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land : the surface of the earth and all its natural resources — Webster

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lithosphere : the outer part of the solid earth composed of rock essentially like that exposed at the surface, consisting of the crust and outermost layer of the mantle, and usually considered to be about 60 miles (100 kilometers) in thickness — Webster

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Lithosphere is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater. The outermost shell of a rocky planet, the crust, is defined on the basis of its chemistry and mineralogy. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

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Geology is an science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science.

Geology describes the structure of the Earth beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earth’s past climates. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

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Project Mohole (National Academies of Sciences)
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Earth’s Structure: About the Earth (Geography4Kids)
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More News … - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

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    on November 10, 2021 at 4:29 pm

    A new category of planet, known as eggshell planets, which orbit distant stars, have ultra-thin crusts too thin to sustain tectonics and will be hostile to life, according to a new international study involving the University of St Andrews.

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    on November 1, 2021 at 2:10 pm

    With an area of 2.5 million square kilometers and an altitude that can exceed 4,500 meters, the Tibetan Plateau is the largest and highest plateau on Earth. Although its formation over the past 65 million years is broadly attributed to a collision between the tectonic plates of India and Asia, the details of its genesis and ongoing evolution remain hotly debated.

  • Geophysicist sprints to monitor quake aftershocks...
    on August 27, 2021 at 5:10 pm

    When an 8.2-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chignik, Alaska, on July 29, geophysicist Geoffrey Abers did the logical—if not simple—thing.

  • Measuring the sound velocity of Majorite under...
    on August 25, 2021 at 12:00 pm

    Researchers at Ehime University have reported the sound velocity of MgSiO3 Majorite garnet up to the pressure of 18 gigapascals and temperature up to 2,000 Kelvins. Their results lead to understanding of the mineral composition of the Earth's mantle transition zone (MTZ), which has not been fully elucidated yet. This study suggests that a mechanical mixture of slab and mantle rocks, rather than equilibrated rocks, is more likely to explain seismological observations throughout the MTZ.

  • New evidence of geologically-recent Venusian...
    on August 10, 2021 at 6:29 pm

    New data analysis techniques allow evidence of recent volcanism to be found in old Magellan spacecraft data. It is unclear if this activity is occurring today, or if it occurred within tens of million years, but geologically speaking, either case is recent. This adds to the growing body of evidence that volcanoes on Venus didn't go extinct as long ago as many had thought. This work was conducted by Planetary Science Institute (PSI) researchers Megan Russell and Catherine Johnson.

Geology News -- ScienceDaily Geology news. From the discovery of new properties of deep earth and finds in fossil magma chambers to fossil fuels and more.

  • Exploring carbon storage deep beneath the seabed
    on December 2, 2021 at 7:15 pm

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    on December 1, 2021 at 4:19 pm

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  • Strong winds power electric fields in the upper...
    on November 29, 2021 at 10:27 pm

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  • Sun is likely an unaccounted source of the...
    on November 29, 2021 at 5:27 pm

    Curtin University researchers have helped unravel the enduring mystery of the origins of the Earth's water, finding the Sun to be a surprising likely source.



Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Life Cell, Gene, Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Cuttlefish, Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.