Cosma Home > Communication > Knowledge > Realm > Physical > Particle




Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



The Particle Adventure: Interactive Adventure of the Inner Workings of the Atom (Particle Data Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboatory)
Online Particle Physics Information (SLAC Library)


particle : any of the basic units of matter and energy (such as a molecule, atom, proton, electron, or photon) — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Particle is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass. They vary greatly in size or quantity, from subatomic particles like the electron, to microscopic particles like atoms and molecules, to macroscopic particles like powders and other granular materials. Particles can also be used to create scientific models of even larger objects depending on their density, such as humans moving in a crowd or celestial bodies in motion. — Wikipedia

Encyclopedia of theoretical high energy physics (Scholarpedia)
Encyclopedia of experimental high energy physics (Scholarpedia)
Encyclopædia Britannica



Particle (WolframAlpha)


Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word particle can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. protons, gas particles, or even household dust), particle physics usually investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles and the fundamental interactions necessary to explain their behavior. By our current understanding, these elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that also govern their interactions. The currently dominant theory explaining these fundamental particles and fields, along with their dynamics, is called the Standard Model. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

The Standard Model (CERN)
Particle Physics (Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics, Wolfram Research)
Quantum Physics (Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics, Wolfram Research)
Particle Physics (Wolfram Alpha)
Quantum Physics (Wolfram Alpha)


Particle Physics Timeline (The Particle Adventure)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Contemporary Physics Project


Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics (MIT OCW Physics)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Particle Physics (AAAS EurekAlert!)
Particle Physics (Science News)
Quantum Physics (
Quantum Physics (ScienceDaily)
NPR Archives






Quantum Physics News The latest news on quantum physics, wave particle duality, quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation, and quantum computing.

  • Scientists find no hint of sterile neutrino
    on October 27, 2021 at 4:48 pm

    New results from the MicroBooNE experiment at the U.S. Department of Energy's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory deal a blow to a theoretical particle known as the sterile neutrino. There is no such thing.

  • Two Chinese teams claim to have reached primacy...
    on October 27, 2021 at 12:36 pm

    Two teams in China are claiming that they have reached primacy with their individual quantum computers. Both have published the details of their work in the journal Physical Review Letters.

  • Making the strange metal state in high...
    on October 27, 2021 at 12:10 pm

    Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have uncovered a striking new behavior of the 'strange metal' state of high temperature superconductors. The discovery represents an important piece of the puzzle for understanding these materials, and the findings have been published in the journal Science.

  • This device could usher in GPS-free navigation
    on October 26, 2021 at 7:52 pm

    Don't let the titanium metal walls or the sapphire windows fool you. It's what's on the inside of this small, curious device that could someday kick off a new era of navigation.

  • Chip-based quantum microcomb creates entanglement...
    on October 26, 2021 at 4:40 pm

    Researchers have developed a tiny optical frequency comb, or microcomb, that uses two-mode squeezing to create unconditional entanglement between continuous optical fields. The miniature chip-based device lays the groundwork for mass production of deterministic quantum frequency combs that could be used for quantum computing, quantum metrology and quantum sensing.

Quantum Physics News -- ScienceDaily News on quantum physics. Read current research on everything from quantum mechanics to quantum dots. Was Albert Einstein right?

  • Making the strange metal state in high...
    on October 27, 2021 at 12:54 pm

    Researchers have uncovered a striking new behavior of the 'strange metal' state of high temperature superconductors. The discovery represents an important piece of the puzzle for understanding these materials.

  • Dynamical scaling of entanglement entropy and...
    on October 26, 2021 at 7:33 pm

    A team of physicists has demonstrated numerically a dynamical one-parameter scaling called 'Family-Vicsek (FV) scaling,' originally found in surface growth physics, in disordered quantum systems.

  • New strategy for detecting non-conformist...
    on October 26, 2021 at 1:43 pm

    By observing how strange particles called anyons dissipate heat, researchers have shown that they can probe the properties of these particles in systems that could be relevant for topological quantum computing.

  • New synthesis process paves way for more...
    on October 25, 2021 at 9:21 pm

    Researchers have developed a new process that makes use of existing industry standard techniques for making III-nitride semiconductor materials, but results in layered materials that will make LEDs and lasers more efficient.

  • Experiments confirm a quantum material’s unique...
    on October 22, 2021 at 9:15 pm

    Scientists are probing topological insulators with circularly polarized light to reveal their many secrets. These exotic materials have potential for quantum computing and other technologies. They discovered that high harmonic generation produces a unique signature from the topological surface.