Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Realm / Terrestrial / Sphere / Water


AGIeducation (American Geosciences Institute, YouTube Channel)
The Big Ideas and Supporting Concepts of Earth Science (American Geosciences Institute, Official Website)
Big Idea 5 Activities (American Geosciences Institute)
Earth Science Literacy Initiative (American Geosciences Institute)
Educational Outreach (American Geosciences Institute)


water : the liquid that descends from the clouds as rain, forms streams, lakes, and seas, and is a major constituent of all living matter and that when pure is an odorless, tasteless, very slightly compressible liquid oxide of hydrogen H2O which appears bluish in thick layers, freezes at 0° C and boils at 100° C, has a maximum density at 4° C and a high specific heat, is feebly ionized to hydrogen and hydroxyl ions, and is a poor conductor of electricity and a good solvent — Merriam-Webster &nbps; See also   OneLook


Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth’s streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. It is vital for all known forms of life, even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is the name of the liquid state of H2O at standard ambient temperature and pressure. It forms precipitation in the form of rain and aerosols in the form of fog. Clouds are formed from suspended droplets of water and ice, its solid state. When finely divided, crystalline ice may precipitate in the form of snow. The gaseous state of water is steam or water vapor. Water moves continually through the water cycle of evaporation, transpiration (evapotranspiration), condensation, precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea. — Wikipedia

Water (Steven S. Zumdahl, Encyclopædia Britannica)

Water (World Meteorological Association)
Water (American Geosciences Institute)

Hydrosphere is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite. Although the hydrosphere has been around for longer than 4 billion years, it continues to change in size. This is caused by the seafloor spreading and the continental drift, which rearranges the land and ocean. — Wikipedia

Hydrosphere (Encyclopædia Britannica)

Earth’s Hydrosphere (Exploring the Planets, National Air and Space Museum)



Talks about Water (TED: Ideas Worth Spreading)
Articles about Water (Big Think)




Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and management of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources, and environmental watershed sustainability. Hydrology subdivides into surface water hydrology, groundwater hydrology (hydrogeology), and marine hydrology. Domains of hydrology include hydrometeorology, surface hydrology, hydrogeology, drainage-basin management, and water quality, where water plays the central role. — Wikipedia

Hydrology (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Hydrologic Sciences (Keith J. Beven, Encyclopædia Britannica)




DDC: 551.48 Hydrology (Library Thing)
Subject: Hydrology (Library Thing)

Subject: Hydrology (Open Library)

LCC: GB 651 Hydrology (UPenn Online Books)
Subject: Hydrology (UPenn Online Books)

LCC: GB 651 Hydrology (Library of Congress)
Subject: Hydrology (Library of Congress)

Subject: Hydrology (WorldCat)




Water (Olpgy, American Museum of Natural History)
Hydrosphere (Geography4Kids)

Water (Science Trek)
Rivers (Science Trek)
Wetlands (Science Trek)

Water (National Association of Geoscience Teachers)
Hydrology/Hydrogeology (National Association of Geoscience Teachers)

Fresh Water (Sea to Sky Education Resource Database, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)
Freshwater Education (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)
Oceans and Coasts Education (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)

Water Resources (United States Geological Survey)

MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Hydrology and Water Resource Systems (MIT OpenCourseWare)
Water Related Courses (edX)



CareerOneStop, YouTube Channel (U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)
CareerOneStop, Official Website (U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)

Hydrologists (CareerOneStop, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)
Hydrologists (U.S. Occupational Handbook Outlook)
Geoscience Career Compass: Hydrology (American Geosciences Institute)


International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH)
International Hydrographic Organization (IHO)
International Association for Environmental Hydrology (IAEH)
Water Environment Federation (WEF)

American Water Resources Association (AWRA)
National Ground Water Association (NGWA)


International Hydrographic Review (IHO)
Journal of Environmental Hydrology (IAEH)

Journal of the American Water Resources Association (AWRA)
Groundwater (NGWA)

Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics (arXiv.org e-Print Archive)
Hydrology (EurekaAlert, American Association for the Advancement of Science)
Hydrology (Nature)
Hydrology (Science News)
Water (Science Daily)

Hydrosphere (JSTOR)
Hydrology (JSTOR)


Water and Hydrology (National Academies Press)


Water (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)
Water (Earth Observatory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration)
Water Resources (United States Geological Survey)
Water Topics (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)


Hydrology (USA.gov)



Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm

Terrestrial   (Earth)

Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism Virus
Prokaryote Archaea, Bacteria
Eukaryote Protist, Fungi, Algae, Protozoa (Tardigrade)
Plant Flower, Tree
Cnidaria Coral, Jellyfish
Cephalopod Cuttlefish, Octopus
Crustacean Lobster, Shrimp
Arachnid Spider, Scorpion
Insect Ant, Bee, Beetle, Butterfly
Fish Seahorse, Ray, Shark
Amphibian Frog, Salamander
Reptile Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird Penguin, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Platypus, Bat, Mouse, Rabbit, Goat, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Panda, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Cetacean Whale, Dolphin
Primate Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.