Air

Cosma Home > Communication > Knowledge > Realm > Terrestrial > Sphere > Air

Spotlight

Note: This is a 360° Video — press and hold to explore it!



Related

Pages

Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism
Plant Flower, Tree
Animal
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human

Resources

These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…

General

Portal

Meteorology, Weather, Atmospheric Chemistry & Atmospheric Physics Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)

Dictionary

air : the mixture of invisible odorless tasteless gases (such as nitrogen and oxygen) that surrounds the earth — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

atmosphere : the gaseous envelope of a celestial body (such as a planet) — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Encyclopedia

Atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth’s gravity. The atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earth’s surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation).

By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1% at sea level, and 0.4% over the entire atmosphere. Air content and atmospheric pressure vary at different layers, and air suitable for use in photosynthesis by terrestrial plants and breathing of terrestrial animals is found only in Earth’s troposphere and in artificial atmospheres.

The atmosphere has a mass of about 5.15×1018 kg,[3] three quarters of which is within about 11 km (6.8 mi; 36,000 ft) of the surface. The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space. The Kármán line, at 100 km (62 mi), or 1.57% of Earth’s radius, is often used as the border between the atmosphere and outer space. Atmospheric effects become noticeable during atmospheric reentry of spacecraft at an altitude of around 120 km (75 mi). Several layers can be distinguished in the atmosphere, based on characteristics such as temperature and composition. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Introduction




Search

Weather & Meteorology (Wolfram Alpha)

Science

Atmospheric Sciences are the study of the Earth’s atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems. Meteorology includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics with a major focus on weather forecasting. Climatology is the study of atmospheric changes (both long and short-term) that define average climates and their change over time, due to both natural and anthropogenic climate variability. Aeronomy is the study of the upper layers of the atmosphere, where dissociation and ionization are important. Atmospheric science has been extended to the field of planetary science and the study of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. — Wikipedia

Category: Atmospheric sciences (Wikipedia)
Atmospheric Sciences (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Atmospheric Sciences (Wolfram Alpha)

Aeronomy is the meteorological science of the upper region of the Earth’s or other planetary atmospheres, which relates to the atmospheric motions, its chemical composition and properties, and the reaction to it from the environment from space. The term aeronomy was introduced by Sydney Chapman in a Letter to the Editor of Nature entitled Some Thoughts on Nomenclature in 1946. Studies within the subject also investigate the causes of dissociation or ionization processes.

Today the term also includes the science of the corresponding regions of the atmospheres of other planets. Aeronomy is a branch of atmospheric physics. Research in aeronomy requires access to balloons, satellites, and sounding rockets which provide valuable data about this region of the atmosphere. Atmospheric tides dominate the dynamics of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, essential to understanding the atmosphere as a whole. Other phenomena studied are upper-atmospheric lightning discharges, such as red sprites, sprite halos or blue jets. — Wikipedia


Aeronomy (Encyclopædia Britannica)

Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data. It wasn’t until after the elucidation of the laws of physics and, more particularly, the development of the computer, allowing for the automated solution of a great many equations that model the weather, in the latter half of the 20th century that significant breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved.

Meteorological phenomena are observable weather events that are explained by the science of meteorology. Meteorological phenomena are described and quantified by the variables of Earth’s atmosphere: temperature, air pressure, water vapor, mass flow, and the variations and interactions of those variables, and how they change over time. Different spatial scales are used to describe and predict weather on local, regional, and global levels. — Wikipedia

Meteorology (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Meteorological Calculators (Calculator.com)

Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. Most weather phenomena occur in the lowest level of the atmosphere, the troposphere, just below the stratosphere. Weather refers to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate is the term for the averaging of atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time. When used without qualification, “weather” is generally understood to mean the weather of Earth.

Weather is driven by air pressure, temperature and moisture differences between one place and another. These differences can occur due to the sun’s angle at any particular spot, which varies with latitude. The strong temperature contrast between polar and tropical air gives rise to the largest scale atmospheric circulations: the Hadley Cell, the Ferrel Cell, the Polar Cell, and the jet stream. Weather systems in the mid-latitudes, such as extratropical cyclones, are caused by instabilities of the jet stream flow. Because the Earth’s axis is tilted relative to its orbital plane, sunlight is incident at different angles at different times of the year. On Earth’s surface, temperatures usually range ±40 °C (−40 °F to 100 °F) annually. Over thousands of years, changes in Earth’s orbit can affect the amount and distribution of solar energy received by the Earth, thus influencing long-term climate and global climate change. — Wikipedia

Weather (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Weather Resources (Library of Congress)
Weather Resources (Refdesk)
Weather (Wolfram Alpha)

Preservation

History




Weather Forecasting Through the Ages (NASA Earth Observatory)
The birth of the weather forecast (Peter Moore, BBC)

Quotation

Quotations Page

Library

Australian National Meteorological Library

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library

Participation

Education




Weather & Environment (Great Sites for Kids, ALA)
Atmosphere: Up in the Air (Geography4Kids)

Course

Atmosphere, Ocean and Climate Dynamics (MIT Open Courseware)
Meteorology Yale Course (YouTube Channel)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

Community

Organization

International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
World Meteorological Association
American Meteorological Society

News

Atmospheric Science EurekaAlert (American Association for the Advancement of Science)
Phys.org, Science Daily, NPR Archives

Book

ISBNdb

Government

National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
Air Resources Laboratory (NOAA)
NOAA Library
National Servere Storms Laboratory (NOAA)
National Weather Service

Document

USA.gov

Expression

Fun


Arts

Poem

OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form

Music

Song Lyrics

Belief


The history and ritual of the rain dance is still followed today (Indians.org)
Rainmaking (Wikipedia)

Folklore


returntotop

More…

EurekAlert! - Atmospheric Science The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  • Active pharmaceutical ingredients can persist in...
    on July 24, 2019 at 4:00 am

    (American Society of Agronomy) A study finds trace levels of medicines in drinking water from private wells. […]

  • Climate changes faster than animals adapt
    on July 23, 2019 at 4:00 am

    (Forschungsverbund Berlin) Although animals do commonly respond to climate change, such responses are in general insufficient to cope with the rapid pace of rising temperatures and sometimes go in wrong directions. […]

  • North Carolina coastal flooding is worsening with...
    on July 23, 2019 at 4:00 am

    (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) Researchers can confirm what data modeling systems have predicted: Climate change is increasing precipitation events like hurricanes, tropical storms and floods. […]

  • Fussy fish can have their coral, and eat it too
    on July 23, 2019 at 4:00 am

    (ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies) Fussy fish seeking refuge from climate change on deeper reefs can still keep their specialised diets. The corals they prey upon change their own diets to survive the different environment at depth. This ensures their fussy predators are still well-fed! […]

  • Monsoon rains have become more intense in the...
    on July 23, 2019 at 4:00 am

    (US Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service) Monsoon rain storms have become more intense in the southwestern United States in recent decades, according to a study recently published by Agricultural Research Service scientists.Monsoon rains -- highly localized bursts of rain -- have become stronger since the 1970s, meaning the same amount of rain falls in a shorter amount of time--by 6 to 11 percent. In addition, the number of rainfall events per year increased on average 15 […]


Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • How to restore a coral reef
    on July 24, 2019 at 5:54 am

    New guidelines drafted by a consortium of concerned experts could enable corals to adapt to changing environments and help restore declining coral populations in the Caribbean. The guidelines provide a definitive plan for collecting, raising, and replanting corals that maximizes their potential for adaptation. […]

  • Global warming will accelerate water cycle over...
    on July 23, 2019 at 4:33 pm

    The global monsoon region, sprawling north and south from the Earth's equator, sustains nearly two-thirds of the world's population. It is characterized with abundant monsoon rainfall, a distinct wet-dry season contrast, and hence an active water cycle. […]

  • 'Legacy' mercury pollution still a problem in New...
    on July 23, 2019 at 4:30 pm

    "Legacy" mercury pollution from decades ago and miles away is an important source of contamination in New Jersey Meadowlands waterways, according to a Rutgers-led study that could help guide cleanup efforts. […]

  • Monsoon rains have become more intense in the...
    on July 23, 2019 at 3:48 pm

    Monsoon rain storms have become more intense in the southwestern United States in recent decades, according to a study recently published by Agricultural Research Service scientists. […]

  • NASA finds depression strengthen into Tropical...
    on July 23, 2019 at 3:46 pm

    Satellite imagery on July 22 showed that wind shear was preventing the Eastern Pacific Ocean's Tropical Depression 5 from consolidating and strengthening. Infrared imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite on July 23 showed that the wind shear eased and the storm was able to strengthen. […]


Atmosphere News -- ScienceDaily Earth's atmosphere. Learn about threats to air quality, the latest scientific research in atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric physics and more.

  • Ozone threat from climate change
    on July 23, 2019 at 4:19 pm

    We know the recent extreme heat is something that we can expect more of as a result of increasing temperatures due to climate change. But a new study warns that there's another impact -- worsened air quality due to an increase in the number and intensity of 'ozone alert' days. […]

  • Airborne lidar system poised to improve accuracy...
    on July 22, 2019 at 3:59 pm

    Researchers have developed a laser-based system that can be used for airborne measurement of important atmospheric gases with unprecedented accuracy and resolution. The ability to collect this data will help scientists better understand how these atmospheric gases affect the climate and could help improve climate change predictions. […]

  • By cutting ozone pollution now, China could save...
    on July 16, 2019 at 7:13 pm

    If China takes strong measures to reduce its ozone pollution now, it could save hundreds of thousands of lives in the long run, according to a new study. […]

  • Chaos theory produces map for predicting paths of...
    on July 16, 2019 at 3:30 pm

    Floating air particles following disasters and other geological events can have a lasting impact on life on Earth, and a new model drawing on chaos theory looks to help predict how these particles move, with an eye toward applications for geoengineering. Scientists have developed a model for following particles as they travel around the globe. Using it, she has generated maps that can be used to predict how particles will be dispersed above the world. […]

  • Flood prediction model developed
    on July 15, 2019 at 10:58 pm

    The duration of floods can be determined by river flow, precipitation and atmospheric blocking. Now an international team of researchers is offering a novel physically based Bayesian network model for inference and prediction of flood duration. The model also accurately examines the timescales of flooding. […]