Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Realm / Terrestrial / Sphere / Land


AGIeducation (American Geosciences Institute, YouTube Channel)
The Big Ideas and Supporting Concepts of Earth Science (American Geosciences Institute, Official Website)
Big Idea 4 Activities (American Geosciences Institute)
Earth Science Literacy Initiative (American Geosciences Institute)
Educational Outreach (American Geosciences Institute)


land : the surface of the earth and all its natural resources — Merriam-Webster   See also   OneLook


Lithosphere is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater. The outermost shell of a rocky planet, the crust, is defined on the basis of its chemistry and mineralogy. — Wikipedia

Lithosphere (Encyclopædia Britannica)

Earth’s Lithosphere (Exploring the Planets, National Air and Space Museum)




Geology is a branch of science that describes the structure of the Earth on and beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics and the Earth’s past climates. — Wikipedia

Geology (John W. Harbaugh, Encyclopædia Britannica)

Geology (Eric Weisstein’s World of Chemistry, Wolfram Research)
Earth Surface (Eric Weisstein’s World of Astronomy, Wolfram Research)
Earth Interior (Eric Weisstein’s World of Astronomy, Wolfram Research)

Geology (Wolfram Alpha)




DDC: 551.1 Geology (Library Thing)
DDC: 551.2 Lithology (Library Thing)
Subject: Geology (Library Thing)

Subject: Geology (Open Library)
Subject: Lithology (Open Library)

LCC: QE Geology (UPenn Online Books)
Subject: Geology (UPenn Online Books)
Subject: Lithology (UPenn Online Books)

LCC: QE Geology (Library of Congress)
Subject: Geology (Library of Congress)
Subject: Lithology (Library of Congress)

Subject: Geology (WorldCat)
Subject: Lithology (WorldCat)




Geology (United States Geological Survey)
Voyage into Planet Earth (National Science Foundation)

MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Geology (MIT OpenCourseWare)
Geology (edX)



CareerOneStop, YouTube Channel (U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)
CareerOneStop, Official Website (U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)

Geoscientists (CareerOneStop, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)


American Geological Institute
Geological Society of America


Geology (Geological Society of America)
Journal of Geology (University of Chicago Press)
Solid Earth Sciences (Nature)
Geology (EurekaAlert, AAAS)
Geology (Science News)
Geology (Science Daily)

Geology Resources (JSTOR)
Geology Journals and Books (JSTOR)


Geology and Landforms (National Academies Press)


Geology (United States Geological Survey)
Earth Surface and Interior (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)


Geology (



Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm

Terrestrial   (Earth)

Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism Virus
Prokaryote Archaea, Bacteria
Eukaryote Protist, Fungi, Algae, Protozoa (Tardigrade)
Plant Flower, Tree
Cnidaria Coral, Jellyfish
Cephalopod Cuttlefish, Octopus
Crustacean Lobster, Shrimp
Arachnid Spider, Scorpion
Insect Ant, Bee, Beetle, Butterfly
Fish Seahorse, Ray, Shark
Amphibian Frog, Salamander
Reptile Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird Penguin, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Platypus, Bat, Mouse, Rabbit, Goat, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Panda, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Cetacean Whale, Dolphin
Primate Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.