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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



land : the surface of the earth and all its natural resources — Webster

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lithosphere : the outer part of the solid earth composed of rock essentially like that exposed at the surface, consisting of the crust and outermost layer of the mantle, and usually considered to be about 60 miles (100 kilometers) in thickness — Webster

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Lithosphere is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater. The outermost shell of a rocky planet, the crust, is defined on the basis of its chemistry and mineralogy. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

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Geology is an science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science.

Geology describes the structure of the Earth beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earth’s past climates. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Geology Resources (Library of Congress)
Geology (Wolfram Alpha)


Project Mohole (National Academies of Sciences)
Project Mohole (Wikipedia)



Earth’s Structure: About the Earth (Geography4Kids)
Geology for Kids


OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Science Daily,, NPR Archives





Geology News -- ScienceDaily Geology news. From the discovery of new properties of deep earth and finds in fossil magma chambers to fossil fuels and more.

  • Lava lamp tectonics: Research suggests giant...
    on August 4, 2021 at 4:35 pm

    Sand and mud subducted off the coast of California around 75 million years ago returned to the Earth's crust by rising up through the mantle as enormous diapirs, like blobs in a lava lamp, new research shows.

  • Early molten moon’s deep secrets
    on August 3, 2021 at 9:52 pm

    Recently, a pair of NASA studies identified the most likely locations to find pieces of the Moon's mantle on the surface, providing a map for future lunar sample return missions such as those under NASA's Artemis program. If collected and analyzed, these fragments from deep within the Moon can provide a better understanding of how the Moon, the Earth, and many other solar system worlds evolved.

  • New approach opens window into life below the...
    on August 3, 2021 at 9:52 pm

    Scientists studied microorganisms from an underwater mountain in the Atlantic Ocean, pioneering a method that could open new windows into our understanding of how life survives deep under the sea -- or in space.

  • Thawing permafrost releases greenhouse gas from...
    on August 2, 2021 at 8:07 pm

    Geologists compared the spatial and temporal distribution of methane concentrations in the air of northern Siberia with geological maps. The result: the methane concentrations in the air after last year's heat wave indicate that increased gas emissions came from limestone formations.

  • Oxygen spike coincided with ancient global...
    on August 2, 2021 at 3:50 pm

    Researchers have found that the extinction at the end of the Permian period coincided with a sudden spike and subsequent drop in the ocean's oxygen content. - latest science and technology news stories internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Can East Asian monsoon enhancement induce global...
    on August 3, 2021 at 3:52 pm

    The study of the orogenic effects of the Tibetan Plateau uplift on global climate during the Cenozoic has focused almost exclusively on the India-Asia collision zone, the Himalayas. The strong erosion in the Himalayas was assumed to be a primary driver of Cenozoic atmospheric CO2 decline and global cooling predominantly through accelerating silicate chemical weathering in the India-Asia collision zone or through effective burial of organic carbon in the nearby Bengal Fan in South Asia. 

  • Subduction initiation may depend on a tectonic...
    on June 22, 2021 at 3:09 pm

    Subduction zones are cornerstone components of plate tectonics, with one plate sliding beneath another back into Earth's mantle. But the very beginning of this process—subduction initiation—remains somewhat mysterious to scientists because most of the geological record of subduction is buried and overwritten by the extreme forces at play. The only way to understand how subduction zones get started is to look at young examples on Earth today.

  • 'Pack ice' tectonics reveal Venus' geological...
    on June 21, 2021 at 7:00 pm

    A new analysis of Venus' surface shows evidence of tectonic motion in the form of crustal blocks that have jostled against each other like broken chunks of pack ice. The movement of these blocks could indicate that Venus is still geologically active and give scientists insight into both exoplanet tectonics and the earliest tectonic activity on Earth.

  • Geological riddle solved: 'Roof of the World' has...
    on May 26, 2021 at 2:47 pm

    There has long been controversy about whether the world's highest region, Tibet, has grown taller during the recent geological past. New results from the University of Copenhagen indicate that the 'Roof of the World' appears to have risen by up to 600 meters and the answer was found in underwater lava. The knowledge sheds new light on Earth's evolution.

  • Synchrotron X-ray experiment reveals a small...
    on May 24, 2021 at 1:53 pm

    In a study published in the Nature Research journal Communications Materials, QUT researchers Dr. Christoph Schrank, Dr. Oliver Gaede, from the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, and Master of Science graduate Katherine Gioseffi teamed up with the Australian Synchrotron and colleagues from the University of New South Wales and the University of Warsaw to study how gypsum dehydrates much faster under pressure.