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Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Chemistry Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Chemistry Resources (Library of Congress)

Chemistry Subject Primer (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Chemistry Subject Guide (University of Virginia Libraries)
Links for Chemists (University of Liverpool‎)

American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry

Chemistry World
WWW Chemistry Guide
Chemistry Place (Infoplease)
Chemistry (National Science Digital Library)

Chemistry Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Chemicals & Biochemicals Databases (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Lab Manuals, Guidelines, MSDS v (Martindale’s Reference Desk)

NIST Chemistry WebBook
Physical and Chemical Properties Resources (UC Berkeley Physics and Astronomy Library)
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Online (99th Edition)
ChemSpider: Free Chemical Structure Database
Merck Index
Chemistry Calculators (


matter : material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Oxford Dictionary of Chemistry
Combined Chemical Dictionary (CRC Press)


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that we can touch are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, “matter” generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.

Matter exists in various states (also known as phases). These include classical everyday phases such as solid, liquid, and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.

Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding “cloud” of orbiting electrons which “take up space”. However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent “size” or “volume” in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some “point particles” known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space. — Wikipedia

Eric Weisstein’s World of Chemistry
Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Academic Disciplines: Chemistry (Wikipedia)
Chemistry Portal (Wikipedia)


Chemistry (Wolfram Alpha)


Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Chemistry stuff (YouTube Channel, HowStuffWorks)
Chemistry (HowStuffWorks)


Chemical Heritage Foundation


Alchemy May Not Have Been the Pseudoscience We All Thought It Was (Richard Conniff, Smithsonian Magazine)
Alchemy (Tim Hunkin, Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia)

Robert Boyle

All Nobel Prizes in Chemistry (Nobel Foundation)
136 Major Figures in the History of Chemistry (Infoplease)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Matter (Chem4Kids)
Chemical Reactions (Chem4Kids)
Matter and Materials (Fact Monster)
Chemistry (Spark Notes Study Guides)
Sci Show Chemistry (YouTube Channel)


Crash Course Chemistry (YouTube)


Chemistry Courses (MIT Open Courseware)
Chemistry Courses (Coursera)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Chemists and Materials Scientists (Occupational Outlook Handbook)


American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemical Structure Association Trust


Journal of the American Chemical Society
Nature Chemistry
Scientific American
NPR Archives







OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Journal of the American Chemical Society: Latest Articles (ACS Publications) latest articles published in Journal of the American Chemical Society

  • A positive positive to negative
    by Jed F. Fisher on September 20, 2018 at 12:00 am

    A positive positive to negativeA positive positive to negative, Published online: 20 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41557-018-0148-yThe structure of an antibiotic that is effective against Gram-positive bacteria, but not against Gram-negative bacteria, has now been modified to improve its effectiveness against Gram-negative bacteria. The approach could help broaden the spectrum of activity of other antibiotics. […]

  • Catalysis at the limit
    by Christian Papp on September 20, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Catalysis at the limitCatalysis at the limit, Published online: 20 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41557-018-0143-3Probing single-atom alloys has shown that, when interactions between the components are weak, the electronic structure of the dilute element resembles that of a free atom, making bonding with reactants more like that in molecular homogeneous catalysts. […]

  • Hafnium the lutécium I used to be
    by Shawn C. Burdette on September 20, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Hafnium the lutécium I used to beHafnium the lutécium I used to be, Published online: 20 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41557-018-0140-6Shawn C. Burdette and Brett F. Thornton examine hafnium’s emergence from ores containing a seemingly identical element to become both a chemical oddity and an essential material for producing nuclear energy. […]

  • It’s alive!
    by Michelle Francl on September 20, 2018 at 12:00 am

    It’s alive!It’s alive!, Published online: 20 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41557-018-0145-1Michelle Francl considers how metaphor breathes life into chemistry. […]

  • S<sub>N</sub>Ar stands corrected
    by Yinghua Jin on September 20, 2018 at 12:00 am

    SNAr stands correctedS<sub>N</sub>Ar stands corrected, Published online: 20 September 2018; doi:10.1038/s41557-018-0138-0Dynamic covalent chemistry combines the error-correcting behaviour of supramolecular chemistry with the robustness of covalent bonding, but relies on a somewhat limited set of reactions. Now, the classic nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) reaction has been shown to be reversible and self-correcting. […]

Geochemistry News -- ScienceDaily Earth and Climate Chemistry. Full text articles on organic and inorganic chemistry in the environment. Updated daily.

  • Ready-to-use recipe for turning plant waste into...
    on September 24, 2018 at 3:04 pm

    Bioscience engineers already knew how to make gasoline in the laboratory from plant waste such as sawdust. Now researchers have developed a roadmap, as it were, for industrial cellulose gasoline. […]

  • Breakthrough in blending metals
    on September 24, 2018 at 1:16 pm

    Researchers have found a way to create innovative materials by blending metals with precision control. Their approach, based on a concept called atom hybridization, opens up an unexplored area of chemistry that could lead to the development of advanced functional materials. […]

  • Emissions from most diesel cars in Europe greatly...
    on September 21, 2018 at 6:01 pm

    A new study reports finds that in Europe, 10 major auto manufacturers produced diesel cars, sold between 2000 and 2015, that generate up to 16 times more emissions on the road than in regulatory tests. […]

  • New battery gobbles up carbon dioxide
    on September 21, 2018 at 6:01 pm

    New technology could use carbon dioxide captured from power plants to make a new kind of lithium battery. […]

  • Neutrons produce first direct 3-D maps of water...
    on September 20, 2018 at 9:52 pm

    New 3-D maps of water distribution during cellular membrane fusion are accelerating scientific understanding of cell development, which could lead to new treatments for diseases associated with cell fusion. […]

Scientific American - Chemistry Science news and technology updates from Scientific American

Chemistry News - Biochemistry, Polymers, Materials Science provides the latest news on chemistry, biochemistry, polymers, materials science

  • Cryo-EM reveals structure of protein responsible...
    on September 24, 2018 at 10:33 pm

    A team led by Van Andel Research Institute (VARI) scientists has revealed for the first time the atomic-level structure of TRPM2, a protein that may be a promising drug target for conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and bipolar disorder. […]

  • Material made from single molecule self-forms...
    on September 24, 2018 at 1:10 pm

    A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Japan has developed a material made from just a single molecule that self-forms into a lattice that can self-heal and store gases. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes synthesizing the aromatic molecule, which bears a symmetrical outer shell. […]

  • Breakthrough in blending metals—precise control...
    on September 24, 2018 at 11:54 am

    Researchers in Japan have found a way to create innovative materials by blending metals with precision control. Their approach, based on a concept called atom hybridization, opens up an unexplored area of chemistry that could lead to the development of advanced functional materials. […]

  • New battery gobbles up carbon dioxide
    on September 21, 2018 at 5:46 pm

    A new type of battery developed by researchers at MIT could be made partly from carbon dioxide captured from power plants. Rather than attempting to convert carbon dioxide to specialized chemicals using metal catalysts, which is currently highly challenging, this battery could continuously convert carbon dioxide into a solid mineral carbonate as it discharges. […]

  • Mobile device could make it easier to predict and...
    on September 21, 2018 at 2:16 pm

    In the past 10 years, harmful algal blooms—sudden increases in the population of algae, typically in coastal regions and freshwater systems—have become a more serious problem for marine life throughout the U.S. The blooms are made up of phytoplankton, which naturally produce biotoxins, and those toxins can affect not only fish and plant life in the water, but also mammals, birds and humans who live near those areas. […]