Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human
These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
water : the liquid that descends from the clouds as rain, forms streams, lakes, and seas, and is a major constituent of all living matter and that when pure is an odorless, tasteless, very slightly compressible liquid oxide of hydrogen H2O which appears bluish in thick layers, freezes at 0° C and boils at 100° C, has a maximum density at 4° C and a high specific heat, is feebly ionized to hydrogen and hydroxyl ions, and is a poor conductor of electricity and a good solvent — Webster
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth’s streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. It is vital for all known forms of life, even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is the name of the liquid state of H2O at standard ambient temperature and pressure. It forms precipitation in the form of rain and aerosols in the form of fog. Clouds are formed from suspended droplets of water and ice, its solid state. When finely divided, crystalline ice may precipitate in the form of snow. The gaseous state of water is steam or water vapor. Water moves continually through the water cycle of evaporation, transpiration (evapotranspiration), condensation, precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea.
Water covers 71% of the Earth’s surface, mostly in seas and oceans. Small portions of water occur as groundwater (1.7%), in the glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland (1.7%), and in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of ice and liquid water suspended in air), and precipitation (0.001%).
Water plays an important role in the world economy. Approximately 70% of the freshwater used by humans goes to agriculture. Fishing in salt and fresh water bodies is a major source of food for many parts of the world. Much of long-distance trade of commodities (such as oil and natural gas) and manufactured products is transported by boats through seas, rivers, lakes, and canals. Large quantities of water, ice, and steam are used for cooling and heating, in industry and homes. Water is an excellent solvent for a wide variety of chemical substances; as such it is widely used in industrial processes, and in cooking and washing. Water is also central to many sports and other forms of entertainment, such as swimming, pleasure boating, boat racing, surfing, sport fishing, and diving. — Wikipedia
Hydrosphere is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite. Although the hydrosphere has been around for longer than 4 billion years, it continues to change in size. This is caused by the seafloor spreading and the continental drift, which rearranges the land and ocean.
It has been estimated that there are 1,386 million cubic kilometers of water on Earth. This includes water in liquid and frozen forms in groundwater, oceans, lakes and streams. Saltwater accounts for 97.5% of this amount. Vapor is another form water is in, caused by a rapid increase in particles transferred by heat. Fresh water accounts for only 2.5%. Of this fresh water, 68.9% is in the form of ice and snow cover in the Arctic, the Antarctic, and mountain glaciers. 30.8% is in the form of fresh groundwater. Only 0.3% of the fresh water on Earth is in easily accessible lakes, reservoirs and river systems. The total mass of the Earth’s hydrosphere is about 1.4 × 1018 tonnes, which is about 0.023% of Earth’s total mass. About 20 × 1012 tonnes of this is in Earth’s atmosphere (for practical purposes, 1 cubic meter of water weighs one tonne). Approximately 71% of Earth’s surface, an area of some 361 million square kilometers (139.5 million square miles), is covered by ocean. The average salinity of Earth’s oceans is about 35 grams of salt per kilogram of sea water (3.5%). — Wikipedia
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering. Using various analytical methods and scientific techniques, they collect and analyze data to help solve water related problems such as environmental preservation, natural disasters, and water management. Hydrology subdivides into surface water hydrology, groundwater hydrology (hydrogeology), and marine hydrology. Domains of hydrology include hydrometeorology, surface hydrology, hydrogeology, drainage-basin management and water quality, where water plays the central role. — Wikipedia
Here are links to the five destinations mentioned in the video.
1 Utter Inn (Västerås, Sweden)
2 Atlantis – The Palm (Dubai, United Arab Emirates)
3 The Manata Resort (Psv-zanzibar, Tanzania)
4 Jules’ Undersea Loadge (Key Largo, Florida)
5 The Muraka (Rangali Island, Maldives)
Water News -- ScienceDaily Learn about Earth's water resources. Read current research on the water cycle, water pollution, groundwater depletion and lake protection.
- Major Atlantic ocean current system might be...on August 5, 2021 at 3:54 pm
A major Atlantic ocean current -- the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, or AMOC -- may have been losing stability in the course of the last century, according to new research. A potential collapse of this ocean current system could have severe consequences.
- Microplastics in Arctic ecosystem discoveredon August 5, 2021 at 1:01 am
Around the Svalbard archipelago in the Arctic Ocean, rhodoliths made up of coralline red algae provide ecological niches for a wide variety of organisms. A team of researchers has recently discovered a large quantity of microplastics in this ecosystem.
- Powering navigational buoys with help of ocean...on August 5, 2021 at 1:01 am
Traditionally used energy harvesting technologies, like photovoltaic panels or wind turbines, suffer from several limitations. In the absence of daylight and wind, neither of the two can supply any power. In the case of ocean buoys, a potential solution is omnipresent: wave energy. Abundant, predictable, and consistent, the ocean's waves can be used to power navigation buoys. Researchers have developed sphere-based triboelectric nanogenerators that can be incorporated directly into navigational […]
- ArtSea Ink: A colorful, seaweed-based ink for 3D...on August 4, 2021 at 4:35 pm
Some artists are embracing 3D printing as a new medium, allowing them to create intricate 3D compositions that are difficult to produce in any other way. But the rigid, plastic-based materials used in many 3D printers require high heat for workability. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Omega have developed a colorful new ink for 2D and 3D art made of mica pigments in alginate, a sugar from seaweed that forms a stable gel without heat.
- Dissolvable smartwatch makes for easier...on August 4, 2021 at 4:35 pm
Small electronics, including smartwatches and fitness trackers, aren't easily dismantled and recycled. So when a new model comes out, most users send the old devices into hazardous waste streams. To simplify small electronics recycling, researchers have developed a two-metal nanocomposite for circuits that disintegrates when submerged in water. They demonstrated the circuits in a prototype transient device -- a functional smartwatch that dissolved within 40 hours.
Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.
- Understanding past climate change 'tipping...on July 29, 2021 at 3:00 pm
Of all the creatures on Earth, humans manipulate their environments the most. But, how far can we push it before something drastic happens?
- China's EarthLab begins trials as country's first...on June 23, 2021 at 3:28 pm
The Earth is a sphere, and it comprises other spheres: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere and biosphere—in short, all of the cycles that interact to influence Earth's weather and climate. Now, to better research how the spheres interact and impact the planet, China is launching EarthLab in Beijing. On June 23, after EarthLab's opening ceremony, researchers will begin trials to demonstrate the facility's ability to integrate simulations and observations to more accurately project […]
- The Deep-time Digital Earth program: Data-driven...on April 6, 2021 at 11:56 am
Humans have long explored three big scientific questions: the evolution of the universe, the evolution of Earth, and the evolution of life. Geoscientists have embraced the mission of elucidating the evolution of Earth and life, which are preserved in the information-rich but incomplete geological record that spans more than 4.5 billion years of Earth history. Delving into Earth's deep-time history helps geoscientists decipher mechanisms and rates of Earth's evolution, unravel the rates and […]
- Structure of photosystem protein supercomplex...on October 22, 2020 at 12:03 pm
Diatoms are a group of phytoplankton that is widely distributed in the hydrosphere and even in moist soil. They play important roles in global carbon-oxygen cycles and provide valuable products and biomasses. Diatom cells are brown due to the presence of special chlorophylls (Chl), Chl c, as well as carotenoids fucoxanthins and diadinoxanthins.
- The mysterious luminescence phenomena of...on September 28, 2020 at 8:37 pm
Were you aware that earthquakes are sometimes associated with luminescence, called earthquake lightning? This phenomenon had been documented throughout history, such as between 1965 and 1967, the Matsushiro earthquake swarm caused the surrounding mountain to flicker with light multiple times. In 1993 when an earthquake caused a tsunami off the coast in Southwest Hokkaido which caused 5 boats resting at shore to instantly ignite and burn. Various models have been proposed to explain earthquake […]