Land

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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism
Plant Flower, Tree
Animal
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human

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These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…

General

Dictionary

land : the surface of the earth and all its natural resources — Webster

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lithosphere : the outer part of the solid earth composed of rock essentially like that exposed at the surface, consisting of the crust and outermost layer of the mantle, and usually considered to be about 60 miles (100 kilometers) in thickness — Webster

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Encyclopedia

Lithosphere is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater. The outermost shell of a rocky planet, the crust, is defined on the basis of its chemistry and mineralogy. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

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http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=Lithosphere (WolframAlpha)

Introduction


Science

Geology is an science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science.

Geology describes the structure of the Earth beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earth’s past climates. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Geology Resources (Library of Congress)
Geology (Wolfram Alpha)

History




Project Mohole (National Academies of Sciences)
Project Mohole (Wikipedia)

Participation

Education




Earth’s Structure: About the Earth (Geography4Kids)
Geology for Kids


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OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

News

Science Daily, Phys.org, NPR Archives

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Geology News -- ScienceDaily Geology news. From the discovery of new properties of deep earth and finds in fossil magma chambers to fossil fuels and more.

  • Researchers discover life in deep ocean sediments...
    on December 3, 2020 at 7:42 pm

    Biologists found single-celled organisms living in sediments 1180 meters beneath the ocean at temperatures of 120 degrees Celsius.

  • Cluster of Alaskan islands could be single,...
    on December 3, 2020 at 2:45 pm

    A small group of volcanic islands in Alaska's Aleutian chain might be part of a single, undiscovered giant volcano, say scientists. If the researchers' suspicions are correct, the newfound volcanic caldera would belong to the same category of volcanoes as the Yellowstone Caldera and other volcanoes that have had super-eruptions with severe global consequences.

  • Geoscientists use zircon to trace origin of...
    on December 1, 2020 at 8:34 pm

    Geoscientists have long known that some parts of the continents formed in the Earth's deep past, but the speed in which land rose above global seas -- and the exact shapes that land masses formed -- have so far eluded experts.

  • What will the climate be like when Earth's next...
    on December 1, 2020 at 7:40 pm

    In roughly 200 million years, the continents will once again unite into a supercontinent. A new study explores how the next Pangea could affect the global climate.

  • Seismic activity of New Zealand's alpine fault...
    on December 1, 2020 at 7:40 pm

    New evidence of a 19th century earthquake on New Zealand's Alpine fault suggests that in at least one portion of the fault, smaller earthquakes may occur in between such large rupture events.


Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • A dessert-like desert: Californian lithosphere...
    on November 27, 2020 at 5:20 pm

    Decades after two large earthquakes rocked the Mojave Desert in California, the discovery of new post-earthquake displacement features has prompted KAUST researchers to update the existing model for this earthquake-prone region. Their findings support a thin "crème brûlée" model in which the strength lies in the upper crust, while the lower crust exhibits more ductility over time than previously thought.

  • Distinct slab interfaces found within mantle...
    on November 9, 2020 at 5:14 pm

    The oceanic lithosphere descends into Earth's mantle as subducting slabs. Boundaries between the subducting slab and the surrounding mantle are defined as slab interfaces, whose seismic imaging is the key to understanding slab dynamics in the mantle. However, data on the existence of slab interfaces below 200 km remains elusive.

  • Geologists 'resurrect' missing tectonic plate
    on October 20, 2020 at 8:38 pm

    The existence of a tectonic plate called Resurrection has long been a topic of debate among geologists, with some arguing it was never real. Others say it subducted—moved sideways and downward—into the earth's mantle somewhere in the Pacific Margin between 40 and 60 million years ago.

  • Glimpse deep into Earth's crust finds heat source...
    on October 19, 2020 at 9:06 pm

    Rocks from the Rio Grande continental rift have provided a rare snapshot of active geology deep inside Earth's crust, revealing new evidence for how continents remain stable over billions of years, according to a team of scientists.

  • Natural nanodiamonds in oceanic rocks
    on October 16, 2020 at 6:17 pm

    Natural diamonds can form through low pressure and temperature geological processes on Earth, as stated in an article published in the journal Geochemical Perspectives Letters. The newfound mechanism, far from the classic view on the formation of diamonds under ultra-high pressure, is confirmed in the study, which draws on the participation of experts from the Mineral Resources Research Group of the Faculty of Earth Sciences of the University of Barcelona (UB).