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Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



The Particle Adventure: Interactive Adventure of the Inner Workings of the Atom (Particle Data Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboatory)
Online Particle Physics Information (SLAC Library)


particle : any of the basic units of matter and energy (such as a molecule, atom, proton, electron, or photon) — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Particle is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass. They vary greatly in size or quantity, from subatomic particles like the electron, to microscopic particles like atoms and molecules, to macroscopic particles like powders and other granular materials. Particles can also be used to create scientific models of even larger objects depending on their density, such as humans moving in a crowd or celestial bodies in motion. — Wikipedia

Encyclopedia of theoretical high energy physics (Scholarpedia)
Encyclopedia of experimental high energy physics (Scholarpedia)
Encyclopædia Britannica



Particle (WolframAlpha)


Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word particle can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. protons, gas particles, or even household dust), particle physics usually investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles and the fundamental interactions necessary to explain their behavior. By our current understanding, these elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that also govern their interactions. The currently dominant theory explaining these fundamental particles and fields, along with their dynamics, is called the Standard Model. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

The Standard Model (CERN)
Particle Physics (Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics, Wolfram Research)
Quantum Physics (Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics, Wolfram Research)
Particle Physics (Wolfram Alpha)
Quantum Physics (Wolfram Alpha)


Particle Physics Timeline (The Particle Adventure)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Contemporary Physics Project


Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics (MIT OCW Physics)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Particle Physics (AAAS EurekAlert!)
Particle Physics (Science News)
Quantum Physics (
Quantum Physics (ScienceDaily)
NPR Archives






Quantum Physics News provides the latest news on quantum physics, wave particle duality, quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation, and quantum computing.

  • Copper compound as promising quantum computing...
    on December 12, 2018 at 11:43 am

    Quantum computers could vastly increase the capabilities of IT systems, bringing major changes worldwide. However, there is still a long way to go before such a device can actually be constructed, because it has not yet been possible to transfer existing molecular concepts into technologies in a practical way. This has not kept researchers around the world away from developing and optimising new ideas for individual components. Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have […]

  • New optical device brings quantum computing a...
    on December 10, 2018 at 2:21 pm

    An international team of researchers has taken a big step closer to creating an optical quantum computer, which has the potential to engineer new drugs and optimise energy-saving methods. […]

  • Harnessing the power of 'spin orbit' coupling in...
    on December 7, 2018 at 7:00 pm

    Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits—utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits—adding a new suite of tools to the armory. […]

  • Student engineers an interaction between two...
    on December 6, 2018 at 1:17 pm

    In the world of quantum computing, interaction is everything. […]

  • Plasmonic quantum size effects in silver...
    on December 5, 2018 at 12:53 pm

    When metallic dimensions are reduced to the nanoscale, a phenomenon termed localized surface-plasmon resonance (LSPR) appears due to electron oscillations, resulting in distinct optical properties suited for advanced imaging and sensing technologies. As particles approach the quantum regime with dimensions less than 10 nm in diameter, however, the existing knowledge of their properties becomes quite hazy. The plasmonic character depends on the collective electronic excitation that can be tuned […]

Quantum Physics News -- ScienceDaily News on quantum physics. Read current research on everything from quantum mechanics to quantum dots. Was Albert Einstein right?

  • How unconventional metals behave, with an eye on...
    on December 12, 2018 at 9:01 pm

    By trapping atoms in a lattice of light, researchers explore how unconventional metals conduct electricity, with an eye toward understanding high-temperature superconductors. […]

  • Bose-Einstein condensates cannot currently detect...
    on December 12, 2018 at 6:50 pm

    The gravitational waves created in the depths of space indeed reach Earth. Their effects, however, are so small that they could only be observed so far using kilometer-long measurement facilities. Physicists therefore discuss whether Bose-Einstein condensates with their ordered quantum properties could also detect these waves. Astronomers have now looked at these suggestions and have soberly determined that such evidence is far beyond the reach of current methods. […]

  • Topological material switched off and on for the...
    on December 10, 2018 at 7:20 pm

    A new study represents a significant advance in topological transistors and beyond-CMOS electronics. First time that the topological state in a topological insulator has been switched on and off using an electric field. Researchers proved this is possible at room temperature, which is necessary for any viable replacement to CMOS technology in everyday applications. […]

  • Novel laser technology for microchip-size...
    on December 10, 2018 at 4:58 pm

    A special laser system has been developed, using two slightly different frequency combs. This allows for chemical analysis on tiny spaces -- it is a millimeter-format chemistry lab. With this new patent-pending technology, frequency combs can be created on a single chip in a very simple and robust manner. […]

  • A new 'spin' on kagome lattices
    on December 7, 2018 at 8:42 pm

    The kagome ferromagnet Fe3Sn2 exhibits an electronic state that couples unusually strongly to an applied magnetic field that can be rotated to point in any direction of a 3-dimensional space, revealing that magnetization drives -- in quantum scale -- a 'giant' energy shift within the material, an international team of researchers has found. […]