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Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human
These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
air : the mixture of invisible odorless tasteless gases (such as nitrogen and oxygen) that surrounds the earth — Webster
atmosphere : the gaseous envelope of a celestial body (such as a planet) — Webster
Atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth’s gravity. The atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earth’s surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation).
By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1% at sea level, and 0.4% over the entire atmosphere. Air content and atmospheric pressure vary at different layers, and air suitable for use in photosynthesis by terrestrial plants and breathing of terrestrial animals is found only in Earth’s troposphere and in artificial atmospheres.
The atmosphere has a mass of about 5.15×1018 kg, three quarters of which is within about 11 km (6.8 mi; 36,000 ft) of the surface. The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space. The Kármán line, at 100 km (62 mi), or 1.57% of Earth’s radius, is often used as the border between the atmosphere and outer space. Atmospheric effects become noticeable during atmospheric reentry of spacecraft at an altitude of around 120 km (75 mi). Several layers can be distinguished in the atmosphere, based on characteristics such as temperature and composition. — Wikipedia
Atmospheric Sciences are the study of the Earth’s atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems. Meteorology includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics with a major focus on weather forecasting. Climatology is the study of atmospheric changes (both long and short-term) that define average climates and their change over time, due to both natural and anthropogenic climate variability. Aeronomy is the study of the upper layers of the atmosphere, where dissociation and ionization are important. Atmospheric science has been extended to the field of planetary science and the study of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. — Wikipedia
Aeronomy is the meteorological science of the upper region of the Earth’s or other planetary atmospheres, which relates to the atmospheric motions, its chemical composition and properties, and the reaction to it from the environment from space. The term aeronomy was introduced by Sydney Chapman in a Letter to the Editor of Nature entitled Some Thoughts on Nomenclature in 1946. Studies within the subject also investigate the causes of dissociation or ionization processes.
Today the term also includes the science of the corresponding regions of the atmospheres of other planets. Aeronomy is a branch of atmospheric physics. Research in aeronomy requires access to balloons, satellites, and sounding rockets which provide valuable data about this region of the atmosphere. Atmospheric tides dominate the dynamics of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, essential to understanding the atmosphere as a whole. Other phenomena studied are upper-atmospheric lightning discharges, such as red sprites, sprite halos or blue jets. — Wikipedia
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data. It wasn’t until after the elucidation of the laws of physics and, more particularly, the development of the computer, allowing for the automated solution of a great many equations that model the weather, in the latter half of the 20th century that significant breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved.
Meteorological phenomena are observable weather events that are explained by the science of meteorology. Meteorological phenomena are described and quantified by the variables of Earth’s atmosphere: temperature, air pressure, water vapor, mass flow, and the variations and interactions of those variables, and how they change over time. Different spatial scales are used to describe and predict weather on local, regional, and global levels. — Wikipedia
Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. Most weather phenomena occur in the lowest level of the atmosphere, the troposphere, just below the stratosphere. Weather refers to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate is the term for the averaging of atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time. When used without qualification, “weather” is generally understood to mean the weather of Earth.
Weather is driven by air pressure, temperature and moisture differences between one place and another. These differences can occur due to the sun’s angle at any particular spot, which varies with latitude. The strong temperature contrast between polar and tropical air gives rise to the largest scale atmospheric circulations: the Hadley Cell, the Ferrel Cell, the Polar Cell, and the jet stream. Weather systems in the mid-latitudes, such as extratropical cyclones, are caused by instabilities of the jet stream flow. Because the Earth’s axis is tilted relative to its orbital plane, sunlight is incident at different angles at different times of the year. On Earth’s surface, temperatures usually range ±40 °C (−40 °F to 100 °F) annually. Over thousands of years, changes in Earth’s orbit can affect the amount and distribution of solar energy received by the Earth, thus influencing long-term climate and global climate change. — Wikipedia
EurekAlert! - Atmospheric Science The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
- Green energy transition: Early and steady wins...on December 4, 2020 at 5:00 am
(Aarhus University) Researchers from Aarhus University and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have modelled the decarbonisation of the sector-coupled European energy system using uninterrupted high-res hourly data for every European and Scandinavian country and network interconnectivity. The research has now been published in Nature Communications and the results are clear: To reach climate-neutrality by 2050 we need solar energy. And lots of it.
- Scientists took a rare chance to prove we can...on December 4, 2020 at 5:00 am
(Pensoft Publishers) While extraction of DNA from water samples provides a convenient and non-invasive way to study aquatic biodiversity, reliable evidence that this approach is accurate enough to estimate the number of fish per species and their biomass in natural habitats, is still lacking. A new study, published in the open-access, peer-reviewed journal Metabarcoding and Metagenomics, demonstrates the high precision of the method, after comparing environmental DNA data with manually […]
- Study proves bits of DNA in seawater correlate to...on December 3, 2020 at 5:00 am
(Terry Collins Assoc) A breakthrough study proves DNA in seawater reveals not just species diversity but the relative biomass of ocean fish roughly as well as a "gold standard" US state government trawl with nets.The Rockefeller University, Monmouth University, New Jersey Bureau of Marine Fisheries study certifies "fishing for DNA" as an inexpensive, harmless complement to nets, acoustics and other tools used to monitor fish stocks and/or the shifting diversity, distribution and abundance of […]
- How hot is too hot for life deep below the ocean...on December 3, 2020 at 5:00 am
(MARUM - Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen) At what depth beneath the seabed does it become so hot that microbial life is no longer possible? This question is the focus of a close scientific cooperative effort between JAMSTEC and MARUM -- Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at the University of Bremen. An expedition by the drilling program IODP in 2016 has provided new insights into the temperature limits of life beneath the ocean floor. The findings have now […]
- How plants compete for underground real estate...on December 3, 2020 at 5:00 am
(Princeton University) How do plant roots store carbon? Princeton researchers found that the energy a plant devotes to its roots depends on proximity to other plants: when close together, plants heavily invest in their root systems to compete for finite underground resources; if far apart, they invest less. As about a third of the world's vegetation biomass (and carbon) is belowground, this model provides a valuable tool to predict root proliferation in global earth-system models.
Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.
- Average winter temperatures in Northeast have...on November 29, 2020 at 5:20 pm
In the winter of 1969-70, Philadelphia had an average temperature of 30.3 degrees Fahrenheit. Last year, the average was 39.4.
- What was early Earth like? Almost like Venus,...on November 27, 2020 at 3:30 pm
A team of international scientists led by ETH researcher Paolo Sossi has gained new insights into Earth's atmosphere of 4.5 billion years ago. Their results have implications for the possible origins of life on Earth.
- Climate change is making autumn leaves change...on November 27, 2020 at 12:43 pm
As the days shorten and temperatures drop in the northern hemisphere, leaves begin to turn. We can enjoy glorious autumnal colours while the leaves are still on the trees and, later, kicking through a red, brown and gold carpet when out walking.
- Japan spacecraft carrying asteroid soil samples...on November 27, 2020 at 11:05 am
A Japanese spacecraft is nearing Earth after a yearlong journey home from a distant asteroid with soil samples and data that could provide clues to the origins of the solar system, a space agency official said Friday.
- Irreversible hotter and drier climate over inner...on November 26, 2020 at 7:00 pm
Mongolia's semi-arid plateau may soon become as barren as parts of the American Southwest due to a "vicious cycle" of heatwaves—that exacerbates soil drying, and ultimately produces more heatwaves—according to an international group of climate scientists.
Atmosphere News -- ScienceDaily Earth's atmosphere. Learn about threats to air quality, the latest scientific research in atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric physics and more.
- Greenland ice sheet faces irreversible meltingon December 2, 2020 at 4:44 pm
Scientists predict Greenland ice sheet will pass a threshold beyond which it will never fully regrow and sea levels will be permanently higher in as little as 600 years under current climate change projections, as Greenland's climate would be permanently altered as the ice sheet shrinks.
- Climate change warms groundwater in Bavariaon December 1, 2020 at 5:41 pm
Groundwater reservoirs in Bavaria have warmed considerably over the past few decades. A new study compares temperatures at 35 measuring stations, taken at different depths, with data from the 1990s. Water found at a depth of 20 meters was almost one degree warmer on average than 30 years ago.
- How stable is the Antarctic ice sheet?on November 30, 2020 at 4:35 pm
As temperatures rise due to climate change, the melting of polar ice sheets is accelerating. An international team of scientists has now examined the dynamics of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet more closely using deep-sea sediments dating back approximately 2.5 million years. Their results indicate that, in a constantly warming climate, the ice masses of East Antarctica could be much less stable than previously thought.
- Killer electrons in strumming northern and...on November 30, 2020 at 3:12 pm
Wisps of pulsating aurora lights are a rare, yet magical sight. Now, scientists suggest they could be associated with destruction of part of the ozone.
- Supersized wind turbines generate clean...on November 23, 2020 at 10:34 pm
As wind energy scales up, researchers study the fluid dynamics challenges.