Tree of Life
Plant Flower, Tree
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human
These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
Know Your Ocean (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution)
Ocean: Find Your Blue (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)
Ocean Exploration and Research (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)
ocean : a : the whole body of salt water that covers nearly three fourths of the surface of the earth b : any of the large bodies of water (as the Atlantic Ocean) into which the great ocean is divided — Webster
Ocean is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet’s hydrosphere. On Earth, an ocean is one of the major conventional divisions of the World Ocean, which covers almost 71% of its surface. These are, in descending order by area, the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern (Antarctic), and Arctic Oceans. The word sea is often used interchangeably with “ocean” in American English but, strictly speaking, a sea is a body of saline water (generally a division of the world ocean) partly or fully enclosed by land.
Saline water covers approximately 72% of the planet’s surface (~3.6×108 km2) and is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas, with the ocean covering approximately 71% of Earth’s surface and 90% of the Earth’s biosphere. The ocean contains 97% of Earth’s water, and oceanographers have stated that less than 5% of the World Ocean has been explored. The total volume is approximately 1.35 billion cubic kilometers (320 million cu mi) with an average depth of nearly 3,700 meters (12,100 ft).
As the world ocean is the principal component of Earth’s hydrosphere, it is integral to all known life, forms part of the carbon cycle, and influences climate and weather patterns. The world ocean is the habitat of 230,000 known species, but because much of it is unexplored, the number of species that exist is much larger, possibly over two million. The origin of Earth’s oceans remains unknown; oceans are thought to have formed in the Hadean period and may have been the impetus for the emergence of life. — Wikipedia
Oceanography, also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean. It is an Earth science, which covers a wide range of topics, including ecosystem dynamics; ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries. These diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines that oceanographers blend to further knowledge of the world ocean and understanding of processes within: astronomy, biology, chemistry, climatology, geography, geology, hydrology, meteorology and physics. Paleoceanography studies the history of the oceans in the geologic past. — Wikipedia
The first descent to the deepest point in the ocean in 1960 has been brought to life with an immersive 360 VR film. The voyage to full ocean depth is narrated by US Captain Don Walsh who is one of two men who retain the record to this day for the deepest ever manned submersible dive to a depth of 11km (7 miles). On 23 January 1960, the US Navy Captain, now 85, and Swiss engineer Jacques Piccard, deceased, became the first people to descend to 10,911m (35,797ft) to the bottom of the Challenger Deep aboard the Swiss-built US Navy bathyscaphe, Trieste. The Challenger Deep is the deepest known point in the Earth’s ocean and is located within the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean.
Maritime History (Library of Congress)
The Ocean Through Time (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History)
Waterworld: How the ocean made us who we are (Text by Deborah Cramer Graphic by Javier Zarracina, Boston Globe)
Note: This is a 360° Video — press and hold to explore it!
Oceanography News -- ScienceDaily Oceanography news. Learn about ocean currents, coastal erosion, sea level rising and other topics in physical oceanography.
- Lost and found: Geologists 'resurrect' missing...on October 20, 2020 at 5:14 pm
A team of geologists believes they have found the lost plate known as Resurrection in northern Canada by using existing mantle tomography images.
- Microbial diversity below seafloor is as rich as...on October 20, 2020 at 5:13 pm
For the first time, researchers have mapped the biological diversity of marine sediment, one of Earth's largest global biomes. The research team discovered that microbial diversity in the dark, energy-limited world beneath the seafloor is as diverse as in Earth's surface biomes.
OS - recent papers Combined list of the recent articles of the journal Ocean Science and the recent discussion forum Ocean Science Discussions
- Properties and dynamics of mesoscale eddies in...on October 23, 2020 at 2:49 pm
Properties and dynamics of mesoscale eddies in Fram Strait from a comparison between two high-resolution ocean–sea ice models Claudia Wekerle, Tore Hattermann, Qiang Wang, Laura Crews, Wilken-Jon von Appen, and Sergey Danilov Ocean Sci., 16, […]
- Connecting flow–topography interactions,...on October 20, 2020 at 2:49 pm
Connecting flow–topography interactions, vorticity balance, baroclinic instability and transport in the Southern Ocean: the case of an idealized storm track Julien Jouanno and Xavier Capet Ocean Sci., 16, 1207–1223, […]
NOAA Ocean Explorer: Ocean Exploration in the News Ocean exploration is a dynamic and exciting field. New discoveries and explorations, advances in technology, and important findings in deep-ocean science happen every day. The items on this page capture big news in ocean exploration, not just at NOAA, but around the field. Check back regularly or subscribe to our feed to stay on top of this ever-changing world that explores the deep.
- The 'Curious' Robots Searching for the Ocean's...by The Atlantic on February 23, 2017 at 12:00 am
A new class of machines knows how to recognize and investigate unexpected things that pop up underwater.
- New generation of underwater drones makes waves...by CBS News on November 2, 2016 at 12:00 am
Underwater drones are opening up a whole new frontier of exploration. The lightweight vehicles can zip along coral reefs, explore marine life and even go inside shipwrecks.