. Felipe Gómez from Astrobiology Center in Spain (CAB (CSIC-INTA)) has found a strain of the Nanohaloarchaeles Order bacteria embedded in samples taken from a salt chimney deposited by supersaturated water at temperatures of 89 […]