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particle : any of the basic units of matter and energy (such as a molecule, atom, proton, electron, or photon) — Webster   See also OneLook


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Particle is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass. They vary greatly in size or quantity, from subatomic particles like the electron, to microscopic particles like atoms and molecules, to macroscopic particles like powders and other granular materials. Particles can also be used to create scientific models of even larger objects depending on their density, such as humans moving in a crowd or celestial bodies in motion. — Wikipedia

Particle (Encyclopædia Britannica)




Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word particle can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. protons, gas particles, or even household dust), particle physics usually investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles and the fundamental interactions necessary to explain their behavior. By our current understanding, these elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that also govern their interactions. The currently dominant theory explaining these fundamental particles and fields, along with their dynamics, is called the Standard Model. — Wikipedia

Particle Physics (Encyclopædia Britannica)

Particle Physics (Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics, Wolfram Research)
Particle Physics (Wolfram Alpha)

Standard Model of particle physics describes three of the four known fundamental forces (electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions, omitting gravity) in the universe and classifying all known elementary particles. It was developed in stages throughout the latter half of the 20th century, through the work of many scientists worldwide, with the current formulation being finalized in the mid-1970s upon experimental confirmation of the existence of quarks. Since then, proof of the top quark (1995), the tau neutrino (2000), and the Higgs boson (2012) have added further credence to the Standard Model. In addition, the Standard Model has predicted various properties of weak neutral currents and the W and Z bosons with great accuracy. — Wikipedia

Accepted Physics (Fermilab, YouTube Channel)



Particle Physics Campaigns (Kickstarter)
Particle Physics Campaigns (Indiegogo)


Particle Physics Gifts (Zazzle)




The Standard Model (CERN)

Modern View, Standard Model Timeline (The Particle Adventure)


Library of Congress # QC793 Particles (UPenn Online Books)

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




The Particle Adventure: Interactive Adventure of the Inner Workings of the Atom (Particle Data Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)
Fundamental Particles (Contemporary Physics Project)

MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Particle Physics Courses (MIT OpenCourseWare)


Particle Physics (Science News)
Particle Physics (NPR Archives)


Particle Physics (ISBNdb)


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CERN (Official Site)
CERN (YouTube Channel)
CERN (Encyclopædia Britannica)
CERN (Wikipedia)

Note: This is a 360° Video — press and hold to explore it!

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (Official Site)
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (YouTube Channel)
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (Encyclopædia Britannica)
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (Wikipedia)

Fermilab (Official Site)
Fermilab (YouTube Channel)
Fermilab (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Fermilab (Wikipedia)


Particle Physics (



A Capella Science (Official site)
A Capella Science (YouTube Channel)
Tim Blais (Wikipedia)



Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Law (Constant) Relativity
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)
Matter (Microscope) Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle

Universe (Astronomical Instrument)
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Our Neighborhood
Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.