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Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Chemistry Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Chemistry Resources (Library of Congress)

Chemistry Subject Primer (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Chemistry Subject Guide (University of Virginia Libraries)
Links for Chemists (University of Liverpool‎)

American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry

Chemistry World
WWW Chemistry Guide
Chemistry Place (Infoplease)
Chemistry (National Science Digital Library)

Chemistry Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Chemicals & Biochemicals Databases (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Lab Manuals, Guidelines, MSDS v (Martindale’s Reference Desk)

NIST Chemistry WebBook
Physical and Chemical Properties Resources (UC Berkeley Physics and Astronomy Library)
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Online (99th Edition)
ChemSpider: Free Chemical Structure Database
Merck Index
Chemistry Calculators (


matter : material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Oxford Dictionary of Chemistry
Combined Chemical Dictionary (CRC Press)


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that we can touch are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, “matter” generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.

Matter exists in various states (also known as phases). These include classical everyday phases such as solid, liquid, and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.

Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding “cloud” of orbiting electrons which “take up space”. However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent “size” or “volume” in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some “point particles” known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space. — Wikipedia

Eric Weisstein’s World of Chemistry
Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Academic Disciplines: Chemistry (Wikipedia)
Chemistry Portal (Wikipedia)


Chemistry (Wolfram Alpha)


Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Chemistry stuff (YouTube Channel, HowStuffWorks)
Chemistry (HowStuffWorks)


Chemical Heritage Foundation


Alchemy May Not Have Been the Pseudoscience We All Thought It Was (Richard Conniff, Smithsonian Magazine)
Alchemy (Tim Hunkin, Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia)

Robert Boyle

All Nobel Prizes in Chemistry (Nobel Foundation)
136 Major Figures in the History of Chemistry (Infoplease)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Matter (Chem4Kids)
Chemical Reactions (Chem4Kids)
Matter and Materials (Fact Monster)
Chemistry (Spark Notes Study Guides)
Sci Show Chemistry (YouTube Channel)


Crash Course Chemistry (YouTube)


Chemistry Courses (MIT Open Courseware)
Chemistry Courses (Coursera)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Chemists and Materials Scientists (Occupational Outlook Handbook)


American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemical Structure Association Trust


Journal of the American Chemical Society
Nature Chemistry
Scientific American
NPR Archives







OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Journal of the American Chemical Society: Latest Articles (ACS Publications) latest articles published in Journal of the American Chemical Society

  • Publisher Correction: Unexpected intersystem...
    by Luis Bañares on February 7, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Publisher Correction: Unexpected intersystem crossingPublisher Correction: Unexpected intersystem crossing, Published online: 07 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41557-019-0229-6Publisher Correction: Unexpected intersystem crossing […]

  • Maleimide–thiol adducts stabilized through...
    by Wenmao Huang on February 4, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Maleimide–thiol adducts stabilized through stretchingMaleimide–thiol adducts stabilized through stretching, Published online: 04 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41557-018-0209-2Single-molecule force spectroscopy reveals that maleimide–thiol adducts can be stabilized by stretching through a force-dependent kinetic control mechanism. This unconventional use of mechanochemistry enabled us to produce stable polymer–protein conjugates by simply applying a mechanical force to the […]

  • Mesopolymer synthesis by ligand-modulated direct...
    by Zhenjie Ni on January 28, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Mesopolymer synthesis by ligand-modulated direct arylation polycondensation towards n-type and ambipolar conjugated systemsMesopolymer synthesis by ligand-modulated direct arylation polycondensation towards n-type and ambipolar conjugated systems, Published online: 28 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41557-018-0200-yConjugated mesopolymers can combine the advantages of polymers and oligomers, but have received less attention as semiconducting materials. Now, such compounds have been synthesized by […]

  • Transition-metal-bridged bimetallic clusters with...
    by Genfeng Feng on January 28, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Transition-metal-bridged bimetallic clusters with multiple uranium–metal bondsTransition-metal-bridged bimetallic clusters with multiple uranium–metal bonds, Published online: 28 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41557-018-0195-4Heterometallic clusters have shown promise in catalysis and small-molecule activation, but species comprising uranium–metal bonds have remained difficult to synthesize. Now, facile reactions between uranium and nickel precursors have led to nickel-bridged […]

  • Isotopic enrichment
    by Michelle Francl on January 24, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Isotopic enrichmentIsotopic enrichment, Published online: 24 January 2019; doi:10.1038/s41557-018-0206-5Michelle Francl suggests that we should expand our view of the periodic table to new dimensions. […]

Geochemistry News -- ScienceDaily Earth and Climate Chemistry. Full text articles on organic and inorganic chemistry in the environment. Updated daily.

  • Lithium-air batteries can store energy for cars,...
    on February 15, 2019 at 6:59 pm

    Growth in the offer of renewable energy sources will mean increased demand for devices optimal for energy storing. […]

  • Ultra-lightweight ceramic material withstands...
    on February 14, 2019 at 8:30 pm

    Researchers have created an extremely light, very durable ceramic aerogel. The material could be used for applications like insulating spacecraft because it can withstand the intense heat and severe temperature changes that space missions endure. […]

  • Platinum nanoparticles for selective treatment of...
    on February 14, 2019 at 3:00 pm

    Researchers recently demonstrated that platinum nanoparticles can be used to kill liver cancer cells with greater selectivity than existing cancer drugs. […]

  • Sustainable electronics manufacturing breakthrough
    on February 13, 2019 at 10:23 pm

    Researchers are developing an eco-friendly, 3D printable solution for producing wireless Internet-of-Things (IoT) sensors that can be used and disposed of without contaminating the environment. […]

  • Running an LED in reverse could cool future...
    on February 13, 2019 at 6:23 pm

    In a finding that runs counter to a common assumption in physics, researchers ran a light emitting diode (LED) with electrodes reversed in order to cool another device mere nanometers away. […]

Scientific American - Chemistry Science news and technology updates from Scientific American

Chemistry News - Biochemistry, Polymers, Materials Science provides the latest news on chemistry, biochemistry, polymers, materials science

  • Diagnosing 'art acne' in Georgia O'Keeffe's...
    on February 17, 2019 at 6:35 pm

    Even Georgia O'Keeffe noticed the pin-sized blisters bubbling on the surface of her paintings. For decades, conservationists and scholars assumed these tiny protrusions were grains of sand, kicked up from the New Mexico desert where O'Keeffe lived and worked. But as the protrusions began to grow, spread and eventually flake off, people shifted from curious to concerned. […]

  • Researchers create ultra-lightweight ceramic...
    on February 14, 2019 at 9:18 pm

    UCLA researchers and collaborators at eight other research institutions have created an extremely light, very durable ceramic aerogel. The material could be used for applications like insulating spacecraft because it can withstand the intense heat and severe temperature changes that space missions endure. […]

  • Cracking colibactin's code: Study examines how...
    on February 14, 2019 at 9:05 pm

    For more than a decade, scientists have worked to understand the connection between colibactin, a compound produced by certain strains of E. coli, and colorectal cancer, but have been hampered by their inability to isolate the compound. […]

  • Better red than dread: Barrier keeps batteries...
    on February 14, 2019 at 5:26 pm

    Rice University scientists have taken the next step toward the deployment of powerful, rechargeable lithium metal batteries by making them safer and simpler to manufacture. […]

  • Scientists design fast, reversible bio-inspired...
    on February 14, 2019 at 12:57 pm

    For wind and sun power to become renewable energy mainstays, the energy they produce intermittently needs to be stored and retrieved efficiently. And that requires storing solar energy in chemical bonds until the energy is needed. To be energy efficient, and thereby cost-effective, there is a great need for reversible catalysts, chemical agents that rapidly form and break chemical bonds in either direction. […]