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Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



The Particle Adventure: Interactive Adventure of the Inner Workings of the Atom (Particle Data Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboatory)
Online Particle Physics Information (SLAC Library)


particle : any of the basic units of matter and energy (such as a molecule, atom, proton, electron, or photon) — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Particle is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass. They vary greatly in size or quantity, from subatomic particles like the electron, to microscopic particles like atoms and molecules, to macroscopic particles like powders and other granular materials. Particles can also be used to create scientific models of even larger objects depending on their density, such as humans moving in a crowd or celestial bodies in motion. — Wikipedia

Encyclopedia of theoretical high energy physics (Scholarpedia)
Encyclopedia of experimental high energy physics (Scholarpedia)
Encyclopædia Britannica



Particle (WolframAlpha)


Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word particle can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. protons, gas particles, or even household dust), particle physics usually investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles and the fundamental interactions necessary to explain their behavior. By our current understanding, these elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that also govern their interactions. The currently dominant theory explaining these fundamental particles and fields, along with their dynamics, is called the Standard Model. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

The Standard Model (CERN)
Particle Physics (Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics, Wolfram Research)
Quantum Physics (Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics, Wolfram Research)
Particle Physics (Wolfram Alpha)
Quantum Physics (Wolfram Alpha)


Particle Physics Timeline (The Particle Adventure)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Contemporary Physics Project


Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics (MIT OCW Physics)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Particle Physics (AAAS EurekAlert!)
Particle Physics (Science News)
Quantum Physics (
Quantum Physics (ScienceDaily)
NPR Archives






Quantum Physics News The latest news on quantum physics, wave particle duality, quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation, and quantum computing.

  • The long-range transport of deconfined magnetic...
    on January 18, 2021 at 2:50 pm

    Spintronics is an emerging area of research that aims to develop devices that transmit, process and store information leveraging the intrinsic angular momentum of electrons, known as spin. A key objective of spintronics studies is to identify strategies to use magnetic insulators to achieve the transport of signals over long distances.

  • Using drones to create local quantum networks
    on January 18, 2021 at 1:40 pm

    A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in China has used drones to create a prototype of a small airborne quantum network. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the researchers describe sending entangled particles from one drone to another and from a drone to the ground.

  • One-dimensional quantum nanowires fertile ground...
    on January 18, 2021 at 12:24 pm

    Why is studying spin properties of one-dimensional quantum nanowires important?

  • Physicists propose a new theory to explain one...
    on January 15, 2021 at 5:06 pm

    Liquids are ubiquitous in Nature: from the water that we consume daily to superfluid helium which is a quantum liquid appearing at temperatures as low as only a few degrees above the absolute zero. A common feature of these vastly different liquids is being self-bound in free space in the form of droplets. Understanding from a microscopic perspective how a liquid is formed by adding particles one by one is a significant challenge.

  • Researchers conduct security analysis and improve...
    on January 14, 2021 at 9:19 pm

    Recently, the research team led by academician GUO Guangcan from the University of Science and Technology of China of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has made security analysis and improvement of source independent quantum random number generators with imperfect devices.

Quantum Physics News -- ScienceDaily News on quantum physics. Read current research on everything from quantum mechanics to quantum dots. Was Albert Einstein right?

  • Helium nuclei at the surface of heavy nuclei...
    on January 15, 2021 at 4:03 pm

    Scientists are able to selectively knockout nucleons and preformed nuclear clusters from atomic nuclei using high-energy proton beams. In an experiment the existence of preformed helium nuclei at the surface of several tin isotopes could be identified in a reaction. The results confirm a theory, which predicts the formation of helium clusters in low-density nuclear matter and at the surface of heavy nuclei.

  • New state of matter in one-dimensional quantum gas
    on January 14, 2021 at 9:39 pm

    By adding some magnetic flair to an exotic quantum experiment, physicists produced an ultra-stable one-dimensional quantum gas with never-before-seen 'scar' states - a feature that could someday be useful for securing quantum information.

  • New way to control electrical charge in 2D...
    on January 14, 2021 at 6:01 pm

    Gaining control of the flow of electrical current through atomically thin materials is important to potential future applications in photovoltaics or computing. Physicists have discovered one way to locally add electrical charge to a graphene device.

  • Pivotal discovery in quantum and classical...
    on January 13, 2021 at 7:44 pm

    Researchers have achieved, for the first time, electronically adjustable interactions between microwaves and a phenomenon in certain magnetic materials called spin waves. This could have application in quantum and classical information processing.

  • Could we harness energy from black holes?
    on January 13, 2021 at 3:08 pm

    Physicists have found a new way to extract energy from black holes by breaking and rejoining magnetic field lines near the event horizon.