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ocean : a : the whole body of salt water that covers nearly three fourths of the surface of the earth b : any of the large bodies of water (as the Atlantic Ocean) into which the great ocean is divided — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary


Roget’s II (Thesaurus.com), Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Ocean is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet’s hydrosphere. On Earth, an ocean is one of the major conventional divisions of the World Ocean, which covers almost 71% of its surface. These are, in descending order by area, the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern (Antarctic), and Arctic Oceans. The word sea is often used interchangeably with “ocean” in American English but, strictly speaking, a sea is a body of saline water (generally a division of the world ocean) partly or fully enclosed by land.

Saline water covers approximately 72% of the planet’s surface (~3.6×108 km2) and is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas, with the ocean covering approximately 71% of Earth’s surface and 90% of the Earth’s biosphere. The ocean contains 97% of Earth’s water, and oceanographers have stated that less than 5% of the World Ocean has been explored. The total volume is approximately 1.35 billion cubic kilometers (320 million cu mi) with an average depth of nearly 3,700 meters (12,100 ft).

As the world ocean is the principal component of Earth’s hydrosphere, it is integral to all known life, forms part of the carbon cycle, and influences climate and weather patterns. The world ocean is the habitat of 230,000 known species, but because much of it is unexplored, the number of species that exist is much larger, possibly over two million. The origin of Earth’s oceans remains unknown; oceans are thought to have formed in the Hadean period and may have been the impetus for the emergence of life. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Know Your Ocean (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)
Ocean: Find Your Blue (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)
Ocean Exploration and Research (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)


Ocean (Wolfram Alpha)

Okeanos Explorer (NOAA)
NOAAS Okeanos Explorer (Wikipedia)
How to save the world’s ocean (The Economist, YouTube Channel)




Oceanography, also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean. It is an Earth science, which covers a wide range of topics, including ecosystem dynamics; ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries. These diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines that oceanographers blend to further knowledge of the world ocean and understanding of processes within: astronomy, biology, chemistry, climatology, geography, geology, hydrology, meteorology and physics. Paleoceanography studies the history of the oceans in the geologic past. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Oceans and Coasts (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)
Oceanography (NASA)
Oceanography (Wolfram Alpha)

Tide Data (Wolfram Alpha)

10 weird things you never knew about the ocean’s deepest places (Alan Jamieson, Science Alert)


The first descent to the deepest point in the ocean in 1960 has been brought to life with an immersive 360 VR film. The voyage to full ocean depth is narrated by US Captain Don Walsh who is one of two men who retain the record to this day for the deepest ever manned submersible dive to a depth of 11km (7 miles). On 23 January 1960, the US Navy Captain, now 85, and Swiss engineer Jacques Piccard, deceased, became the first people to descend to 10,911m (35,797ft) to the bottom of the Challenger Deep aboard the Swiss-built US Navy bathyscaphe, Trieste. The Challenger Deep is the deepest known point in the Earth’s ocean and is located within the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean.

Nekton Deep Ocean Exploration
Nekton Mission (YouTube Channel)
Nekton’s 360 Video Gallery (YouTube Playlist)




Maritime History (Library of Congress)
The Ocean Through Time (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)
Waterworld: How the ocean made us who we are (Text by Deborah Cramer Graphic by Javier Zarracina, Boston Globe)


Quotations Page


National Maritime Museum (Royal Museums Greenwich)

The Mariners’ Museum (Christopher Newport University)

Oceans: Find Your Blue (Smithsonian)


National Maritime Digital Library

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




The Ocean Matters (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)
Ocean Explorer (NOAA)
Ocean: Find your Blue (Smithsonian)
Oceans Education (National Geographic)
Oceans Digital Explorer
Oceanography Resource Guide for Water Studies (Don Huie, iSpring Water Filter)2


SEA Semester Study Abroad Programs (Sea Education Association)

Ocean Science & Engineering (MIT Open Courseware)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



What does an oceanographer do? (NOAA)


Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Oceans (National Geographic)
Protecting Our Oceans (Greenpeace)


Ocean Science Journal
NOAA Ocean Explorer: Ocean Exploration in the News
AAAS EurekAlert!
Science Daily
NPR Archives




National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research
National Ocean Service (NOAA)
National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC, NOAA)






OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics


More News …

OS - recent papers Combined list of the recent articles of the journal Ocean Science and the recent discussion forum Ocean Science Discussions

Oceanography News -- ScienceDaily Oceanography news. Learn about ocean currents, coastal erosion, sea level rising and other topics in physical oceanography.

  • Changes in marine ecosystems going undetected
    on September 30, 2022 at 1:08 pm

    Existing ways of calculating biodiversity dynamics are not very effective in detecting wholesale species community change due to the effects of ocean acidification.

  • Observations confirm model predictions of...
    on September 30, 2022 at 12:40 am

    Rising sea levels from melting glaciers and ice sheets pose an increasing threat to coastal communities worldwide. A new analysis of high-resolution satellite observations takes a major step forward in assessing this risk by confirming theoretical predictions and computational models of sea-level […]


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Life Cell, Gene, Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Cuttlefish, Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.

2.   Thank you for the link to the resource Chelsea and Dorothy! 🙂