Land

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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism
Plant Flower, Tree
Animal
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human

Resources

These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…

General

Dictionary

land : the surface of the earth and all its natural resources — Webster

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lithosphere : the outer part of the solid earth composed of rock essentially like that exposed at the surface, consisting of the crust and outermost layer of the mantle, and usually considered to be about 60 miles (100 kilometers) in thickness — Webster

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Encyclopedia

Lithosphere is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater. The outermost shell of a rocky planet, the crust, is defined on the basis of its chemistry and mineralogy. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Search

http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=Lithosphere (WolframAlpha)

Introduction

Science

Geology is an science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science.

Geology describes the structure of the Earth beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, and also to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and the Earth’s past climates. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Geology Resources (Library of Congress)
Geology (Wolfram Alpha)

History

Project Mohole (National Academies of Sciences)
Project Mohole (Wikipedia)

Participation

Education

Earth’s Structure: About the Earth (Geography4Kids)
Geology for Kids

Course

OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

News

Science Daily, Phys.org, NPR Archives

Expression

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Geology News -- ScienceDaily Geology news. From the discovery of new properties of deep earth and finds in fossil magma chambers to fossil fuels and more.

  • Local impacts from fracking the Eagle Ford
    on May 3, 2021 at 9:28 pm

    Scientists simulated the local risk of damaging or nuisance-level shaking caused by hydraulic fracturing across the Eagle Ford shale formation in Texas. The results could inform a new approach to managing human-caused earthquakes.

  • Previously unrecognized tsunami hazard identified...
    on May 3, 2021 at 7:13 pm

    A new study found overlooked tsunami hazards related to undersea, near-shore strike-slip faults, especially for coastal cities adjacent to faults that traverse inland bays. Several areas around the world may fall into this category, including the San Francisco Bay area, Izmit Bay in Turkey and the Gulf of Al-Aqaba in Egypt.

  • Earthquake, tsunami hazards from subduction zones...
    on May 3, 2021 at 3:39 pm

    Two of the most destructive forces of nature - earthquakes and tsunamis - might actually be more of a threat than current estimates according to new research.

  • Antarctic ice-sheet melting to lift sea level...
    on April 30, 2021 at 8:59 pm

    The new predictions show that in the case of a total collapse of the ice sheet, global sea level rise estimates would be amplified by an additional meter within 1,000 years.

  • Northern forest fires could accelerate climate...
    on April 30, 2021 at 1:32 pm

    New research shows that the global models used to project how Earth's climate will change in the future underestimate the impact of forest fires and drying climate on forests' ability to capture and store atmospheric carbon.


Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • 'Self-healing' continental roots have...
    on April 29, 2021 at 12:59 pm

    A new study led by University of Alberta geologists is shedding light on a fundamental mechanism of how Earth's continental plates heal, with implications for diamond exploration and locating economically important minerals.

  • The Deep-time Digital Earth program: Data-driven...
    on April 6, 2021 at 11:56 am

    Humans have long explored three big scientific questions: the evolution of the universe, the evolution of Earth, and the evolution of life. Geoscientists have embraced the mission of elucidating the evolution of Earth and life, which are preserved in the information-rich but incomplete geological record that spans more than 4.5 billion years of Earth history. Delving into Earth's deep-time history helps geoscientists decipher mechanisms and rates of Earth's evolution, unravel the rates and […]

  • Just add (mantle) water: New research cracks the...
    on April 1, 2021 at 1:30 pm

    Earth is an amazing planet. As far as we know, it's the only planet in the universe where life exists. It's also the only planet known to have continents: the land masses on which we live and which host the minerals needed to support our complex lives.

  • Thick lithosphere casts doubt on plate tectonics...
    on January 28, 2021 at 6:40 pm

    At some point between 300 million and 1 billion years ago, a large cosmic object smashed into the planet Venus, leaving a crater more than 170 miles in diameter. A team of Brown University researchers has used that ancient impact scar to explore the possibility that Venus once had Earth-like plate tectonics.

  • Geological phenomenon widening the Atlantic Ocean
    on January 27, 2021 at 3:00 pm

    An upsurge of matter from deep beneath the Earth's crust could be pushing the continents of North and South America further apart from Europe and Africa, new research has found.