Life

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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism
Plant Flower, Tree
Animal
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human

Resources

These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…

General

Dictionary

life : an organismic state characterized by capacity for metabolism, growth, reaction to stimuli, and reproduction — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Encyclopedia

Life is a characteristic distinguishing physical entities having biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate. Various forms of life exist, such as plants, animals, fungi, protists, archaea, and bacteria. The criteria can at times be ambiguous and may or may not define viruses, viroids, or potential artificial life as “living”. Biology is the primary science concerned with the study of life, although many other sciences are involved.

The definition of life is controversial. The current definition is that organisms maintain homeostasis, are composed of cells, undergo metabolism, can grow, adapt to their environment, respond to stimuli, and reproduce. However, many other biological definitions have been proposed, and there are some borderline cases of life, such as viruses. Properties common to all organisms include the need for certain core chemical elements to sustain biochemical functions. — Wikipedia

Encyclopedia of Life (EOL)
Encyclopædia Britannica

OneZoom Tree of Life Explorer
Tree of Life Web Project (David Maddison, Katja-Sabine Schulz, and Wayne Maddison)
Web Lift to Taxa (University of California Museum of Paleontology)





New Study Shows Viruses Can Have Immune Systems (Tufts Now)

Biosphere also known as the ecosphere, is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems. It can also be termed the zone of life on Earth, a closed system (apart from solar and cosmic radiation and heat from the interior of the Earth), and largely self-regulating. By the most general biophysiological definition, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, geosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. — Wikipedia

Life and the Biosphere (Encyclopædia Britannica)


Science

Life sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica
Life Sciences (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Life Sciences (Wolfram Alpha)

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution. Despite the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica
Biology (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Biology Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Biological Science Portal (Wikipedia)

Outline



Outline of Biology (Wikipedia)

Philosophy

Philosophical research online: Philosophy of Biology (PhilPapers)

Preservation

History


The history of biology (Encyclopædia Britannica)
History of biology (Wikipedia)
Journal of the History of Biology

Museum

Museum of Life Sciences (Official Site)
Museum of Life Sciences (Wikipedia)

Library

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library

Participation

Education

Biosphere: A Big Ball of Life (Geography4Kids)
Biology Basics (Biology4Kids)
Life Sciences (TED Ed)
Great Sites for Kids (ALA)
Science Projects in Biology, Natural History and Agriculture (Library of Congress)

Course



Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

MIT Biology Courses (MIT Opencourseware)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

Community

The Company of Biologists

News

AAAS EurekAlert, Phys.org, Scientific American, NPR Archives

Book

ISBNdb

Government

Document

USA.gov

returntotop

More…

EurekAlert! - Biology The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  • Cause of 1990s Argentina cholera epidemic...
    on October 1, 2020 at 4:00 am

    (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute) The evolution of epidemic and endemic strains of the cholera-causing bacterium Vibrio cholerae in Argentina has been mapped in detail. The researchers used whole genome sequencing to study the bacteria circulating during the 1991-1998 outbreak of cholera in the country. Published in Nature Communications, the data have influenced health policy in Argentina, where whole-genome sequencing is now used to distinguish between pandemic and non-pandemic lineages of V. […]

  • Chemical innovation stabilizes best-performing...
    on October 1, 2020 at 4:00 am

    (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) Publishing in Science, researchers at EPFL have successfully overcome a limiting problem with stabilizing the best-performing formulation of metal-halide perovskite films, a key player in a range of applications, including solar cells.

  • MAP Congress 2020: Molecular Analysis for...
    on October 1, 2020 at 4:00 am

    (European Society for Medical Oncology) The Molecular Analysis for Precision oncology (MAP) Congress is designed to answer the critical question about how to integrate the wealth of information coming from the analysis of tumour samples into daily practice.

  • Promising COVID-19 rapid test technology enters...
    on October 1, 2020 at 4:00 am

    (Columbia University School of Engineering and Applied Science) A promising new COVID-19 rapid-testing technology platform developed by Rover Diagnostics and Columbia Engineering has been selected by the NIH to enter Phase 1 of the RADx initiative to support new COVID-19 testing technologies. The affordable, portable, and ultrafast point-of-care Rover platform provides reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results in eight minutes, faster than any other test of its kind, with targeted […]

  • Tumor progression depends on the tumor...
    on October 1, 2020 at 4:00 am

    (Tokyo Medical and Dental University) Researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) and Niigata University identified a novel mechanism by which tumors progress. By studying the role of TNF-α and TGF-β in the formation of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), the researchers found that both proteins together exert a robust effect on the development of CAFs. They further found that oral cancer cells show increased tumor progression in response to TGF-β protein secreted from […]


Biology News - Evolution, Cell theory, Gene theory, Microbiology, Biotechnology Phys.org provides the latest news on biology, evolution, microbiology, biotechnology

  • Amazon study shows big conservation gains...
    on October 1, 2020 at 6:00 pm

    A new study by an international team of environmental scientists in the Brazilian Amazon shows that redesigned conservation projects could deliver big gains for critical freshwater ecosystems—raising hopes for the futures of thousands of species.

  • Key control mechanism allows cells to form...
    on October 1, 2020 at 6:00 pm

    Under a microscope, the first few hours of every multicellular organism's life seem incongruously chaotic. After fertilization, a once tranquil single-celled egg divides again and again, quickly becoming a visually tumultuous mosh pit of cells jockeying for position inside the rapidly growing embryo.

  • Researchers uncover link between phase separation...
    on October 1, 2020 at 5:33 pm

    Noonan syndrome (NS) and Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NS-ML) are rare human developmental disorders caused by mutations of the protein SHP2. Until recently, the mechanism of NS and NS-ML pathogenesis had been unclear, and nor is there any effective treatment for the disorders.

  • Scientists repeat century-old study to reveal...
    on October 1, 2020 at 3:00 pm

    A tiny flatworm found commonly on the coasts of western Europe and North America is living proof that species may be able to evolve and adapt to rapid climate change.

  • Pattern in whale songs predicts migration
    on October 1, 2020 at 3:00 pm

    Through the use of two advanced audio recording technologies, a collaboration of Monterey Bay researchers has found that blue whales switch from nighttime to daytime singing when they are starting to migrate.


Scientific American Science news and technology updates from Scientific American