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Meteorology, Weather, Atmospheric Chemistry & Atmospheric Physics Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)

Dictionary

air : the mixture of invisible odorless tasteless gases (such as nitrogen and oxygen) that surrounds the earth — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

atmosphere : the gaseous envelope of a celestial body (such as a planet) — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Encyclopedia

Atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth’s gravity. The atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earth’s surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation).

By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1% at sea level, and 0.4% over the entire atmosphere. Air content and atmospheric pressure vary at different layers, and air suitable for use in photosynthesis by terrestrial plants and breathing of terrestrial animals is found only in Earth’s troposphere and in artificial atmospheres.

The atmosphere has a mass of about 5.15×1018 kg,[3] three quarters of which is within about 11 km (6.8 mi; 36,000 ft) of the surface. The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space. The Kármán line, at 100 km (62 mi), or 1.57% of Earth’s radius, is often used as the border between the atmosphere and outer space. Atmospheric effects become noticeable during atmospheric reentry of spacecraft at an altitude of around 120 km (75 mi). Several layers can be distinguished in the atmosphere, based on characteristics such as temperature and composition. — Wikipedia

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Weather & Meteorology (Wolfram Alpha)

Science

Atmospheric Sciences are the study of the Earth’s atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems. Meteorology includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics with a major focus on weather forecasting. Climatology is the study of atmospheric changes (both long and short-term) that define average climates and their change over time, due to both natural and anthropogenic climate variability. Aeronomy is the study of the upper layers of the atmosphere, where dissociation and ionization are important. Atmospheric science has been extended to the field of planetary science and the study of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. — Wikipedia

Category: Atmospheric sciences (Wikipedia)
Atmospheric Sciences (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Atmospheric Sciences (Wolfram Alpha)

Aeronomy is the meteorological science of the upper region of the Earth’s or other planetary atmospheres, which relates to the atmospheric motions, its chemical composition and properties, and the reaction to it from the environment from space. The term aeronomy was introduced by Sydney Chapman in a Letter to the Editor of Nature entitled Some Thoughts on Nomenclature in 1946. Studies within the subject also investigate the causes of dissociation or ionization processes.

Today the term also includes the science of the corresponding regions of the atmospheres of other planets. Aeronomy is a branch of atmospheric physics. Research in aeronomy requires access to balloons, satellites, and sounding rockets which provide valuable data about this region of the atmosphere. Atmospheric tides dominate the dynamics of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, essential to understanding the atmosphere as a whole. Other phenomena studied are upper-atmospheric lightning discharges, such as red sprites, sprite halos or blue jets. — Wikipedia


Aeronomy (Encyclopædia Britannica)

Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century. The 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data. It wasn’t until after the elucidation of the laws of physics and, more particularly, the development of the computer, allowing for the automated solution of a great many equations that model the weather, in the latter half of the 20th century that significant breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved.

Meteorological phenomena are observable weather events that are explained by the science of meteorology. Meteorological phenomena are described and quantified by the variables of Earth’s atmosphere: temperature, air pressure, water vapor, mass flow, and the variations and interactions of those variables, and how they change over time. Different spatial scales are used to describe and predict weather on local, regional, and global levels. — Wikipedia

Meteorology (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Meteorological Calculators (Calculator.com)

Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. Most weather phenomena occur in the lowest level of the atmosphere, the troposphere, just below the stratosphere. Weather refers to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate is the term for the averaging of atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time. When used without qualification, “weather” is generally understood to mean the weather of Earth.

Weather is driven by air pressure, temperature and moisture differences between one place and another. These differences can occur due to the sun’s angle at any particular spot, which varies with latitude. The strong temperature contrast between polar and tropical air gives rise to the largest scale atmospheric circulations: the Hadley Cell, the Ferrel Cell, the Polar Cell, and the jet stream. Weather systems in the mid-latitudes, such as extratropical cyclones, are caused by instabilities of the jet stream flow. Because the Earth’s axis is tilted relative to its orbital plane, sunlight is incident at different angles at different times of the year. On Earth’s surface, temperatures usually range ±40 °C (−40 °F to 100 °F) annually. Over thousands of years, changes in Earth’s orbit can affect the amount and distribution of solar energy received by the Earth, thus influencing long-term climate and global climate change. — Wikipedia

Weather (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Weather Resources (Library of Congress)
Weather Resources (Refdesk)
Weather (Wolfram Alpha)

Preservation

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Weather Forecasting Through the Ages (NASA Earth Observatory)
The birth of the weather forecast (Peter Moore, BBC)

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Quotations Page

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Australian National Meteorological Library

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Weather & Environment (Great Sites for Kids, ALA)
Atmosphere: Up in the Air (Geography4Kids)

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OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form

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EurekAlert! - Atmospheric Science The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

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    on December 12, 2018 at 5:00 am

    (American Society of Agronomy) The 2011 Las Conchas mega-fire in New Mexico burned more than 150,000 acres and threatened the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Now, using data from the fire, researchers at Los Alamos have created an experimental model that will help us better understand the interactions of fire and water in the soil. […]

  • Declining snowpack over western US mapped at a...
    on December 12, 2018 at 5:00 am

    (University of Arizona) Researchers mapped the changes in snow mass from 1982 to 2016 onto a grid of squares 2.5-miles on a side over the entire contiguous U.S. Grid size for previous studies was about 40 miles on a side. Since 1982, some parts of the West have a 41 percent reduction in the yearly maximum mass of snow. The research is scheduled for publication in Geophysical Research Letters on December 12. […]

  • Research unlocks secrets of iron storage in algae
    on December 12, 2018 at 5:00 am

    (Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences) New research shows that phytoplankton iron storage strategies may determine which species thrive in changing oceans and impact marine food webs, according to a recent paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The research examined two primary methods of iron storage and found that one makes species more resilient against shortages of the rare and essential element. […]

  • Record-wet and record-dry months increased in...
    on December 12, 2018 at 5:00 am

    (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK)) More and more rainfall extremes are observed in regions around the globe -- triggering both wet and dry records, a new study shows. Yet there are big differences between regions: The central and Eastern US, northern Europe and northern Asia have experienced heavy rainfall events that have led to severe floods in recent past. In contrast, most African regions have seen an increased frequency of months with a lack of rain. […]

  • Sierra snowpack could drop significantly by end...
    on December 11, 2018 at 5:00 am

    (DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) A future warmer world will almost certainly feature a decline in fresh water from the Sierra Nevada mountain snowpack. Now a new study by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that analyzed the headwater regions of California's 10 major reservoirs, representing nearly half of the state's surface storage, found they could see on average a 79 percent drop in peak snowpack water volume by 2100. […]


Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Declining snowpack over western US mapped at a...
    on December 12, 2018 at 3:35 pm

    Researchers have now mapped exactly where in the Western U.S. snow mass has declined since 1982. […]

  • Wet season changes under future climate change...
    on December 12, 2018 at 3:14 pm

    Later and more intense rainy seasons across parts of Africa due to climate change could have damaging consequences, a new study has found. […]

  • Coral larvae found to prefer a noisy environment
    on December 12, 2018 at 2:50 pm

    A team of researchers with the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution has found that coral larvae prefer to set up a new home in a place noisy with other living organisms over a barren soundless site. In their paper published in the journal Royal Society Open Science, the group describes experiments they carried out around reefs in the Caribbean Sea and what they learned from them. […]

  • Distortion of water droplet surface may increase...
    on December 12, 2018 at 2:50 pm

    Clouds are a big source of uncertainty in computer simulations used to study Earth systems. To reduce that uncertainty, researchers study the formation of ice in clouds. This formation influences precipitation rates, large-scale cloud motions, and cloud optical properties. This research helps to address a long-standing mystery. For more than 50 years, scientists wanted to know why water droplets will freeze at a higher temperature when they are impacted by a particle. It's the pressure of the […]

  • Astronomers confirm extended atmosphere on...
    on December 12, 2018 at 2:47 pm

    Astronomers use stellar eclipses to study the atmosphere of accretion disks around compact stars. SRON-researchers observed this method on a low-mass X-ray binary. They find a thicker atmosphere than predicted and distinguish two different gas components. The research was published in Astronomy & Astrophysics. […]


Atmosphere News -- ScienceDaily Earth's atmosphere. Learn about threats to air quality, the latest scientific research in atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric physics and more.

  • Ozone depletion increases Antarctic snowfall,...
    on December 10, 2018 at 3:19 pm

    Ozone layer depletion has increased snowfall over Antarctica in recent decades, partially mitigating the ongoing loss of the continent's ice sheet mass, new research finds. […]

  • Magnetic reconnection in space: Experiment and...
    on December 7, 2018 at 7:44 pm

    New research describes striking similarity of laboratory research findings with observations of the four-satellite Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission that studies magnetic reconnection in space. […]

  • How ice particles promote the formation of...
    on December 7, 2018 at 4:27 pm

    The production of chlorofluorocarbons, which damage the ozone layer, has been banned as far as possible. However, other substances can also tear holes in the ozone layer in combination with ice particles, such as those found in clouds. Researchers have discovered a possible mechanism for this. […]

  • Atmospheric scientists find causes of firenado in...
    on December 6, 2018 at 4:47 pm

    Atmospheric scientists have documented a rare firenado, finding a number of factors that combined at just the right time and place to catalyze the deadly Carr Fire in Northern California. These observations may help forecasters and scientists identify -- and potentially warn - for future destructive fire-generated vortices. […]

  • Pollution: New ammonia emission sources detected...
    on December 5, 2018 at 6:39 pm

    Researchers have prepared the first global map of the distribution of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) by analyzing measurements taken by satellites between 2008 and 2016. The IASI interferometer allowed them to catalog more than 200 ammonia sources, two-thirds of which had never been identified before. These sources are essentially sites of intensive livestock production and industrial activity. […]