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Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Electromagnetism Portal (Wikipedia)


electromagnetism : a fundamental physical force that is responsible for interactions between charged particles which occur because of their charge and for the emission and absorption of photons, that is about a hundredth the strength of the strong force, and that extends over infinite distances but is dominant over atomic and molecular distances — called also electromagnetic force. — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary


Roget’s II (Thesaurus.com), Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force usually exhibits electromagnetic fields such as electric fields, magnetic fields and light, and is one of the four fundamental interactions (commonly called forces) in nature. The other three fundamental interactions are the strong interaction, the weak interaction and gravitation. Electromagnetic phenomena are defined in terms of the electromagnetic force, sometimes called the Lorentz force, which includes both electricity and magnetism as different manifestations of the same phenomenon.

The electromagnetic force plays a major role in determining the internal properties of most objects encountered in daily life. Ordinary matter takes its form as a result of intermolecular forces between individual atoms and molecules in matter, and is a manifestation of the electromagnetic force. Electrons are bound by the electromagnetic force to atomic nuclei, and their orbital shapes and their influence on nearby atoms with their electrons is described by quantum mechanics. The electromagnetic force governs all chemical processes, which arise from interactions between the electrons of neighboring atoms. — Wikipedia

Electromagnetism (Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics, Wolfram Research)
Encyclopædia Britannica



Electricity & Magnetism (Wolfram Alpha)


Electronics (Innovations Report)


CODATA Internationally recommended values of the Fundamental Physical Constants, Electromagnetic (NIST Reference on Constants, Units and Uncertainty)


How Electricity Works (HowStuffWorks)
Electric Power Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Electrical Engineering Subject Guide (University of Virginia Libraries)
Electrical Engineering (Wolfram Alpha)



The Kite Experiment (Wikipedia)

Lighting A Revolution: Joseph W. Swan (Smithsonian National Museum of American History)
Thomas Edison, Joseph Swan and The Real Deal Behind the Light Bulb (CIO)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



Explore the Electromagnetic Spectrum (Space Place, NASA)
Electricity and Magnetism (Fact Monster)


Electricity and Magnetism (MIT OCW Physics)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources


Electromagnetism (Phys.org), NPR Archives









Snap Circuits Kits (Elenco)



Phys.org - latest science and technology news stories Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Nanotechnology, Life Sciences, Space Science, Earth Science, Environment, Health and Medicine.

  • Blowing bubbles: Scientist confirms novel way to...
    on November 18, 2019 at 8:55 pm

    An obstacle to generating fusion reactions inside facilities called tokamaks is that producing the current in plasma that helps create confining magnetic fields happens in pulses. Such pulses, generated by an electromagnet that runs down the center of the tokamak, would make the steady-state creation of fusion energy difficult to achieve. To address the problem, physicists have developed a technique known as transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) to create a current that is not pulsed.

  • Image: Orion A in infrared
    on November 18, 2019 at 12:26 pm

    Stars form within giant clouds of gas and dust that pervade galaxies like our own Milky Way. This image depicts one such cloud, known as Orion A, as seen by ESA's Herschel and Planck space observatories.

  • A single-digit-micrometer thickness wood speaker
    on November 18, 2019 at 12:25 pm

    In a recent report on Nature Communications, Wentao Gan and a team of researchers at the departments of materials science and engineering in the U.S. have detailed the use of an ultrathin film of natural wood to create an audio speaker. The construct exhibited excellent mechanical properties including high tensile strength and increased Young's modulus. The properties of ultrathin thickness and exceptional mechanical strength allowed excellent acoustic properties with higher resonance frequency […]

  • Discovery of a new type of particle beam...
    on November 15, 2019 at 1:47 pm

    Accelerated, charged particle beams do what light does for microscopes: illuminate matter. The more intense the beams, the more easily scientists can examine the object they are looking at. But intensity comes with a cost: the more intense the beams, the more they become prone to instabilities.

  • Researchers generate terahertz laser with...
    on November 14, 2019 at 7:00 pm

    Within the electromagnetic middle ground between microwaves and visible light lies terahertz radiation, and the promise of "T-ray vision."