Land

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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism
Plant Flower, Tree
Animal
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human

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These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…

General

Dictionary

land : the surface of the earth and all its natural resources — Webster

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lithosphere : the outer part of the solid earth composed of rock essentially like that exposed at the surface, consisting of the crust and outermost layer of the mantle, and usually considered to be about 60 miles (100 kilometers) in thickness — Webster

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Encyclopedia

Lithosphere is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater. The outermost shell of a rocky planet, the crust, is defined on the basis of its chemistry and mineralogy. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

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http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=Lithosphere (WolframAlpha)

Introduction


Science

Geology is an science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science.

Geology describes the structure of the Earth beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earth’s past climates. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Geology Resources (Library of Congress)
Geology (Wolfram Alpha)

History




Project Mohole (National Academies of Sciences)
Project Mohole (Wikipedia)

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Earth’s Structure: About the Earth (Geography4Kids)
Geology for Kids


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OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

News

Science Daily, Phys.org, NPR Archives

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Geology News -- ScienceDaily Geology news. From the discovery of new properties of deep earth and finds in fossil magma chambers to fossil fuels and more.

  • Undersea earthquakes shake up climate science
    on September 18, 2020 at 10:50 pm

    Sound generated by seismic events on the seabed can be used to determine the temperature of Earth's warming oceans.

  • Formation of the Alps: Detaching and uplifting,...
    on September 17, 2020 at 2:54 pm

    Researchers have used a computer model to test a new hypothesis about the formation of the Alps while simulating seismic activity in Switzerland. This will help improve current earthquake risk models.

  • Modern theory from ancient impacts
    on September 16, 2020 at 1:42 pm

    It is generally accepted that the inner region of the early solar system was subject to an intense period of meteoric bombardment referred to as the late heavy bombardment. However, researchers have found evidence that suggests this period occurred slightly earlier than thought and was less intense but also more prolonged. Such details about this period could impact theories about the early Earth and the dawn of life.

  • NASA monitors carbon monoxide from California...
    on September 15, 2020 at 1:29 am

    The observations from Earth orbit show high-altitude concentrations of the gas that are more than 10 times typical amounts.

  • Volcanic ash may have a bigger impact on the...
    on September 11, 2020 at 3:08 pm

    Volcanic ash shuts down air traffic and can sicken people. But a new study suggests that it may also be more important for Earth's climate than scientists once thought.


Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Detaching and uplifting, not bulldozing
    on September 17, 2020 at 3:29 pm

    For a long time, geoscientists have assumed that the Alps were formed when the Adriatic plate from the south collided with the Eurasian plate in the north. According to the textbooks, the Adriatic plate behaved like a bulldozer, thrusting rock material up in front of it into piles that formed the mountains. Supposedly, their weight subsequently pushed the underlying continental plate downwards, resulting in the formation of a sedimentary basin in the north adjacent to the mountains—the Swiss […]

  • New insights into Earth's carbon cycle
    on September 10, 2020 at 12:36 pm

    In a new study led by a University of Alberta Ph.D. student, researchers used diamonds as breadcrumbs to provide insight into some of Earth's deepest geologic mechanisms.

  • Plate tectonics research rewrites history of...
    on July 8, 2020 at 12:27 pm

    Curtin University-led research has found new evidence to suggest that the Earth's first continents were not formed by subduction in a modern-like plate tectonics environment as previously thought, and instead may have been created by an entirely different process.

  • Scientists decipher the role of carbon and the...
    on June 3, 2020 at 3:00 pm

    University of New Mexico (UNM) Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Dr. Tobias Fischer and Syracuse University research fellow (now University of Auckland Lecturer), Dr. James Muirhead led an international team of interdisciplinary researchers to investigate the role of carbon in the break-up of continents.

  • New discovery could highlight areas where...
    on June 2, 2020 at 3:19 pm

    Scientists from Cardiff University have discovered specific conditions that occur along the ocean floor where two tectonic plates are more likely to slowly creep past one another as opposed to drastically slipping and creating catastrophic earthquakes.