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Meteorology, Weather, Atmospheric Chemistry & Atmospheric Physics Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)

Dictionary

air : the mixture of invisible odorless tasteless gases (such as nitrogen and oxygen) that surrounds the earth — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

atmosphere : the gaseous envelope of a celestial body (such as a planet) — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Encyclopedia

Atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth’s gravity. The atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earth’s surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation).

By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1% at sea level, and 0.4% over the entire atmosphere. Air content and atmospheric pressure vary at different layers, and air suitable for use in photosynthesis by terrestrial plants and breathing of terrestrial animals is found only in Earth’s troposphere and in artificial atmospheres.

The atmosphere has a mass of about 5.15×1018 kg,[3] three quarters of which is within about 11 km (6.8 mi; 36,000 ft) of the surface. The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space. The Kármán line, at 100 km (62 mi), or 1.57% of Earth’s radius, is often used as the border between the atmosphere and outer space. Atmospheric effects become noticeable during atmospheric reentry of spacecraft at an altitude of around 120 km (75 mi). Several layers can be distinguished in the atmosphere, based on characteristics such as temperature and composition. — Wikipedia

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Weather & Meteorology (Wolfram Alpha)

Science

Atmospheric Sciences are the study of the Earth’s atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems. Meteorology includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics with a major focus on weather forecasting. Climatology is the study of atmospheric changes (both long and short-term) that define average climates and their change over time, due to both natural and anthropogenic climate variability. Aeronomy is the study of the upper layers of the atmosphere, where dissociation and ionization are important. Atmospheric science has been extended to the field of planetary science and the study of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. — Wikipedia

Category: Atmospheric sciences (Wikipedia)
Atmospheric Sciences (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Atmospheric Sciences (Wolfram Alpha)

Aeronomy is the meteorological science of the upper region of the Earth’s or other planetary atmospheres, which relates to the atmospheric motions, its chemical composition and properties, and the reaction to it from the environment from space. The term aeronomy was introduced by Sydney Chapman in a Letter to the Editor of Nature entitled Some Thoughts on Nomenclature in 1946. Studies within the subject also investigate the causes of dissociation or ionization processes.

Today the term also includes the science of the corresponding regions of the atmospheres of other planets. Aeronomy is a branch of atmospheric physics. Research in aeronomy requires access to balloons, satellites, and sounding rockets which provide valuable data about this region of the atmosphere. Atmospheric tides dominate the dynamics of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, essential to understanding the atmosphere as a whole. Other phenomena studied are upper-atmospheric lightning discharges, such as red sprites, sprite halos or blue jets. — Wikipedia


Aeronomy (Encyclopædia Britannica)

Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data. It wasn’t until after the elucidation of the laws of physics and, more particularly, the development of the computer, allowing for the automated solution of a great many equations that model the weather, in the latter half of the 20th century that significant breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved.

Meteorological phenomena are observable weather events that are explained by the science of meteorology. Meteorological phenomena are described and quantified by the variables of Earth’s atmosphere: temperature, air pressure, water vapor, mass flow, and the variations and interactions of those variables, and how they change over time. Different spatial scales are used to describe and predict weather on local, regional, and global levels. — Wikipedia

Meteorology (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Meteorological Calculators (Calculator.com)

Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. Most weather phenomena occur in the lowest level of the atmosphere, the troposphere, just below the stratosphere. Weather refers to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate is the term for the averaging of atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time. When used without qualification, “weather” is generally understood to mean the weather of Earth.

Weather is driven by air pressure, temperature and moisture differences between one place and another. These differences can occur due to the sun’s angle at any particular spot, which varies with latitude. The strong temperature contrast between polar and tropical air gives rise to the largest scale atmospheric circulations: the Hadley Cell, the Ferrel Cell, the Polar Cell, and the jet stream. Weather systems in the mid-latitudes, such as extratropical cyclones, are caused by instabilities of the jet stream flow. Because the Earth’s axis is tilted relative to its orbital plane, sunlight is incident at different angles at different times of the year. On Earth’s surface, temperatures usually range ±40 °C (−40 °F to 100 °F) annually. Over thousands of years, changes in Earth’s orbit can affect the amount and distribution of solar energy received by the Earth, thus influencing long-term climate and global climate change. — Wikipedia

Weather (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Weather Resources (Library of Congress)
Weather Resources (Refdesk)
Weather (Wolfram Alpha)

Preservation

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Weather Forecasting Through the Ages (NASA Earth Observatory)
The birth of the weather forecast (Peter Moore, BBC)

Quotation

Quotations Page

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Australian National Meteorological Library

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Weather & Environment (Great Sites for Kids, ALA)
Atmosphere: Up in the Air (Geography4Kids)

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OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form

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EurekAlert! - Atmospheric Science The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  • New research pinpoints which of the world's trees...
    on December 11, 2019 at 5:00 am

    (Trinity College Dublin) 'Penny-pinching' evergreen species such as Christmas favourites, holly and ivy, are more climate-ready in the face of warming temperatures than deciduous 'big-spending' water consumers like birch and oak. As such, they are more likely to prosper in the near future -- with this pattern set to be felt more strongly in cooler climates.

  • Why polar bears at sea have higher pollution...
    on December 11, 2019 at 5:00 am

    (American Chemical Society) As the climate changes, myriad animal populations are being impacted. In particular, Arctic sea-ice is in decline, causing polar bears in the Barents Sea region to alter their feeding and hunting habits. Bears that follow sea-ice to offshore areas have higher pollutant levels than those staying on land -- but why? A new study in ACS' Environmental Science & Technology reports the likely reasons.

  • Research confirms timing of tropical glacier melt...
    on December 11, 2019 at 5:00 am

    (Dartmouth College) Findings on ice retreat across the global tropics clarifies how the low latitudes transformed during the end of the last ice age and can help current-day predictions of our own climate future.

  • Shrinking of Greenland's glaciers began...
    on December 11, 2019 at 5:00 am

    (Ohio State University) Satellite data has given scientists clues about how, when and why Greenland's glaciers are shrinking -- and shows a sharp increase in glacial retreat beginning about 2000, according to new research presented this week.

  • Fiber-optic cables capture thunderquake rumbles
    on December 11, 2019 at 5:00 am

    (Penn State) Underground fiber-optic cables, like those that connect the world through phone and internet service, hold untapped potential for monitoring severe weather, according to scientists at Penn State.


Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Revealing the physics of the Sun with Parker...
    on December 11, 2019 at 9:04 pm

    Nearly a year and a half into its mission, Parker Solar Probe has returned gigabytes of data on the Sun and its atmosphere. Following the release of the very first science from the mission, five researchers presented additional new findings from Parker Solar Probe at the fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union on Dec. 11, 2019. Research from these teams hints at the processes behind both the Sun's continual outflow of material—the solar wind—and more infrequent solar storms […]

  • Earth was stressed before dinosaur extinction
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    New evidence gleaned from Antarctic seashells confirms that Earth was already unstable before the asteroid impact that wiped out the dinosaurs.

  • Research confirms timing of tropical glacier melt...
    on December 11, 2019 at 7:00 pm

    Tropical glaciers in Africa and South America began their retreat simultaneously at the end of the last ice age about 20,000 years ago, according to a Dartmouth study.

  • New research pinpoints which of the world's trees...
    on December 11, 2019 at 7:00 pm

    Botanists from Trinity College Dublin have discovered that "penny-pinching" evergreen species such as Christmas favourites, holly and ivy, are more climate-ready in the face of warming temperatures than deciduous "big-spending" water consumers like birch and oak. As such, they are more likely to prosper in the near future—with this pattern set to be felt more strongly in cooler climates, such as Ireland's.

  • Scrubbing carbon dioxide from smokestacks for...
    on December 11, 2019 at 6:00 pm

    An international team co-led by an Oregon State University chemistry researcher has uncovered a better way to scrub carbon dioxide from smokestack emissions, which could be a key to mitigating global climate change.


Atmosphere News -- ScienceDaily Earth's atmosphere. Learn about threats to air quality, the latest scientific research in atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric physics and more.

  • Scrubbing carbon dioxide from smokestacks for...
    on December 11, 2019 at 7:56 pm

    Chemistry researchers have uncovered a better way to scrub carbon dioxide from smokestack emissions, which could be a key to mitigating global climate change.

  • One-third of recent global methane increase comes...
    on December 11, 2019 at 1:27 pm

    Concentrations of methane, a greenhouse gas about 28 times more potent than carbon dioxide, have risen steadily in Earth's atmosphere since 2007. Although several potential explanations, including an increase in methane emissions from the tropics, could account for this upsurge, due to a lack of regional data scientists have been unable to pinpoint the source. Now a study uses satellite data to determine that one-third of the global increase originates in Africa's tropics.

  • Technologies and scientific advances needed to...
    on December 10, 2019 at 4:18 pm

    Understanding what influences the amount of methane in the atmosphere has been identified to be one of the foremost challenges in the earth sciences in the coming decades because of methane's hugely important role in meeting climate warming targets.

  • Large atmospheric waves in the jet stream present...
    on December 9, 2019 at 4:21 pm

    Researchers have discovered jet stream patterns that could affect up to a quarter of global food production.

  • How ancient microbes created massive ore...
    on December 2, 2019 at 3:20 pm

    Ancestors of modern bacteria cultured from an iron-rich lake in Democratic Republic of Congo could have been key to keeping Earth's dimly lit early climate warm, and in forming the world's largest iron ore deposits billions of years ago.