Cosma Home > Communication > Knowledge > Realm > Physical > Matter




Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Chemistry Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Chemistry Resources (Library of Congress)

Chemistry Subject Primer (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Chemistry Subject Guide (University of Virginia Libraries)
Links for Chemists (University of Liverpool‎)

American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry

Chemistry World
WWW Chemistry Guide
Chemistry Place (Infoplease)
Chemistry (National Science Digital Library)

Chemistry Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Chemicals & Biochemicals Databases (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Lab Manuals, Guidelines, MSDS v (Martindale’s Reference Desk)

NIST Chemistry WebBook
Physical and Chemical Properties Resources (UC Berkeley Physics and Astronomy Library)
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Online (99th Edition)
ChemSpider: Free Chemical Structure Database
Merck Index
Chemistry Calculators (


matter : material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Oxford Dictionary of Chemistry
Combined Chemical Dictionary (CRC Press)


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that we can touch are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, “matter” generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.

Matter exists in various states (also known as phases). These include classical everyday phases such as solid, liquid, and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.

Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding “cloud” of orbiting electrons which “take up space”. However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent “size” or “volume” in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some “point particles” known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space. — Wikipedia

Eric Weisstein’s World of Chemistry
Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Academic Disciplines: Chemistry (Wikipedia)
Chemistry Portal (Wikipedia)


Chemistry (Wolfram Alpha)


Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Chemistry stuff (YouTube Channel, HowStuffWorks)
Chemistry (HowStuffWorks)


Chemical Heritage Foundation


Alchemy May Not Have Been the Pseudoscience We All Thought It Was (Richard Conniff, Smithsonian Magazine)
Alchemy (Tim Hunkin, Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia)

Robert Boyle

All Nobel Prizes in Chemistry (Nobel Foundation)
136 Major Figures in the History of Chemistry (Infoplease)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Matter (Chem4Kids)
Chemical Reactions (Chem4Kids)
Matter and Materials (Fact Monster)
Chemistry (Spark Notes Study Guides)
Sci Show Chemistry (YouTube Channel)


Crash Course Chemistry (YouTube)


Chemistry Courses (MIT Open Courseware)
Chemistry Courses (Coursera)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Chemists and Materials Scientists (Occupational Outlook Handbook)


American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemical Structure Association Trust


Journal of the American Chemical Society
Nature Chemistry
Scientific American
NPR Archives







OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Nature Chemistry Nature Chemistry is a monthly journal dedicated to publishing high-quality papers that describe the most significant and cutting-edge research in all areas of chemistry. As well as reflecting the traditional core subjects of analytical, inorganic, organic and physical chemistry, the journal features a broad range of chemical research including, but not limited to, bioinorganic and bioorganic chemistry, catalysis, computational and theoretical chemistry, environmental chemistry, green chemistry, medicinal chemistry, organometallic chemistry, polymer chemistry, supramolecular chemistry and surface chemistry. Other multidisciplinary topics such as nanotechnology, chemical biology and materials chemistry are also featured.

  • Olefin metathesis-based chemically recyclable...
    by Devavrat Sathe on July 22, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 22 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-021-00748-5Depolymerizable polymers can potentially address challenges in polymer sustainability, but most existing systems lack the useful thermomechanical properties of traditional ones. Now, it has been shown that depolymerizable polymers based on olefin metathesis show good thermal stability as well as versatile mechanical properties and that the monomers used to make them can be prepared from abundant materials.

  • Stabilized resonances are no less exciting
    by C. Annie Hart on July 22, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 22 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-021-00755-6Excited anion states provide doorways for molecular electron capture. Now, two-dimensional photoelectron spectroscopy of cluster anions has been shown to be a powerful tool for revealing the role of the local environment in facilitating the process.

  • Isolation of a triplet benzene dianion
    by Colin A. Gould on July 19, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 19 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-021-00737-8Molecules with 4n π electrons should display Baird aromaticity in the triplet state, but isolation of ring systems with this electronic ground state is stymied by structural distortion. Now, a benzene diradical dianion has been stabilized by being held rigid in a binucleating ligand as well as through magnetic exchange; single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and NICS calculations support its ground-state Baird […]

  • A ring expansion strategy towards diverse...
    by Ruirui Li on July 19, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 19 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-021-00746-7Using synergistic bimetallic catalysis, a general ring expansion strategy has been developed for cross-dimerization between three-membered aza heterocycles and three- and four-membered-ring ketones. This method provides a straightforward and broadly applicable route for the assembly of 3-benzazepinones, dihydropyridinones and uracils, which are versatile units in numerous drugs and biologically active compounds.

  • Double-walled design for tetrahedral cages
    by Joan Serrano-Plana on July 16, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 16 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-021-00769-0Double-walled design for tetrahedral cages

Geochemistry News -- ScienceDaily Earth and Climate Chemistry. Full text articles on organic and inorganic chemistry in the environment. Updated daily.

  • Meet the Martian meteorite hunters
    on July 22, 2021 at 11:50 pm

    A team is paving the way for future rovers to search for meteorites on Mars. The scientists are using an extensive meteorite collection to test the spectral instruments destined for the ExoMars rover Rosalind Franklin, and develop tools to identify meteorites on the surface of the red planet.

  • 'Wrapping' anodes in 3D carbon nanosheets: The...
    on July 22, 2021 at 8:30 pm

    The lithium-ion battery is the future of sustainable energy technology, but drastic volume fluctuations in their anodes related to enhanced battery capacity raises a safety concern. Recently, researchers have found that embedding manganese selenide anodes in a 3D carbon nanosheet matrix is an innovative, simple, and low-cost means of reducing drastic volume expansion while improving the energy density of these batteries.

  • Researchers develop tool to drastically speed up...
    on July 22, 2021 at 6:20 pm

    A new tool that enables thousands of tiny experiments to run simultaneously on a single polymer chip will let scientists study enzymes faster and more comprehensively than ever before.

  • Smartphone screens effective sensors for soil or...
    on July 22, 2021 at 5:13 pm

    The touchscreen technology used in billions of smartphones and tablets could also be used as a powerful sensor, without the need for any modifications.

  • Eco-friendly plastic from cellulose and water
    on July 22, 2021 at 5:13 pm

    Plastics offer many benefits to society and are widely used in our daily life: they are lightweight, cheap and adaptable. However, the production, processing and disposal of plastics pose a major global threat to the environment and human health. However, researchers have now found a sustainable method - 'hydrosetting', which uses water at normal conditions - to process and reshape a new type of hydroplastic polymer.

Scientific American - Chemistry Science news and technology updates from Scientific American

Chemistry News - Biochemistry, Polymers, Materials Science The latest news stories on chemistry, biochemistry, polymers, materials science from

  • Autonomous self-healing seen in piezoelectric...
    on July 23, 2021 at 2:40 pm

    A team of researchers from the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research in Kolkata, the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur and RWTH Aachen University, has found a type of piezoelectric molecular crystal that is capable of autonomous self-healing. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes their work with piezoelectric molecular crystals and the crystals they grew that could heal themselves.

  • New composite material has potential for medical...
    on July 23, 2021 at 2:31 pm

    University of Georgia researchers have developed a new material with properties ideal for medical products such as masks and bandages. It's also better for the environment than the materials in current use.

  • Surrey builds AI to find anti-ageing chemical...
    on July 22, 2021 at 8:51 pm

    The University of Surrey has built an artificial intelligence (AI) model that identifies chemical compounds that promote healthy aging—paving the way towards pharmaceutical innovations that extend a person's lifespan.

  • A novel microscope reveals the miracle of...
    on July 22, 2021 at 6:00 pm

    Researchers at the University of Regensburg track the first step in the reaction of one single dye pigment with oxygen at an unprecedented resolution.

  • Eco-friendly plastic from cellulose and water
    on July 22, 2021 at 4:45 pm

    Plastics offer many benefits to society and are widely used in our daily life: they are lightweight, cheap and adaptable. However, the production, processing and disposal of plastics are simply not sustainable, and pose a major global threat to the environment and human health. Eco-friendly processing of reusable and recyclable plastics derived from plant-based raw materials would be an ideal solution. So far, the technological challenges have proved too great. However, researchers at the […]