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Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Chemistry Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Chemistry Resources (Library of Congress)

Chemistry Subject Primer (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Chemistry Subject Guide (University of Virginia Libraries)
Links for Chemists (University of Liverpool‎)

American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry

Chemistry World
WWW Chemistry Guide
Chemistry Place (Infoplease)
Chemistry (National Science Digital Library)

Chemistry Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Chemicals & Biochemicals Databases (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Lab Manuals, Guidelines, MSDS v (Martindale’s Reference Desk)

NIST Chemistry WebBook
Physical and Chemical Properties Resources (UC Berkeley Physics and Astronomy Library)
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Online (99th Edition)
ChemSpider: Free Chemical Structure Database
Merck Index
Chemistry Calculators (


matter : material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Oxford Dictionary of Chemistry
Combined Chemical Dictionary (CRC Press)


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that we can touch are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, “matter” generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.

Matter exists in various states (also known as phases). These include classical everyday phases such as solid, liquid, and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.

Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding “cloud” of orbiting electrons which “take up space”. However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent “size” or “volume” in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some “point particles” known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space. — Wikipedia

Eric Weisstein’s World of Chemistry
Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Academic Disciplines: Chemistry (Wikipedia)
Chemistry Portal (Wikipedia)


Chemistry (Wolfram Alpha)


Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Chemistry stuff (YouTube Channel, HowStuffWorks)
Chemistry (HowStuffWorks)


Chemical Heritage Foundation


Alchemy May Not Have Been the Pseudoscience We All Thought It Was (Richard Conniff, Smithsonian Magazine)
Alchemy (Tim Hunkin, Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia)

Robert Boyle

All Nobel Prizes in Chemistry (Nobel Foundation)
136 Major Figures in the History of Chemistry (Infoplease)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Matter (Chem4Kids)
Chemical Reactions (Chem4Kids)
Matter and Materials (Fact Monster)
Chemistry (Spark Notes Study Guides)
Sci Show Chemistry (YouTube Channel)


Crash Course Chemistry (YouTube)


Chemistry Courses (MIT Open Courseware)
Chemistry Courses (Coursera)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Chemists and Materials Scientists (Occupational Outlook Handbook)


American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemical Structure Association Trust


Journal of the American Chemical Society
Nature Chemistry
Scientific American
NPR Archives







OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Journal of the American Chemical Society: Latest Articles (ACS Publications) latest articles published in Journal of the American Chemical Society

Nature Chemistry Nature Chemistry is a monthly journal dedicated to publishing high-quality papers that describe the most significant and cutting-edge research in all areas of chemistry. As well as reflecting the traditional core subjects of analytical, inorganic, organic and physical chemistry, the journal features a broad range of chemical research including, but not limited to, bioinorganic and bioorganic chemistry, catalysis, computational and theoretical chemistry, environmental chemistry, green chemistry, medicinal chemistry, organometallic chemistry, polymer chemistry, supramolecular chemistry and surface chemistry. Other multidisciplinary topics such as nanotechnology, chemical biology and materials chemistry are also featured.

  • Automated synthesis of prexasertib and...
    by Chenguang Liu on April 19, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 19 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-021-00662-wAlthough strategies for the automated assembly of compounds of pharmaceutical relevance is a growing field of research, the synthesis of small-molecule pharmacophores remains a predominantly manual process. Now, an automated six-step synthesis of prexasertib is achieved by multistep solid-phase chemistry in a continuous-flow fashion using a chemical recipe file that enables automated scaffold modification through […]

  • Solid potential
    by Mark S. Kerr on April 19, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 19 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-021-00674-6Small-molecule drug discovery and development is limited by the ability of chemists to readily synthesize and purify new compounds with suitable chemical diversity. Now, a new twist on solid-phase chemical synthesis has enabled rapid and simplified synthesis of pharmaceutically relevant small molecules.

  • A three-shell supramolecular complex enables the...
    by Ernest Ubasart on April 15, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 15 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-021-00658-6A supramolecular three-shell matryoshka-like complex di rects the functionalization of the C60 inner shell to the selective formation of a single trans-3 fullerene bis-adduct. The selectivity with this matryoshka-like approach could be useful for applications where regioisomerically pure C60 bis-adducts have been shown to have superior properties compared with isomer mixtures.

  • A far-red hybrid voltage indicator enabled by...
    by Shuzhang Liu on April 15, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 15 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-021-00641-1Voltage imaging is a powerful technique for studying electrical signalling in neurons. A palette of bright and sensitive voltage indicators has now been developed via enzyme-mediated ligation and Diels–Alder cycloaddition. Among these, a far-red indicator faithfully reports neuronal action potential dynamics with an excitation spectrum orthogonal to optogenetic actuators and green/red-emitting biosensors.

  • Aromatic hydrocarbon belts
    by Qing-Hui Guo on April 15, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 15 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-021-00671-9Aromatic hydrocarbon belts consisting of fully fused benzenoid rings have fascinated scientists for over half a century. This Review revisits the protracted historical background of these compounds and features some recent breakthroughs in their rational design and synthesis, including the challenges faced in the precise synthesis of carbon-rich materials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes.

Geochemistry News -- ScienceDaily Earth and Climate Chemistry. Full text articles on organic and inorganic chemistry in the environment. Updated daily.

  • Fighting harmful bacteria with nanoparticles
    on April 22, 2021 at 4:36 pm

    Multi-resistant pathogens are a serious and increasing problem in today's medicine. Where antibiotics are ineffective, these bacteria can cause life-threatening infections. Researchers are currently developing nanoparticles that can be used to detect and kill multi-resistant pathogens that hide inside our body cells. The team published the study in the current issue of the journal Nanoscale.

  • Collaborative research could help fine-tune the...
    on April 22, 2021 at 12:01 am

    Much of common pharmaceutical development today is the product of laborious cycles of tweaking and optimization. In each drug, a carefully concocted formula of natural and synthetic enzymes and ingredients works together to catalyze a desired reaction. But in early development, much of the process is spent determining what quantities of each enzyme to use to ensure a reaction occurs at a specific speed.

  • Detailed look at intriguing property of chiral...
    on April 21, 2021 at 8:00 pm

    A new study is advancing scientists' understanding of magneto-chiral dichroism. The research focuses on light-matter interactions in chiral materials under a magnetic field.

  • Fast material manipulation through a laser
    on April 21, 2021 at 7:12 pm

    Researchers have found out that ultrafast switches in material properties can be prompted by laser pulses -- and why. This knowledge may enable new transistor concepts.

  • Jane Austen quote encoded in a polymer
    on April 21, 2021 at 4:46 pm

    Using a novel molecular-data-storage technique, researchers have encoded a quote from Jane Austen's classic novel Mansfield Park in a series of oligomers, which a third party could read back without prior knowledge of the structures that encoded the passage.

Scientific American - Chemistry Science news and technology updates from Scientific American

Chemistry News - Biochemistry, Polymers, Materials Science The latest news stories on chemistry, biochemistry, polymers, materials science from

  • Synthetic gelatin-like material mimics lobster...
    on April 23, 2021 at 3:00 pm

    A lobster's underbelly is lined with a thin, translucent membrane that is both stretchy and surprisingly tough. This marine under-armor, as MIT engineers reported in 2019, is made from the toughest known hydrogel in nature, which also happens to be highly flexible. This combination of strength and stretch helps shield a lobster as it scrabbles across the seafloor, while also allowing it to flex back and forth to swim.

  • Synthesis method expands material possibilities
    on April 23, 2021 at 2:48 pm

    Since the beginning of civilization, humans have exploited new materials to improve their lives, from the prehistoric Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age to the modern Silicon Age. With each period came technological breakthroughs that transformed the way we live. Consider the 1961 invention of the silicon chip, which paved the way for the digital revolution. Without this tiny electronic component, we'd have no laptops or cell phones.

  • Researchers create strong, fast, waterproof...
    on April 23, 2021 at 2:26 pm

    In the modern world, adhesives are largely considered a solved problem. Even underwater, glues can be used in a wide range of maritime applications.

  • New chemistry makes 'magic' drug improvements...
    on April 23, 2021 at 2:12 pm

    In the last decade, scientists discovered a quirk of drug chemistry: If you add on a simple one-carbon building block to a drug, it can make the drug more potent, less toxic, or more stable.

  • Simple entropies for complicated molecules
    on April 23, 2021 at 12:10 pm

    Chemists of the University of Bonn developed a computational tool for the analysis of conformational entropies of flexible molecules. Their method enables the thermodynamic investigation of complicated chemical systems by combination of modern quantum chemical and classical models. In a successful attempt of simplifications, important contributions to the entropy can be calculated with minimal user intervention, even on standard desktop computers. The results are published in the journal […]