Cosma / Communication / Content / Information

I was brought up to believe that the only thing worth doing was to add to the sum of accurate information in the world — Margaret Mead



MAYAnMAYA (YouTube Channel)


I find that a great part of the information I have was acquired by looking up something and finding something else on the way. — Franklin P. Adams


information : (1) a signal or character (as in a communication system or computer) representing data (2) something (such as a message, experimental data, or a picture) which justifies change in a construct (such as a plan or theory) that represents physical or mental experience — Merriam-Webster   See also   OneLook


ASIS Thesaurus of Information Science and Librarianship (J. L. Milstead Ed., 1994)

Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Information is expressed either as the content of a message or through direct or indirect observation. That which is perceived can be construed as a message in its own right, and in that sense, information is always conveyed as the content of a message. Information can be encoded into various forms for transmission and interpretation (for example, information may be encoded into a sequence of signs, or transmitted via a signal). It can also be encrypted for safe storage and communication. Information can be transmitted in time, via data storage, and space, via communication and telecommunication. — Wikipedia

Information (Encyclopædia Britannica)



I find that a great part of the information I have was acquired by looking up something and finding something else on the way. — Franklin P. Adams

Dr. Zulfiquar Ahmed (YouTube Channel)

Talks about Information (TED: Ideas Worth Spreading)
Articles about Information (Big Think)




Information theoryis a mathematical representation of the conditions and parameters affecting the transmission and processing of information. Most closely associated with the work of the American electrical engineer Claude Shannon in the mid-20th century, information theory is chiefly of interest to communication engineers, though some of the concepts have been adopted and used in such fields as psychology and linguistics. Information theory overlaps heavily with communication theory, but it is more oriented toward the fundamental limitations on the processing and communication of information and less oriented toward the detailed operation of particular devices. — Encyclopædia Britannica

AT&T Tech (YouTube Channel)

Claude E. Shannon (IEEE Information Theory Society)
A Short Course in Information Theory (David J.C. MacKay)


Philosophy of Computing and Information (Giuseppe Primiero, PhilPapers)


Information system (IS) is a formal organizational system designed to collect, process, store, and distribute information. From a sociotechnical perspective, information systems are composed by four components: task, people, structure (or roles), and technology. Information systems can be defined as an integration of components for collection, storage and processing of data of which the data is used to provide information, contribute to knowledge as well as digital products that facilitate decision making. — Wikipedia

IBL Studios (IBL – Open edX, YouTube Channel)




Information science is a discipline that deals with the processes of storing and transferring information. It brings together concepts and methods from disciplines such as library science, computer science and engineering, linguistics, and psychology in order to develop techniques and devices to aid in the handling—that is, in the collection, organization, storage, retrieval, interpretation, and use—of information. The transfer of information through time requires the existence of some storage medium, which is designated a document—hence the term documentation. — Encyclopædia Britannica

What is Information Science (Association for Information Science and Technology)


Information Technology : the technology involving the development, maintenance, and use of computer systems, software, and networks for the processing and distribution of data — Webster

John Monk (YouTube Channel)


Information economy is an economy with an increased emphasis on informational activities and information industry. In a typical conceptualization, information economy is considered a “stage” or “phase” of an economy, coming after stages of hunting, agriculture, and manufacturing. This conceptualization can be widely observed regarding information society, a closely related but wider concept. — Wikipedia

The Kamla Show (YouTube Channel)
The Kamla Show (Official Website)

The Economics of Information (Kenneth J. Arrow)
Economics and Information: Toward a New (and More Sustainable) Worldview (Robert E. Babe Babe, Canadian Journal of Communication)
Information Economics (Wikipedia)




Talks at Google (YouTube Channel)
Talks at Google (Official Website)

James Gleick’s History of Information (Geoffrey Nunberg, New York Times)
The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood. (James Gleick)

Information Technology and Civilization (J. Inose, K. Kobayasni and J. R. Pierce)
Information Theory (Engineering and Technology History Wiki)

Historical Studies in Information Science: An Emerging Unidiscipline (Michael K. Buckland and Trudi B. Hahn)
Historical Studies in Information Science (Michael K. Buckland and Trudi B. O. Hahn)
Proceedings of the 1998 Conference on the History and Heritage of Science Information Systems (Mary E. Bowden, Trudi B. Hahn and Robert V. Williams, Eds.)
A History of Information Science, 1945-1985 (Dorothy B. Lilley and Ronald W. Trice)

Information (World History Encyclopedia)


Charles Babbage Institute (Official Website)
Charles Babbage Institute (Wikipedia)


DDC: 000 Information (Library Thing)
Subject: Information (Library Thing)

Subject: Information (Open Library)

Subject: Information (UPenn Online Books)

Subject: Information (Library of Congress)

Subject: Information (WorldCat)



We have an opportunity for everyone in the world to have access to all the world’s information. This has never before been possible. Why is ubiquitous information so profound? It’s a tremendous equalizer. Information is power. — Eric Schmidt, University of Pennsylvania Commencement Address, 2009


Information literacy empowers people in all walks of life to seek, evaluate, use and create information effectively to achieve their personal, social, occupational and educational goals. It is a basic human right in a digital world and promotes social inclusion in all nations. — United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Alexandria Proclamation on Information Literacy and Lifelong Learning

Information literacy is a set of abilities requiring individuals to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information. — American Library Association, Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education

TEDx Talks (YouTube Channel)
TEDxLSSC (Official Website)

Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education
Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education (Association of College & Research Libraries, American Library Association)
Information Literacy (Wikipedia)

Journal of Information Technology Education: Research
Journal of Information Technology Education: Innovations in Practice
Journal of Information Technology Education: Discussion Cases

MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Analyzing/Presenting Data/Information Course (Edward Tufte)
Edward Tufte (YouTube Channel)
Edward Tufte (Official Website)

The Visual Display of Quantitative Information (Edward Tufte)
Envisioning Information (Edward Tufte)
Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative (Edward Tufte)
Beautiful Evidence (Edward Tufte)

Information Technology Courses (MIT OpenCourseWare)
Information Related Courses (edX)



Information Research Scientists (CareerOneStop, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)
Information Systems Managers (CareerOneStop, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)
Information Technology Careers (CareerOneStop, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)

Information Technology Occupations (Occupational Outlook Handbook)


International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP)
Association for Information Science and Technology (ASIS&T)
Association for Independent Information Professionals (AIIP)
Information Theory Society (ITS, IEEE)
Association for Information Systems (AIS)
Special Interest Group on Information Retrieval (SIGIR, ACM)


Information Science Publications (ASIS&T)
Information Theory Publications (ITS, IEEE)
Information Systems Journals (AIS)
Information Systems (Communications of the ACM)
Information (JSTOR)

Information Today
Information Week

Information Technology (Ars Technica)
Information Technology News (Science Daily)
Information (NPR Archives)



Information (





The DIKW pyramid, also known variously as the DIKW hierarchy, wisdom hierarchy, knowledge hierarchy, information hierarchy, information pyramid, and the data pyramid, refers loosely to a class of models for representing purported structural and/or functional relationships between the communication content types of data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. — Wikipedia

Most writers about the hierarchy refer to this passage from T. S. Eliot’s The Rock.

Where is the Life we have lost in living?
Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge?
Where is the knowledge we have lost in information? — T. S. Eliot, The Rock



These are links to pages about closely related subjects.

DIKW Content Hierarchy

Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom



1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.