Matter

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Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)

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Chemistry Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
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Chemistry Subject Primer (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Chemistry Subject Guide (University of Virginia Libraries)
Links for Chemists (University of Liverpool‎)

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NIST Chemistry WebBook
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CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Online (99th Edition)
ChemSpider: Free Chemical Structure Database
Merck Index
Chemistry Calculators (Calculator.com)

Dictionary

matter : material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Oxford Dictionary of Chemistry
Combined Chemical Dictionary (CRC Press)

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Encyclopedia

Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that we can touch are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, “matter” generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.

Matter exists in various states (also known as phases). These include classical everyday phases such as solid, liquid, and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.

Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding “cloud” of orbiting electrons which “take up space”. However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent “size” or “volume” in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some “point particles” known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space. — Wikipedia

Eric Weisstein’s World of Chemistry
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Introduction

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Science

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Technology

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Alchemy May Not Have Been the Pseudoscience We All Thought It Was (Richard Conniff, Smithsonian Magazine)
Alchemy (Tim Hunkin, Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia)

Robert Boyle

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Journal of the American Chemical Society: Latest Articles (ACS Publications) latest articles published in Journal of the American Chemical Society


Nature Chemistry Nature Chemistry is a monthly journal dedicated to publishing high-quality papers that describe the most significant and cutting-edge research in all areas of chemistry. As well as reflecting the traditional core subjects of analytical, inorganic, organic and physical chemistry, the journal features a broad range of chemical research including, but not limited to, bioinorganic and bioorganic chemistry, catalysis, computational and theoretical chemistry, environmental chemistry, green chemistry, medicinal chemistry, organometallic chemistry, polymer chemistry, supramolecular chemistry and surface chemistry. Other multidisciplinary topics such as nanotechnology, chemical biology and materials chemistry are also featured.

  • Quasiclassical simulations based on cluster...
    by Apurba Nandi on January 18, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 18 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-00612-yRecent experiments reporting the isomerization of CO on a NaCl(100) surface—from C adsorbed to O adsorbed—represent a major challenge to simulate from first principles. Now, using dynamics calculations and (CO–NaCl)n cluster models that feature CO–CO interactions, it is found that isomerization occurs via a ‘roaming’ mechanism at a large distance from the NaCl(100) surface.

  • Quaternary stereocentres via catalytic...
    by Zhaobin Wang on January 11, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 11 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-00609-7A wide variety of bioactive molecules contain stereogenic quaternary carbons, and developing methods for the construction of these stereocentres continues to be an active area of research. Now, it has been shown that a nickel-catalysed enantioconvergent coupling of tertiary alkyl electrophiles with alkenylmetal nucleophiles—which probably proceeds via a radical pathway—can form and set quaternary […]

  • Nuclear spin conservation enables state-to-state...
    by Ming-Guang Hu on December 30, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 30 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-00610-0Energy scrambling in intermediate complexes—which form in many chemical reactions—presents a major challenge to state-to-state control. However, nuclear spin tends to remain unchanged throughout reactions and now, by manipulating the reactants’ nuclear spins using an external magnetic field, control over the product state distribution of a bimolecular reaction has been demonstrated.

  • Enantioselective...
    by Srikrishna Bera on December 30, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 30 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-00576-zMethods for producing organic molecules rich in sp3-hybridized carbon centres can be particularly useful for drug development. Now, it has been shown that the enantioselective cross-coupling of non-activated alkyl halides with alkenyl boronates enables the synthesis of chiral alkyl boronates. The reaction proceeds via nickel hydride insertion into an internal alkene followed by nickel-catalysed alkyl–alkyl […]

  • Screening and characterization of a diverse panel...
    by James R. Marshall on December 30, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 30 December 2020; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-00606-wHigh-throughput biocatalytic screening and metagenomics have been used to discover over 300 imine reductases (IREDs) and subsequently produce a sequence-diverse panel of IREDs suitable for optimizing the synthesis of chiral amines. Additional characterization identified biocatalysts that accommodate structurally demanding amines and ketones for enzymatic reductive aminations.


Geochemistry News -- ScienceDaily Earth and Climate Chemistry. Full text articles on organic and inorganic chemistry in the environment. Updated daily.

  • Crystal structures in super slow motion
    on January 22, 2021 at 8:44 pm

    Laser beams are used to change the properties of materials in an extremely precise way. However, the underlying processes generally take place at such unimaginably fast speeds and at such a small scale that they have so far eluded direct observation. Researchers have now managed to film, for the first time, the laser transformation of a crystal structure with nanometer resolution and in slow motion in an electron microscope.

  • Cargo delivery by polymers
    on January 22, 2021 at 3:16 pm

    Degradable, bio-based polymers offer options for chemical recycling, and they can be a tool to store and release useful molecules. Scientists have developed a class of sugar-based polymers that are degradable through acid hydrolysis. The researchers also integrated 'cargo' molecules in the polymer, which are designed to split off after polymer degradation.

  • Squeezing a rock-star material could make it...
    on January 21, 2021 at 8:10 pm

    A promising lead halide perovskite is great at converting sunlight to electricity, but it breaks down at room temperature. Now scientists have discovered how to stabilize it with pressure from a diamond anvil cell. The required pressure is well within the reach of industrial manufacturing requirements.

  • New graphene nanochannel water filters
    on January 21, 2021 at 6:24 pm

    Researchers have shown that tiny channels between graphene sheets can be aligned in a way that makes them ideal for water filtration.

  • Drug-delivery microcapsules tagged with...
    on January 21, 2021 at 6:19 pm

    Polymer and radionuclide chemists report major advance in microcapsule drug delivery systems. Their microcapsules -- labeled with radioactive zirconium-89 -- are the first example of hollow polymer capsules capable of long-term, multiday positron emission tomography imaging in vivo. In previous work, the researchers showed that the hollow capsules could be filled with a potent dose of the cancer drug doxorubicin, which could then be released by therapeutic ultrasound that ruptures the […]


Scientific American - Chemistry Science news and technology updates from Scientific American


Chemistry News - Biochemistry, Polymers, Materials Science The latest news stories on chemistry, biochemistry, polymers, materials science from Phys.org

  • Single atoms as a catalyst
    on January 22, 2021 at 2:39 pm

    For years, the metal nanoparticles used in catalysts have been getting smaller and smaller. Now, a research team at TU Wien in Vienna, Austria have shown that everything is suddenly different when you arrive at the smallest possible size: a single atom.

  • Degradable sugar-based polymers may store and...
    on January 22, 2021 at 2:39 pm

    Degradable, bio-based polymers offer options for chemical recycling, and they can be a tool to store and release useful molecules. Scientists have developed a class of sugar-based polymers that are degradable through acid hydrolysis. The researchers also integrated "cargo" molecules in the polymer, which are designed to split off after polymer degradation. Degradable, cargo-bearing polymers are important for medical and sensor applications, says the study published in the journal Angewandte […]

  • Squeezing a rock-star material could make it...
    on January 21, 2021 at 9:20 pm

    Among the materials known as perovskites, one of the most exciting is a material that can convert sunlight to electricity as efficiently as today's commercial silicon solar cells and has the potential for being much cheaper and easier to manufacture.

  • Small electric fields can play decisive role in...
    on January 21, 2021 at 8:05 pm

    Diamond, like graphite, is a special form of carbon. Its cubic crystal structure and its strong chemical bonds give it its unique hardness. For thousands of years, it has also been sought after as both a tool and as a thing of beauty. Only in the 1950s did it become possible to produce diamonds artificially for the first time.

  • First-ever atomic resolution video of salt...
    on January 21, 2021 at 8:02 pm

    Two novel techniques, atomic-resolution real-time video and conical carbon nanotube confinement, allow researchers to view never-before-seen details about crystal formation. The observations confirm theoretical predictions about how salt crystals form and could inform general theories about the way in which crystal formation produces different ordered structures from an otherwise disordered chemical mixture.