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Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Chemistry Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Chemistry Resources (Library of Congress)

Chemistry Subject Primer (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Chemistry Subject Guide (University of Virginia Libraries)
Links for Chemists (University of Liverpool‎)

American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry

Chemistry World
WWW Chemistry Guide
Chemistry Place (Infoplease)
Chemistry (National Science Digital Library)

Chemistry Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Chemicals & Biochemicals Databases (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Lab Manuals, Guidelines, MSDS v (Martindale’s Reference Desk)

NIST Chemistry WebBook
Physical and Chemical Properties Resources (UC Berkeley Physics and Astronomy Library)
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Online (99th Edition)
ChemSpider: Free Chemical Structure Database
Merck Index
Chemistry Calculators (


matter : material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Oxford Dictionary of Chemistry
Combined Chemical Dictionary (CRC Press)


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that we can touch are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, “matter” generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.

Matter exists in various states (also known as phases). These include classical everyday phases such as solid, liquid, and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.

Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding “cloud” of orbiting electrons which “take up space”. However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent “size” or “volume” in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some “point particles” known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space. — Wikipedia

Eric Weisstein’s World of Chemistry
Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Academic Disciplines: Chemistry (Wikipedia)
Chemistry Portal (Wikipedia)


Chemistry (Wolfram Alpha)


Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Chemistry stuff (YouTube Channel, HowStuffWorks)
Chemistry (HowStuffWorks)


Chemical Heritage Foundation


Alchemy May Not Have Been the Pseudoscience We All Thought It Was (Richard Conniff, Smithsonian Magazine)
Alchemy (Tim Hunkin, Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia)

Robert Boyle

All Nobel Prizes in Chemistry (Nobel Foundation)
136 Major Figures in the History of Chemistry (Infoplease)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Matter (Chem4Kids)
Chemical Reactions (Chem4Kids)
Matter and Materials (Fact Monster)
Chemistry (Spark Notes Study Guides)
Sci Show Chemistry (YouTube Channel)


Crash Course Chemistry (YouTube)


Chemistry Courses (MIT Open Courseware)
Chemistry Courses (Coursera)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Chemists and Materials Scientists (Occupational Outlook Handbook)


American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemical Structure Association Trust


Journal of the American Chemical Society
Nature Chemistry
Scientific American
NPR Archives







OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Journal of the American Chemical Society: Latest Articles (ACS Publications) latest articles published in Journal of the American Chemical Society

Nature Chemistry Nature Chemistry is a monthly journal dedicated to publishing high-quality papers that describe the most significant and cutting-edge research in all areas of chemistry. As well as reflecting the traditional core subjects of analytical, inorganic, organic and physical chemistry, the journal features a broad range of chemical research including, but not limited to, bioinorganic and bioorganic chemistry, catalysis, computational and theoretical chemistry, environmental chemistry, green chemistry, medicinal chemistry, organometallic chemistry, polymer chemistry, supramolecular chemistry and surface chemistry. Other multidisciplinary topics such as nanotechnology, chemical biology and materials chemistry are also featured.

  • Stoichiometric two-dimensional non-van der Waals...
    by Jing Peng on October 18, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 18 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-021-00800-4Layered materials held together by weak interactions can be exfoliated into monolayers that retain the structure and composition of their bulk counterpart, but this has remained challenging to achieve for non-van der Waals materials. Now, AgCrS2 has been exfoliated into such [CrS2]Ag[CrS2] nanosheets through intercalation with tetraalkylammonium cations chosen for their suitable redox potential. The nanosheets […]

  • Dual-function enzyme catalysis for...
    by Zhen Liu on October 18, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 18 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-021-00794-zA haem protein that serves as a dual-function catalyst capable of inserting a carbene into a N–H bond to form α-amino lactones has been reported. The enzyme catalyses both carbene transfer and the subsequent proton transfer in a single active site. This transformation can proceed at the gram scale with high efficiency and enantioselective control.

  • Unnatural biosynthesis by an engineered...
    by Jing Huang on October 14, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 14 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-021-00801-3Natural products are produced by living organisms practising nature’s chemical transformations. Now, an unnatural product has been generated by creating hybrid biosynthetic microorganisms. These microorganisms combine an unnatural chemical transformation—catalysis by an artificial metalloenzyme containing an iridium-based, unnatural cofactor—with a natural biosynthetic pathway within the same cell.

  • Interactions between nascent proteins and the...
    by Anaïs M. E. Cassaignau on October 14, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 14 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-021-00796-xDuring polypeptide biosynthesis, a strong interaction can occur between a segment of an emerged, disordered nascent protein and the ribosomal surface. Now, it has been shown that competition between this ribosomal binding and the folding energetics of an immunoglobulin-like domain modulates the mechanism of co-translational folding.

  • Direct dynamic read-out of molecular chirality...
    by Serena Arnaboldi on October 14, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 14 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-021-00798-9Self-propelled artificial chemical swimmers have previously been developed for chemical sensing. Now, hybrid bioelectrochemical swimmers, capable of translating chiral molecular information into macroscopic motion, have been developed. Diastereomeric interactions between enantiopure oligomers immobilized on the swimmer and a chiral molecule present in solution control the trajectory of the device.

Geochemistry News -- ScienceDaily Earth and Climate Chemistry. Full text articles on organic and inorganic chemistry in the environment. Updated daily.

  • How bacteria create a piggy bank for the lean...
    on October 15, 2021 at 5:32 pm

    Bacteria can store extra resources for the lean times. It's a bit like keeping a piggy bank or carrying a backup battery pack. One important reserve is known as cyanophycin granules, which were first noticed by an Italian scientist about 150 years ago. He saw big, dark splotches in the cells of the blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) he was studying without understanding either what they were or their purpose. Since then, scientists have realized that cyanophycin was made of a natural green […]

  • Plant-based jet fuel could reduce emissions by 68%
    on October 14, 2021 at 9:27 pm

    Replacing petroleum-based aviation fuel with sustainable aviation fuel derived from a type of mustard plant can reduce carbon emissions by up to 68%, according to new research.

  • New theories and materials aid the transition to...
    on October 14, 2021 at 9:27 pm

    Scientists have explored different approaches to catalysis, a chemical process that plays an essential role in biological reactions, as well as many industrial applications. Chemical catalysts have been used in a variety of human applications, ranging from pharmaceutical development to biodegradable plastics and environmentally safe fertilizers. They may also advance the development of green energy solutions to address the climate crisis.

  • Scientists develop fully solar-driven autonomous...
    on October 14, 2021 at 6:19 pm

    Scientists have developed a fully operational standalone solar-powered mini-reactor which offers the potential for the production of fine chemicals in remote locations on Earth, and possibly even on Mars.

  • Molecular mixing creates super stable glass
    on October 14, 2021 at 2:01 pm

    Researchers have succeeded in creating a new type of super-stable, durable glass with potential applications ranging from medicines, advanced digital screens, and solar cell technology. The study shows how mixing multiple molecules -- up to eight at a time -- can result in a material that performs as well as the best currently known glass formers.

Scientific American - Chemistry Science news and technology updates from Scientific American

Chemistry News - Biochemistry, Polymers, Materials Science The latest news stories on chemistry, biochemistry, polymers, materials science from

  • Catalyst advance improves natural gas cleaning...
    on October 18, 2021 at 4:08 pm

    A newly developed catalyst with unique, atomic-sized "rafts" does a better job than current technology for cleaning up emissions from natural gas engines. 

  • 3D imaging study reveals how atoms are packed in...
    on October 18, 2021 at 3:00 pm

    Many substances around us, from table salt and sugar to most metals, are arranged into crystals. Because their molecules are laid out in an orderly, repetitive pattern, much is understood about their structure.

  • Machine-learning system accelerates discovery of...
    on October 15, 2021 at 6:00 pm

    The growing popularity of 3D printing for manufacturing all sorts of items, from customized medical devices to affordable homes, has created more demand for new 3D printing materials designed for very specific uses.

  • Quick detection of uranium isotopes helps...
    on October 15, 2021 at 2:26 pm

    Analytical chemists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed a rapid way to measure isotopic ratios of uranium and plutonium collected on environmental swipes, which could help International Atomic Energy Agency analysts detect the presence of undeclared nuclear activities or material.

  • Synthetic biology moves into the realm of the...
    on October 15, 2021 at 1:45 pm

    The field of synthetic biology has had great success engineering yeast and bacteria to make chemicals—biofuels, pharmaceuticals, fragrances, even the hoppy flavors of beer—cheaply and more sustainably, with only sugar as the energy source.