Land

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General

Dictionary

land : the surface of the earth and all its natural resources — Webster

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lithosphere : the outer part of the solid earth composed of rock essentially like that exposed at the surface, consisting of the crust and outermost layer of the mantle, and usually considered to be about 60 miles (100 kilometers) in thickness — Webster

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Encyclopedia

Lithosphere is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater. The outermost shell of a rocky planet, the crust, is defined on the basis of its chemistry and mineralogy. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

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http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=Lithosphere (WolframAlpha)

Introduction


Science

Geology is an science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science.

Geology describes the structure of the Earth beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earth’s past climates. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Geology Resources (Library of Congress)
Geology (Wolfram Alpha)

History




Project Mohole (National Academies of Sciences)
Project Mohole (Wikipedia)

Participation

Education




Earth’s Structure: About the Earth (Geography4Kids)
Geology for Kids


Course

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

News

Science Daily, Phys.org, NPR Archives

Expression


Future


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Geology News -- ScienceDaily Geology news. From the discovery of new properties of deep earth and finds in fossil magma chambers to fossil fuels and more.

  • Earth’s inner core is solid, 'J waves'...
    on October 19, 2018 at 5:51 pm

    A new study could help us understand how our planet was formed. Scientists report that their research shows that Earth's inner core is solid -- a finding made possible by a new method for detecting shear waves, or 'J waves' in the inner core. […]

  • New understanding of Mekong River incision
    on October 16, 2018 at 7:42 pm

    An international team of earth scientists has linked the establishment of the Mekong River to a period of major intensification of the Asian monsoon during the middle Miocene, about 17 million years ago, findings that supplant the assumption that the river incised in response to tectonic causes. […]

  • Scientists find missing piece in glacier melt...
    on October 15, 2018 at 2:05 pm

    A new method for observing water within ice has revealed stored meltwater that may explain the complex flow behavior of some Greenland glaciers, an important component for predicting sea-level rise in a changing climate. […]

  • Volcano researcher learns how Earth builds...
    on October 10, 2018 at 6:17 pm

    After studying layers of pumice, measuring the amount of crystals in the samples and using thermodynamic models, the team determined that magma moved closer to the surface with each successive eruption. […]

  • GeoSEA array records sliding of Mount Etna's...
    on October 10, 2018 at 6:17 pm

    The southeast flank of Mount Etna slowly slides towards the sea. A team of scientists showed for the first time movement of Etna's underwater flank using a new, sound-based geodetic monitoring network. A sudden and rapid descent of the entire slope could lead to a tsunami with disastrous effects for the entire region. […]


Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Would an eruption in Melbourne really match...
    on August 28, 2018 at 1:54 pm

    Spectacular images of recent volcanic eruptions in Hawaii are a little disheartening – especially given news reports suggesting there is a sleeping volcano under Melbourne that could awaken and erupt at any moment. […]

  • Upper Cretaceous trench deposits of the...
    on August 28, 2018 at 1:13 pm

    The Jiachala Formation, which was fed largely from the Gangdese arc, has long been considered to comprise syn-collisional foreland-basin deposits based on the reported occurrence of Paleocene-early Eocene dinoflagellate cysts and pollen assemblages. Because magmatic activity in the Gangdese arc continued through the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene, this scenario is incompatible with U-Pb ages of detrital zircons invariably older than the latest Cretaceous. […]

  • NASA scientists reveal details of icy Greenland's...
    on August 1, 2018 at 4:41 pm

    By mapping the heat escaping from below the Greenland Ice Sheet, a NASA scientist has sharpened our understanding of the dynamics that dominate and shape terrestrial planets. […]

  • Sound waves reveal diamond cache deep in Earth's...
    on July 16, 2018 at 11:40 am

    There may be more than a quadrillion tons of diamond hidden in the Earth's interior, according to a new study from MIT and other universities. But the new results are unlikely to set off a diamond rush. The scientists estimate the precious minerals are buried more than 100 miles below the surface, far deeper than any drilling expedition has ever reached. […]

  • Geoscientists offer new evidence for how the...
    on June 26, 2018 at 5:06 pm

    The formation mechanism of the Adirondack Mountains in upstate New York has long posed a geologic mystery, say seismology researchers at the nearby University of Massachusetts Amherst. A few have been proposed, but until recently tools for evaluating them were not in place, say postdoctoral fellow Xiaotao Yang and assistant professor Haiying Gao. […]