Life

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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism
Plant Flower, Tree
Animal
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human

Resources

These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…

General

Dictionary

life : an organismic state characterized by capacity for metabolism, growth, reaction to stimuli, and reproduction — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Encyclopedia

Life is a characteristic distinguishing physical entities having biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate. Various forms of life exist, such as plants, animals, fungi, protists, archaea, and bacteria. The criteria can at times be ambiguous and may or may not define viruses, viroids, or potential artificial life as “living”. Biology is the primary science concerned with the study of life, although many other sciences are involved.

The definition of life is controversial. The current definition is that organisms maintain homeostasis, are composed of cells, undergo metabolism, can grow, adapt to their environment, respond to stimuli, and reproduce. However, many other biological definitions have been proposed, and there are some borderline cases of life, such as viruses. Properties common to all organisms include the need for certain core chemical elements to sustain biochemical functions. — Wikipedia

Encyclopedia of Life (EOL)
Encyclopædia Britannica

OneZoom Tree of Life Explorer
Tree of Life Web Project (David Maddison, Katja-Sabine Schulz, and Wayne Maddison)
Web Lift to Taxa (University of California Museum of Paleontology)





New Study Shows Viruses Can Have Immune Systems (Tufts Now)

Biosphere also known as the ecosphere, is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems. It can also be termed the zone of life on Earth, a closed system (apart from solar and cosmic radiation and heat from the interior of the Earth), and largely self-regulating. By the most general biophysiological definition, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, geosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. — Wikipedia

Life and the Biosphere (Encyclopædia Britannica)


Science

Life sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica
Life Sciences (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Life Sciences (Wolfram Alpha)

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution. Despite the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica
Biology (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Biology Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Biological Science Portal (Wikipedia)

Outline



Outline of Biology (Wikipedia)

Philosophy

Philosophical research online: Philosophy of Biology (PhilPapers)

Preservation

History


The history of biology (Encyclopædia Britannica)
History of biology (Wikipedia)
Journal of the History of Biology

Museum

Museum of Life Sciences (Official Site)
Museum of Life Sciences (Wikipedia)

Library

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library

Participation

Education

Biosphere: A Big Ball of Life (Geography4Kids)
Biology Basics (Biology4Kids)
Life Sciences (TED Ed)
Great Sites for Kids (ALA)
Science Projects in Biology, Natural History and Agriculture (Library of Congress)

Course



Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

MIT Biology Courses (MIT Opencourseware)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

Community

The Company of Biologists

News

AAAS EurekAlert, Phys.org, Scientific American, NPR Archives

Book

ISBNdb

Government

Document

USA.gov

returntotop

More…

EurekAlert! - Biology The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  • Researchers receive $1.94 million to study...
    on May 20, 2019 at 4:00 am

    (Oregon State University) An Oregon State University researcher is part of a $1.94 million grant to look for possible connections between the human microbiome and autism spectrum disorder. […]

  • New Finnish study: Dietary cholesterol or egg...
    on May 20, 2019 at 4:00 am

    (University of Eastern Finland) A new study from the University of Eastern Finland shows that a moderately high intake of dietary cholesterol or consumption of up to one egg per day is not associated with an elevated risk of stroke. Furthermore, no association was found in carriers of the APOE4 phenotype, which affects cholesterol metabolism and is remarkably common among the Finnish population. […]

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    on May 20, 2019 at 4:00 am

    (Kanazawa University) In a recent study published in BBA -- General Subjects, Kanazawa university researchers have used high-speed microscopy to investigate native structure and conformational dynamics of hemagglutinin in influenza A. […]

  • Waking 'sleeping' genes could help Prader-Willi...
    on May 20, 2019 at 4:00 am

    (Walter and Eliza Hall Institute) New funding is enabling Walter and Eliza Hall Institute researchers to develop new approaches to potentially help people with Prader-Willi syndrome, a devastating and incurable genetic condition.Research grants from the Prader-Willi Research Foundation of Australia and the US Foundation for Prader-Willi Research will enable Associate Professor Marnie Blewitt to investigate whether awakening 'sleeping' genes could overcome some of the genetic errors underlying […]

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    on May 20, 2019 at 4:00 am

    (BfR Federal Institute for Risk Assessment) Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) are natural constituents detected all over the world in more than 350 plant species and suspected to occur in more than 6,000. Plants produce them as a defence against predators. Out of more than 660 known PA and similar compounds, the 1,2-unsaturated PA in particular have a health-damaging potential. Consequently, they are undesired in foods and feeds. […]


Biology News - Evolution, Cell theory, Gene theory, Microbiology, Biotechnology Phys.org provides the latest news on biology, evolution, microbiology, biotechnology

  • Chinese official hands over new panda to Vienna...
    on May 20, 2019 at 2:53 pm

    A senior Chinese official has officially handed over a 19-year-old male giant panda to Vienna's Schoenbrunn zoo. […]

  • Structural and functional mechanisms of a new...
    on May 20, 2019 at 2:48 pm

    Transcription is the process of synthesizing messenger RNA by RNA polymerase based on the DNA sequence of a gene and is the initial step in gene expression. In bacteria, σ factor is a key component of RNA polymerase for promoter recognition and transcription initiation. […]

  • 3-D technology looks into the distant past
    on May 20, 2019 at 1:55 pm

    Researchers from the University of Tübingen and their colleagues from Switzerland have studied hundreds of fossil carp teeth for the first time using 3-D technologies. In 4 million-year old lake sediments from what is now the Armenian highlands, they found evidence of an astonishing variety of carp. Thanks to "virtual palaeontology," the researchers identified four closely-related species of Mesopotamian barb fish, so-called scrapers. They believe that these species lived together in a […]

  • Biodiversity loss has finally got political...
    on May 20, 2019 at 1:40 pm

    The world recently discovered that disastrous deterioration in the health of most of the planet's ecosystems means that a million species are threatened with extinction. This is among the findings of the most thorough ever survey of the state of the biosphere, carried out by the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). […]

  • Managing mutations of a species: the evolution of...
    on May 20, 2019 at 1:30 pm

    In the first edition of On the Origin of Species, Charles Darwin mentions dogs 54 times. He does so mainly because the extraordinary variation between dog breeds provides a marvellous illustration of the power of selection. For most of the roughly 15,000 years since their domestication, dogs were selected by humans for their usefulness as hunters, retrievers, herders, guards or companions. […]


Scientific American Science news and technology updates from Scientific American