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Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Chemistry Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Chemistry Resources (Library of Congress)

Chemistry Subject Primer (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Chemistry Subject Guide (University of Virginia Libraries)
Links for Chemists (University of Liverpool‎)

American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry

Chemistry World
WWW Chemistry Guide
Chemistry Place (Infoplease)
Chemistry (National Science Digital Library)

Chemistry Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Chemicals & Biochemicals Databases (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Lab Manuals, Guidelines, MSDS v (Martindale’s Reference Desk)

NIST Chemistry WebBook
Physical and Chemical Properties Resources (UC Berkeley Physics and Astronomy Library)
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Online (99th Edition)
ChemSpider: Free Chemical Structure Database
Merck Index
Chemistry Calculators (


matter : material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Oxford Dictionary of Chemistry
Combined Chemical Dictionary (CRC Press)


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that we can touch are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, “matter” generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.

Matter exists in various states (also known as phases). These include classical everyday phases such as solid, liquid, and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.

Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding “cloud” of orbiting electrons which “take up space”. However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent “size” or “volume” in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some “point particles” known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space. — Wikipedia

Eric Weisstein’s World of Chemistry
Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Academic Disciplines: Chemistry (Wikipedia)
Chemistry Portal (Wikipedia)


Chemistry (Wolfram Alpha)


Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Chemistry stuff (YouTube Channel, HowStuffWorks)
Chemistry (HowStuffWorks)


Chemical Heritage Foundation


Alchemy May Not Have Been the Pseudoscience We All Thought It Was (Richard Conniff, Smithsonian Magazine)
Alchemy (Tim Hunkin, Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia)

Robert Boyle

All Nobel Prizes in Chemistry (Nobel Foundation)
136 Major Figures in the History of Chemistry (Infoplease)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Matter (Chem4Kids)
Chemical Reactions (Chem4Kids)
Matter and Materials (Fact Monster)
Chemistry (Spark Notes Study Guides)
Sci Show Chemistry (YouTube Channel)


Crash Course Chemistry (YouTube)


Chemistry Courses (MIT Open Courseware)
Chemistry Courses (Coursera)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Chemists and Materials Scientists (Occupational Outlook Handbook)


American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemical Structure Association Trust


Journal of the American Chemical Society
Nature Chemistry
Scientific American
NPR Archives







OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Nature Chemistry Nature Chemistry is a monthly journal dedicated to publishing high-quality papers that describe the most significant and cutting-edge research in all areas of chemistry. As well as reflecting the traditional core subjects of analytical, inorganic, organic and physical chemistry, the journal features a broad range of chemical research including, but not limited to, bioinorganic and bioorganic chemistry, catalysis, computational and theoretical chemistry, environmental chemistry, green chemistry, medicinal chemistry, organometallic chemistry, polymer chemistry, supramolecular chemistry and surface chemistry. Other multidisciplinary topics such as nanotechnology, chemical biology and materials chemistry are also featured.

  • Quaternary stereocentres via catalytic...
    by Zhaobin Wang on January 11, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 11 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-00609-7A wide variety of bioactive molecules contain stereogenic quaternary carbons, and developing methods for the construction of these stereocentres continues to be an active area of research. Now, it has been shown that a nickel-catalysed enantioconvergent coupling of tertiary alkyl electrophiles with alkenylmetal nucleophiles—which probably proceeds via a radical pathway—can form and set quaternary […]

  • Nuclear spin conservation enables state-to-state...
    by Ming-Guang Hu on December 30, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 30 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-00610-0Energy scrambling in intermediate complexes—which form in many chemical reactions—presents a major challenge to state-to-state control. However, nuclear spin tends to remain unchanged throughout reactions and now, by manipulating the reactants’ nuclear spins using an external magnetic field, control over the product state distribution of a bimolecular reaction has been demonstrated.

  • Enantioselective...
    by Srikrishna Bera on December 30, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 30 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-00576-zMethods for producing organic molecules rich in sp3-hybridized carbon centres can be particularly useful for drug development. Now, it has been shown that the enantioselective cross-coupling of non-activated alkyl halides with alkenyl boronates enables the synthesis of chiral alkyl boronates. The reaction proceeds via nickel hydride insertion into an internal alkene followed by nickel-catalysed alkyl–alkyl […]

  • Screening and characterization of a diverse panel...
    by James R. Marshall on December 30, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 30 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-00606-wHigh-throughput biocatalytic screening and metagenomics have been used to discover over 300 imine reductases (IREDs) and subsequently produce a sequence-diverse panel of IREDs suitable for optimizing the synthesis of chiral amines. Additional characterization identified biocatalysts that accommodate structurally demanding amines and ketones for enzymatic reductive aminations.

  • Mechanochemical synthesis of an elusive...
    by Benjamin R. Boswell on December 22, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 22 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-00608-8Fluorinated polyacetylene has typically proven to be inaccessible using traditional polymer synthesis, but there is much interest in its predicted properties. Now, a mechanochemical unzipping strategy has succeeded in the synthesis of a gold-coloured, semiconducting fluorinated polyacetylene with improved stability in air compared to polyacetylene.

Geochemistry News -- ScienceDaily Earth and Climate Chemistry. Full text articles on organic and inorganic chemistry in the environment. Updated daily.

  • Conductive nature in crystal structures revealed...
    on January 15, 2021 at 8:53 pm

    In groundbreaking materials research, a team has made a discovery that blends the best of two sought-after qualities for touchscreens and smart windows -- transparency and conductivity.

  • Newly developed GaN based MEMS resonator operates...
    on January 15, 2021 at 2:13 pm

    JST PRESTO researcher developed a MEMS resonator that stably operates even under high temperatures by regulating the strain caused by the heat from gallium nitride (GaN). This device is small, highly sensitive and can be integrated with CMOS technology promising for the application to 5G communication, IoT timing device, on-vehicle applications, and advanced driver assistance system.

  • Research breaks new ground in understanding how a...
    on January 14, 2021 at 9:40 pm

    A team of biophysicists set out to tackle the long-standing question about the nature of force generation by myosin, the molecular motor responsible for muscle contraction. The key question they addressed - one of the most controversial topics in the field - was: how does myosin convert chemical energy, in the form of ATP, into mechanical work? The answer revealed new details into how myosin, the engine of muscle and related motor proteins, transduces energy.

  • Following the hops of disordered proteins could...
    on January 14, 2021 at 9:38 pm

    Researchers have used machine learning techniques to predict how proteins, particularly those implicated in neurological diseases, completely change their shapes in a matter of microseconds.

  • Turn off that camera during virtual meetings,...
    on January 14, 2021 at 6:40 pm

    A new study says that despite a record drop in global carbon emissions in 2020, a pandemic-driven shift to remote work and more at-home entertainment still presents significant environmental impact due to how internet data is stored and transferred around the world.

Scientific American - Chemistry Science news and technology updates from Scientific American

Chemistry News - Biochemistry, Polymers, Materials Science The latest news stories on chemistry, biochemistry, polymers, materials science from

  • Conductive nature in crystal structures revealed...
    on January 15, 2021 at 9:08 pm

    In groundbreaking materials research, a team led by University of Minnesota Professor K. Andre Mkhoyan has made a discovery that blends the best of two sought-after qualities for touchscreens and smart windows—transparency and conductivity.

  • A new regime for analyzing properties of...
    on January 15, 2021 at 12:23 pm

    Two recent studies demonstrate that there is a topological origin of two related metal alloys' ability to convert light into electrical current. New fundamental research on rhodium monosilicide (RhSi), published in NPJ Quantum Materials, and on cobalt monosilicide (CoSi), published in Nature Communications, could provide a new approach for developing devices such as photo detectors and solar cells.

  • Research breaks new ground in understanding how a...
    on January 14, 2021 at 9:32 pm

    A team of biophysicists from the University of Massachusetts Amherst and Penn State College of Medicine set out to tackle the long-standing question about the nature of force generation by myosin, the molecular motor responsible for muscle contraction and many other cellular processes. The key question they addressed—one of the most controversial topics in the field—was: how does myosin convert chemical energy, in the form of ATP, into mechanical work?

  • Bio-based replacements to fossil fuel plastics
    on January 14, 2021 at 2:33 pm

    BPA is an organic compound made from fossil fuel sources. The industrial chemical has been used to make plastics and resins since the 1950s, and products made with it are cheap to make, clear, flexible and strong. BPA can be found in a variety of products, including water bottles, storage containers and sports equipment. It's also widely used in the linings of food and beverage cans and in sales receipt paper. It's one of the most commonly synthesized chemicals today with more than six million […]

  • Anisotropy of surface oxide formation influences...
    on January 13, 2021 at 5:15 pm

    Metal surfaces play a role as catalysts for many important applications—from fuel cells to the purification of car exhaust gases. However, their behavior is decisively affected by oxygen atoms incorporated into the surface.