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Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



The Particle Adventure: Interactive Adventure of the Inner Workings of the Atom (Particle Data Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboatory)
Online Particle Physics Information (SLAC Library)


particle : any of the basic units of matter and energy (such as a molecule, atom, proton, electron, or photon) — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Particle is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass. They vary greatly in size or quantity, from subatomic particles like the electron, to microscopic particles like atoms and molecules, to macroscopic particles like powders and other granular materials. Particles can also be used to create scientific models of even larger objects depending on their density, such as humans moving in a crowd or celestial bodies in motion. — Wikipedia

Encyclopedia of theoretical high energy physics (Scholarpedia)
Encyclopedia of experimental high energy physics (Scholarpedia)
Encyclopædia Britannica



Particle (WolframAlpha)


Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word particle can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. protons, gas particles, or even household dust), particle physics usually investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles and the fundamental interactions necessary to explain their behavior. By our current understanding, these elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that also govern their interactions. The currently dominant theory explaining these fundamental particles and fields, along with their dynamics, is called the Standard Model. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

The Standard Model (CERN)
Particle Physics (Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics, Wolfram Research)
Quantum Physics (Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics, Wolfram Research)
Particle Physics (Wolfram Alpha)
Quantum Physics (Wolfram Alpha)


Particle Physics Timeline (The Particle Adventure)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Contemporary Physics Project


Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics (MIT OCW Physics)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Particle Physics (AAAS EurekAlert!)
Particle Physics (Science News)
Quantum Physics (
Quantum Physics (ScienceDaily)
NPR Archives






Quantum Physics News provides the latest news on quantum physics, wave particle duality, quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation, and quantum computing.

  • A bridge to the quantum world
    on October 22, 2018 at 2:00 pm

    Monika Aidelsburger uses a special type of optical lattice to simulate quantum many-body phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible to experimental exploration. She has now been awarded an ERC Starting Grant to pursue this work. […]

  • AI changing the way scientists carry out...
    on October 22, 2018 at 1:38 pm

    There's plenty of speculation about what artificial intelligence, or AI, will look like in the future, but researchers from The Australian National University (ANU) are already harnessing its power. […]

  • A new way to measure nearly nothing: Ultracold...
    on October 20, 2018 at 6:16 am

    Many semiconductor fabricators and research labs are under increasing pressure from, of all things, vacuum. These facilities need to remove greater amounts of gas molecules and particles from their setups as new technologies and processes demand lower and lower pressures. For example, the vacuum chambers in which microchip manufacturers lay down a series of ultrathin layers of chemicals step by step—a process that must be utterly free of contaminants—operate at about one […]

  • Breakthrough in accessing the tiny magnet within...
    on October 18, 2018 at 6:00 pm

    Researchers at the Center for Quantum Nanoscience (QNS) within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) in South Korea have made a major scientific breakthrough by detecting the nuclear magnetism, or "nuclear spin" of a single atom. In an international collaboration with IBM Research, the University of Oxford and the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, QNS scientists used advanced and novel techniques to measure the nuclear spin of individual atoms on surfaces for the first time. […]

  • Physicist describes the shape of a wormhole
    on October 17, 2018 at 12:40 pm

    A RUDN physicist demonstrated how to describe the shape of any symmetrical wormhole—a black hole that theoretically can be a kind of a portal between any two points in space and time—based on its wave spectrum. The research would help understand the physics of wormholes and better identify their physical characteristics. The article was published in the Physics Letters B journal. […]

Quantum Physics News -- ScienceDaily News on quantum physics. Read current research on everything from quantum mechanics to quantum dots. Was Albert Einstein right?

  • Molecular memory can be used to increase the...
    on October 19, 2018 at 2:06 pm

    Scientists have taken part in research where the first molecule capable of remembering the direction of a magnetic above liquid nitrogen temperatures has been prepared and characterized. The results may be used in the future to massively increase the storage capacity of hard disks without increasing their physical size. […]

  • Pushing the (extra cold) frontiers of...
    on October 18, 2018 at 7:10 pm

    Scientists have developed a method to measure magnetic properties of superconducting and magnetic materials that exhibit unusual quantum behavior at very low temperatures in high magnetic fields. […]

  • First proof of quantum computer advantage
    on October 18, 2018 at 6:11 pm

    Quantum computers promise to revolutionize the future of computing. Scientists have now demonstrated for the first time that quantum computers do indeed offer advantages over conventional computers. They developed a quantum circuit that can solve a problem that is unsolvable using any equivalent classical circuit. […]

  • Extremely small magnetic nanostructures with...
    on October 18, 2018 at 2:53 pm

    In novel concepts of magnetic data storage, it is intended to send small magnetic bits back and forth in a chip structure, store them densely packed and read them out later. The magnetic stray field generates problems when trying to generate particularly tiny bits. Now, researchers were able to put an 'invisibility cloak' over the magnetic structures. In this fashion, the magnetic stray field can be reduced in a fashion allowing for small yet mobile bits. […]

  • The state of the early universe: The beginning...
    on October 15, 2018 at 3:35 pm

    Scientists recently collided Xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP). The QGP is a special state consisting of the fundamental particles, the quarks, and the particles that bind the quarks together, the gluons. The result was obtained using the ALICE experiment at the superconducting Large Hadron Collider. […]