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particle : any of the basic units of matter and energy (such as a molecule, atom, proton, electron, or photon) — Webster

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Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Particle is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass. They vary greatly in size or quantity, from subatomic particles like the electron, to microscopic particles like atoms and molecules, to macroscopic particles like powders and other granular materials. Particles can also be used to create scientific models of even larger objects depending on their density, such as humans moving in a crowd or celestial bodies in motion. — Wikipedia

Encyclopedia of theoretical high energy physics (Scholarpedia)
Encyclopedia of experimental high energy physics (Scholarpedia)
Encyclopædia Britannica


The Particle Adventure: Interactive Adventure of the Inner Workings of the Atom (Particle Data Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboatory)
Online Particle Physics Information (SLAC Library)


Particle (WolframAlpha)






Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word particle can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. protons, gas particles, or even household dust), particle physics usually investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles and the fundamental interactions necessary to explain their behavior. By our current understanding, these elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that also govern their interactions. The currently dominant theory explaining these fundamental particles and fields, along with their dynamics, is called the Standard Model. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

The Standard Model (CERN)
Particle Physics (Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics, Wolfram Research)
Quantum Physics (Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics, Wolfram Research)
Particle Physics (Wolfram Alpha)
Quantum Physics (Wolfram Alpha)




Particle Physics Timeline (The Particle Adventure)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Contemporary Physics Project


Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics (MIT OCW Physics)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Particle Physics (AAAS EurekAlert!)
Particle Physics (Science News)
Quantum Physics (
Quantum Physics (ScienceDaily)
NPR Archives








More News …

Quantum Physics News The latest news on quantum physics, wave particle duality, quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation, and quantum computing.

  • Custom 'headphones' boost atomic radio reception...
    on May 23, 2022 at 3:13 pm

    Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have boosted the sensitivity of their atomic radio receiver a hundredfold by enclosing a small glass cylinder of cesium atoms inside what looks like custom copper "headphones."

  • Unique quantum material could enable...
    on May 20, 2022 at 8:26 pm

    Information in computers is transmitted through semiconductors by the movement of electrons and stored in the direction of the electron spin in magnetic materials. To shrink devices while improving their performance—a goal of an emerging field called spin-electronics ("spintronics")—researchers are searching for unique materials that combine both quantum properties. Writing in Nature Materials, a team of chemists and physicists at Columbia finds a strong link between electron transport and […]

  • Collaboration reveals interplay between charge...
    on May 20, 2022 at 2:56 pm

    High temperature superconductivity is something of a holy grail for researchers studying quantum materials. Superconductors, which conduct electricity without dissipating energy, promise to revolutionize our energy and telecommunication power systems. However, superconductors typically work at extremely low temperatures, requiring elaborate freezers or expensive coolants. For this reason, scientist have been relentlessly working on understanding the fundamental mechanisms at the base of […]

  • Electrons in a crystal found to exhibit linked...
    on May 20, 2022 at 2:56 pm

    As physicists delve deeper into the quantum realm, they are discovering an infinitesimally small world composed of a strange and surprising array of links, knots and winding. Some quantum materials exhibit magnetic whirls called skyrmions—unique configurations described as "subatomic hurricanes." Others host a form of superconductivity that twists into vortices.

  • Researchers discover new 'unexpected' phenomenon...
    on May 20, 2022 at 1:36 pm

    Researchers at Northeastern have discovered a new quantum phenomenon in a specific class of materials, called antiferromagnetic insulators, that could yield new ways of powering "spintronic" and other technological devices of the future.

Quantum Physics News -- ScienceDaily News on quantum physics. Read current research on everything from quantum mechanics to quantum dots. Was Albert Einstein right?

  • Spinning is key for line-dancing electrons in...
    on May 23, 2022 at 1:33 pm

    Quantum physicists have answered a puzzling question at the forefront of research into iron-based superconductors: Why do electrons in iron selenide dance to a different tune when they move right and left rather than forward and back? In a new study, the researchers report the discovery of high-energy spin anisotropy that occurs concurrently with electronic nematicity in iron selenide.

  • Interplay between charge order and...
    on May 20, 2022 at 11:31 am

    Scientists have been relentlessly working on understanding the fundamental mechanisms at the base of high-temperature superconductivity with the ultimate goal to design and engineer new quantum materials superconducting close to room temperature.

  • Is it topological? A new materials database has...
    on May 19, 2022 at 6:09 pm

    A new materials database reveals more than 90,000 known 'topological' materials with persistent electronic properties.

  • Going gentle on mechanical quantum systems
    on May 13, 2022 at 5:49 pm

    Systems in which mechanical motion is controlled at the level of individual quanta are emerging as a promising quantum-?technology platform. New experimental work now establishes how quantum properties of such systems can be measured without destroying the quantum state -- a key ingredient for tapping the full potential of mechanical quantum systems.

  • When quan­tum par­ti­cles fly like bees
    on May 12, 2022 at 6:43 pm

    A quantum system with only 51 charged atoms can take on more than two quadrillion different states. Calculating the system's behavior is child's play for a quantum simulator. But verifying the result is almost impossible, even with today's supercomputers. A research team has now shown how these systems can be verified using equations formulated in the 18th century.


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Law (Constant) Relativity
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)
Matter (Microscope) Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle

Universe (Astronomical Instrument)
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Our Neighborhood
Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.