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Meteorology, Weather, Atmospheric Chemistry & Atmospheric Physics Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)

Dictionary

air : the mixture of invisible odorless tasteless gases (such as nitrogen and oxygen) that surrounds the earth — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

atmosphere : the gaseous envelope of a celestial body (such as a planet) — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Encyclopedia

Atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth’s gravity. The atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earth’s surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation).

By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1% at sea level, and 0.4% over the entire atmosphere. Air content and atmospheric pressure vary at different layers, and air suitable for use in photosynthesis by terrestrial plants and breathing of terrestrial animals is found only in Earth’s troposphere and in artificial atmospheres.

The atmosphere has a mass of about 5.15×1018 kg,[3] three quarters of which is within about 11 km (6.8 mi; 36,000 ft) of the surface. The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space. The Kármán line, at 100 km (62 mi), or 1.57% of Earth’s radius, is often used as the border between the atmosphere and outer space. Atmospheric effects become noticeable during atmospheric reentry of spacecraft at an altitude of around 120 km (75 mi). Several layers can be distinguished in the atmosphere, based on characteristics such as temperature and composition. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


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Weather & Meteorology (Wolfram Alpha)

Science

Atmospheric Sciences are the study of the Earth’s atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems. Meteorology includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics with a major focus on weather forecasting. Climatology is the study of atmospheric changes (both long and short-term) that define average climates and their change over time, due to both natural and anthropogenic climate variability. Aeronomy is the study of the upper layers of the atmosphere, where dissociation and ionization are important. Atmospheric science has been extended to the field of planetary science and the study of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. — Wikipedia

Category: Atmospheric sciences (Wikipedia)
Atmospheric Sciences (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Atmospheric Sciences (Wolfram Alpha)

Aeronomy is the meteorological science of the upper region of the Earth’s or other planetary atmospheres, which relates to the atmospheric motions, its chemical composition and properties, and the reaction to it from the environment from space. The term aeronomy was introduced by Sydney Chapman in a Letter to the Editor of Nature entitled Some Thoughts on Nomenclature in 1946. Studies within the subject also investigate the causes of dissociation or ionization processes.

Today the term also includes the science of the corresponding regions of the atmospheres of other planets. Aeronomy is a branch of atmospheric physics. Research in aeronomy requires access to balloons, satellites, and sounding rockets which provide valuable data about this region of the atmosphere. Atmospheric tides dominate the dynamics of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, essential to understanding the atmosphere as a whole. Other phenomena studied are upper-atmospheric lightning discharges, such as red sprites, sprite halos or blue jets. — Wikipedia


Aeronomy (Encyclopædia Britannica)

Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data. It wasn’t until after the elucidation of the laws of physics and, more particularly, the development of the computer, allowing for the automated solution of a great many equations that model the weather, in the latter half of the 20th century that significant breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved.

Meteorological phenomena are observable weather events that are explained by the science of meteorology. Meteorological phenomena are described and quantified by the variables of Earth’s atmosphere: temperature, air pressure, water vapor, mass flow, and the variations and interactions of those variables, and how they change over time. Different spatial scales are used to describe and predict weather on local, regional, and global levels. — Wikipedia

Meteorology (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Meteorological Calculators (Calculator.com)

Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. Most weather phenomena occur in the lowest level of the atmosphere, the troposphere, just below the stratosphere. Weather refers to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate is the term for the averaging of atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time. When used without qualification, “weather” is generally understood to mean the weather of Earth.

Weather is driven by air pressure, temperature and moisture differences between one place and another. These differences can occur due to the sun’s angle at any particular spot, which varies with latitude. The strong temperature contrast between polar and tropical air gives rise to the largest scale atmospheric circulations: the Hadley Cell, the Ferrel Cell, the Polar Cell, and the jet stream. Weather systems in the mid-latitudes, such as extratropical cyclones, are caused by instabilities of the jet stream flow. Because the Earth’s axis is tilted relative to its orbital plane, sunlight is incident at different angles at different times of the year. On Earth’s surface, temperatures usually range ±40 °C (−40 °F to 100 °F) annually. Over thousands of years, changes in Earth’s orbit can affect the amount and distribution of solar energy received by the Earth, thus influencing long-term climate and global climate change. — Wikipedia

Weather (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Weather Resources (Library of Congress)
Weather Resources (Refdesk)
Weather (Wolfram Alpha)

Preservation

History




Weather Forecasting Through the Ages (NASA Earth Observatory)
The birth of the weather forecast (Peter Moore, BBC)

Quotation

Quotations Page

Library

Australian National Meteorological Library

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library

Participation

Education




Weather & Environment (Great Sites for Kids, ALA)
Atmosphere: Up in the Air (Geography4Kids)

Course

Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics (MIT Open Courseware)
Meteorology Yale Course (YouTube Channel)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

Community

Organization

International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
World Meteorological Association
American Meteorological Society

News

Atmospheric Science EurekaAlert (American Association for the Advancement of Science)
Phys.org, Science Daily, NPR Archives

Book

ISBNdb

Government

National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
Air Resources Laboratory (NOAA)
NOAA Library
National Servere Storms Laboratory (NOAA)
National Weather Service

Document

USA.gov

Expression

Fun


Arts

Poem

OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form

Music

Song Lyrics

Belief


The history and ritual of the rain dance is still followed today (Indians.org)
Rainmaking (Wikipedia)

Folklore


returntotop

More…

EurekAlert! - Atmospheric Science The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  • UTSA creates web-based open source dashboard of...
    on October 22, 2018 at 4:00 am

    (University of Texas at San Antonio) It's called ArcCI (or Arctic CyberInfrastructure) and promises to combine the thousands of images that have been taken along the years of the Arctic Ocean into one global database that will help scientists and the world see the physical changes occurring in the region including ice loss. The hope is that this web-based repository will allow researchers to spend more time analyzing information rather than just collecting and processing data. […]

  • Fish give up the fight after coral bleaching
    on October 22, 2018 at 4:00 am

    (Lancaster University) Researchers found that when water temperatures heat up for corals, fish 'tempers' cool down, providing the first clear evidence of coral bleaching serving as a trigger for rapid change in reef fish behavior. Publishing in Nature Climate Change this week, researchers from Lancaster University and collaborating institutes including the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies (Coral CoE), show how the iconic butterflyfish, considered to be sensitive indicators of […]

  • Study finds availability of nitrogen to plants is...
    on October 22, 2018 at 4:00 am

    (University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science) Researchers have found that global changes, including warming temperatures and increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, are causing a decrease in the availability of a key nutrient for terrestrial plants. This could affect the ability of forests to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and reduce the amount of nutrients available for the creatures that eat them. […]

  • Research finds NJ numerical nutrient criterion...
    on October 22, 2018 at 4:00 am

    (Drexel University) Using a standard they created for measuring potentially damaging nutrient levels in freshwater streams by measuring the prevalence of single-celled algae, called diatoms, researchers from the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University analyzed environmental data from 95 river and stream sites in six ecological regions of New Jersey. The team's findings revealed that New Jersey's current allowable threshold for dissolved nutrients in its streams is likely too high. […]

  • NASA sees tiny Tropical Storm Vicente near...
    on October 22, 2018 at 4:00 am

    (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the Eastern Pacific Ocean and captured a visible image of the small tropical storm named Vicente. […]


Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Mars likely to have enough oxygen to support...
    on October 22, 2018 at 6:09 pm

    Salty water just below the surface of Mars could hold enough oxygen to support the kind of microbial life that emerged and flourished on Earth billions of years ago, researchers reported Monday. […]

  • Study finds availability of nitrogen to plants is...
    on October 22, 2018 at 6:04 pm

    Researchers have found that global changes, including warming temperatures and increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, are causing a decrease in the availability of a key nutrient for terrestrial plants. This could affect the ability of forests to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and reduce the amount of nutrients available for the creatures that eat them. […]

  • Special journal issue looks for new clues about...
    on October 22, 2018 at 6:02 pm

    Hundreds of millions of years before there was a chicken or an egg to debate, the first complex animals were evolving in parallel with Earth's rising oxygen levels. […]

  • Rising insurance costs may convince Americans...
    on October 22, 2018 at 2:10 pm

    One of the great challenges of tackling climate change is making it real for people without a scientific background. That's because the threat it poses can be so hard to see or feel. […]

  • In Alaska, everyone's grappling with climate...
    on October 22, 2018 at 2:10 pm

    Coastal villages are washing into the Bering Sea, trees are sprouting in the tundra and shipping lanes are opening in an ocean that was once locked in ice. In Alaska, climate change isn't a distant or abstract concern. […]


Atmosphere News -- ScienceDaily Earth's atmosphere. Learn about threats to air quality, the latest scientific research in atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric physics and more.

  • Surprise finding: Discovering a previously...
    on October 19, 2018 at 4:07 pm

    Feature describes unexpected discovery of a role the process that seeds magnetic fields plays in mediating a phenomenon that occurs throughout the universe and can disrupt cell phone service and knock out power grids on Earth. […]

  • A clearer path to clean air in China
    on October 18, 2018 at 4:49 pm

    New research shows that a key to reducing extreme wintertime air pollution in China may be reducing formaldehyde emissions rather than sulfur dioxide. […]

  • Substantial changes in air pollution across China...
    on October 17, 2018 at 4:44 pm

    The first detailed analysis of air pollution trends in China reveals a 20 per cent drop in concentrations of particulate pollution over the last three years (2015-2017). […]

  • School students identify sounds caused by solar...
    on October 17, 2018 at 1:49 pm

    School students have successfully identified sounds caused by a solar storm in the Earth's magnetic shield. The group of students identified a series of waves whose pitch decreased over the course of several days. They found that this event occurred after a Coronal Mass Ejection or 'solar storm' caused a great disturbance to Earth's space environment. […]

  • Climate models fail to simulate recent...
    on October 16, 2018 at 5:20 pm

    Climatologists may be unable to accurately predict regional climate change over the North Atlantic because computer simulations have failed to include real data from the Greenland region over the last three decades -- and it could lead to regional climate predictions for the UK and parts of Europe being inaccurate. […]