Matter

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Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
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matter : material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy — Webster

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Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that we can touch are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, “matter” generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.

Matter exists in various states (also known as phases). These include classical everyday phases such as solid, liquid, and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.

Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding “cloud” of orbiting electrons which “take up space”. However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent “size” or “volume” in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some “point particles” known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space. — Wikipedia

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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. — Wikipedia

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Alchemy May Not Have Been the Pseudoscience We All Thought It Was (Richard Conniff, Smithsonian Magazine)
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Journal of the American Chemical Society: Latest Articles (ACS Publications) latest articles published in Journal of the American Chemical Society


Nature Chemistry Nature Chemistry is a monthly journal dedicated to publishing high-quality papers that describe the most significant and cutting-edge research in all areas of chemistry. As well as reflecting the traditional core subjects of analytical, inorganic, organic and physical chemistry, the journal features a broad range of chemical research including, but not limited to, bioinorganic and bioorganic chemistry, catalysis, computational and theoretical chemistry, environmental chemistry, green chemistry, medicinal chemistry, organometallic chemistry, polymer chemistry, supramolecular chemistry and surface chemistry. Other multidisciplinary topics such as nanotechnology, chemical biology and materials chemistry are also featured.

  • Nickel-catalysed anti-Markovnikov hydroarylation...
    by Noam I. Saper on February 10, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 10 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41557-019-0409-4The anti-Markovnikov hydroarylation of unactivated alkenes with unactivated arenes has been achieved with high selectivity by using nickel catalysts bearing large N-heterocyclic carbene ligands. Energy decomposition analysis indicates that the high activity of the catalysts with large carbene ligands arises from stabilizing non-covalent interactions rather than steric effects.

  • Electronic complementarity permits hindered...
    by Benjamin J. Huffman on February 10, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 10 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41557-019-0413-8Although biaryl rings can be easily formed via cross coupling, their tetrahedral, high-fraction sp3 equivalents cannot. Now the scope, mechanism and biological profile of a general attached-ring synthesis has been probed. This provides direct access to full bridgehead substitution via sp3–sp3 coupling and enables rapid entry to natural product space.

  • Coordination cages as permanently porous ionic...
    by Lillian Ma on February 10, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 10 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-0419-2Porous liquids promise to combine the advantages of the porosity of solids with those of the fluidity of liquids. Now, a permanently porous ionic-liquid coordination cage has been assembled that encapsulates isomers of butanol and propanol with some size and shape selectivity, as well as three gaseous chlorofluorocarbons with a size-dependent affinity.

  • Proteomimetics as protein-inspired scaffolds with...
    by W. Seth Horne on February 6, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 06 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-0420-9The complexity of proteins has inspired chemists to seek artificial mimetics of protein structure and function. Historically, most such work has focused on analogues of small, isolated segments; however, there is growing interest in mimicry of larger, intact tertiary folds. This Perspective surveys the emerging body of work on these agents, termed ‘proteomimetics’, discusses their construction and […]

  • Principle and design of pseudo-natural products
    by George Karageorgis on February 3, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 03 February 2020; doi:10.1038/s41557-019-0411-xThe structures of biologically active natural products have long served as inspiration in drug discovery. This Perspective outlines design principles and connectivity patterns for the de novo combination of natural product-derived fragments. The resulting ‘pseudo-natural products’ retain biological relevance yet exhibit structures and bioactivities not found in the natural products and their […]


Geochemistry News -- ScienceDaily Earth and Climate Chemistry. Full text articles on organic and inorganic chemistry in the environment. Updated daily.

  • Advance in next-generation lithium metal batteries
    on February 18, 2020 at 7:37 pm

    A research team has developed a way to address a major safety issue with lithium metal batteries - an innovation that could make high-energy batteries more viable for next-generation energy storage.

  • Green approach accelerates process optimization...
    on February 18, 2020 at 5:44 pm

    Researchers have demonstrated a new, green technology for both accelerated screening and retrieving 'switchable' solvents used in green chemistry applications. The new approach makes the screening process hundreds of times faster and drastically accelerates the rate at which solvents can be retrieved from solution.

  • New biochemical compound breaks down...
    on February 18, 2020 at 5:43 pm

    Researchers discover a new biochemical compound that can break down environmental pollutants.

  • New catalyst recycles greenhouse gases into fuel...
    on February 18, 2020 at 3:47 pm

    Scientists have taken a major step toward a circular carbon economy by developing a long-lasting, economical catalyst that recycles greenhouse gases into ingredients that can be used in fuel, hydrogen gas, and other chemicals. The results could be revolutionary in the effort to reverse global warming, according to the researchers.

  • Ultrasound device improves charge time and run...
    on February 18, 2020 at 3:47 pm

    Researchers have developed an ultrasound-emitting device that brings lithium metal batteries, or LMBs, one step closer to commercial viability. Although the research team focused on LMBs, the device can be used in any battery, regardless of chemistry.


Scientific American - Chemistry Science news and technology updates from Scientific American


Chemistry News - Biochemistry, Polymers, Materials Science Phys.org provides the latest news on chemistry, biochemistry, polymers, materials science

  • 'Flapping wings' powered by the Sun
    on February 19, 2020 at 4:16 pm

    In ancient Greek mythology, Icarus' wax wings melted when he dared to fly too close to the sun. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces have made artificial wings that are actually powered by the sun. The tiny wings, which can flap even faster than those of butterflies, could someday be used in robots or devices for solar energy harvesting, the researchers say. Watch a video of the flapping wings in action here.

  • Keeping it simple—Synthesizing useful organic...
    on February 19, 2020 at 4:01 pm

    The Suzuki-Miyaura reaction is a well-known chemical process in which a reaction between organic boronic acids and aryl halides leads to the synthesis of "biaryl" compounds, which are important components of various drugs and chemical products. This is also called cross-coupling, as two aryl molecules are combined, or cross-coupled, in this process. Because the organic aromatic molecules—which are formed as a result of this reaction—have various applications, such as in solvents and […]

  • Growing crystals to generate random numbers
    on February 19, 2020 at 1:30 pm

    A team at the University of Glasgow has developed a novel way to generate random numbers by using the randomness inherent in crystal growth. In their paper published in the journal Matter, the group describes using chemistry to generate random numbers for use in other applications.

  • Chemists use mass spectrometry tools to determine...
    on February 19, 2020 at 8:45 am

    Fingerprints are telling us more and more about the people that left them behind.

  • Catching light: How cobalt can help utilize...
    on February 18, 2020 at 5:30 pm

    Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) demonstrate the first visible-light photoelectrochemical system for water splitting using TiO2 enhanced with an earth-abundant material—cobalt. The proposed approach is simple and represents a stepping stone in the quest to achieve affordable water splitting to produce hydrogen, a clean alternative to fossil fuel.