Matter

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Introduction1

Dictionary

matter : material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary

Oxford Dictionary of Chemistry
Combined Chemical Dictionary (CRC Press)

Thesaurus

Roget’s II (Thesaurus.com), Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords

Encyclopedia

Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that we can touch are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, “matter” generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.

Matter exists in various states (also known as phases). These include classical everyday phases such as solid, liquid, and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.

Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding “cloud” of orbiting electrons which “take up space”. However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent “size” or “volume” in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some “point particles” known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space. — Wikipedia

Eric Weisstein’s World of Chemistry
Encyclopædia Britannica

Outline

Outline of Academic Disciplines: Chemistry (Wikipedia)
Chemistry Portal (Wikipedia)

Portal

Chemistry Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Chemistry Resources (Library of Congress)

Chemistry Subject Primer (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Chemistry Subject Guide (University of Virginia Libraries)
Links for Chemists (University of Liverpool‎)

American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry

ChemWeb
Chemistry World
WWW Chemistry Guide
Chemistry Place (Infoplease)
Chemistry (National Science Digital Library)

Chemistry Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Chemicals & Biochemicals Databases (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Lab Manuals, Guidelines, MSDS v (Martindale’s Reference Desk)

NIST Chemistry WebBook
Physical and Chemical Properties Resources (UC Berkeley Physics and Astronomy Library)
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Online (99th Edition)
ChemSpider: Free Chemical Structure Database
Merck Index
Chemistry Calculators (Calculator.com)

Search

Chemistry (Wolfram Alpha)

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Inspiration

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Innovation

Science

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Everything you’ve learned in school as “obvious” becomes less and less obvious as you begin to study the universe. For example, there are no solids in the universe. There’s not even a suggestion of a solid. There are no absolute continuums. There are no surfaces. There are no straight lines. — R. Buckminster Fuller

Technology

Chemistry stuff (YouTube Channel, HowStuffWorks)
Chemistry (HowStuffWorks)

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Preservation

Chemical Heritage Foundation

History

Alchemy May Not Have Been the Pseudoscience We All Thought It Was (Richard Conniff, Smithsonian Magazine)
Alchemy (Tim Hunkin, Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia)

Robert Boyle

All Nobel Prizes in Chemistry (Nobel Foundation)
136 Major Figures in the History of Chemistry (Infoplease)

Library

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library

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Participation

Education

Matter (Chem4Kids)
Chemical Reactions (Chem4Kids)
Matter and Materials (Fact Monster)
Chemistry (Spark Notes Study Guides)
Sci Show Chemistry (YouTube Channel)

Course

Crash Course Chemistry (YouTube)

Course

Chemistry Courses (MIT Open Courseware)
Chemistry Courses (Coursera)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

Community

Occupation

Chemists and Materials Scientists (Occupational Outlook Handbook)

Organization

American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemical Structure Association Trust

News

Journal of the American Chemical Society
Nature Chemistry
ScienceDaily
Scientific American
Phys.Org
NPR Archives

Book

ISBNdb

Government

Document

USA.gov

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Expression

Fun

Arts

Poem

OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form

Music

Song Lyrics

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More News …

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Related

Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm

Physical

“Fundamentals”
Law (Constant) Relativity
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)
Matter (Microscope) Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle

“Space”
Universe (Astronomical Instrument)
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Our Neighborhood
Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid

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Notes

1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.