Matter

Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Realm / Physical / Matter
—————————

Introduction1

Dictionary

matter : material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy — Webster   See also OneLook

Thesaurus

Roget’s II (Thesaurus.com), Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords

Encyclopedia

Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All objects that we can touch are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, “matter” generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.

Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding “cloud” of orbiting electrons which “take up space”. However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects — they can act like waves as well as particles and do not have well-defined sizes or positions.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent “size” or “volume” in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some “point particles” known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space. — Wikipedia

Matter (Encyclopædia Britannica)

———————–

Inspiration

Chemistry Life Hacks (YouTube Playlist)

———————-

Innovation

The nature of the chemical bond is the problem at the heart of all chemistry. — Bryce Crawford

Science

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. — Wikipedia

Chemistry (Encyclopædia Britannica)

Oxford Dictionary of Chemistry (Oxford Reference)
Combined Chemical Dictionary (CRC Press)

Chemistry (Eric Weisstein’s World of Chemistry, Wolfram Research)

Chemistry (Wolfram Alpha)
Step by Step Chemistry (Wolfram Alpha)

Merck Index: Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals (Royal Society of Chemistry)
Merck Index (Wikipedia)

Technology

Chemical engineering deals with the study of operation and design of chemical plants as well as methods of improving production. Chemical engineers develop economical commercial processes to convert raw material into useful products. — Wikipedia

Materials Engineering deals with determining the best material to use based upon its strength, electrical properties, resistance to heat or corrosion, and a host of other reasons; but they all relate to the matter’s properties. — Materials Engineering, Purdue University

Materials (Wolfram Alpha)

Commerce

Entrepreneurship

Chemistry Campaigns (Kickstarter)
Chemistry Campaigns (Indiegogo)

Product

Chemistry Gifts (Zazzle)

————————–

Preservation

History

Alchemy is an ancient branch of natural philosophy, a philosophical and protoscientific tradition that was historically practiced in China, India, the Muslim world, and Europe. — Wikipedia

Alchemy May Not Have Been the Pseudoscience We All Thought It Was (Richard Conniff, Smithsonian Magazine)

The Chemical Revolution of Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (American Chemical Society)
Aintoine Lavoisier (Encyclopædia Britannica)

Robert Boyle (Official Site)
Robert Boyle (Encyclopædia Britannica)
Boyle’s Law (Encyclopædia Britannica)

All Nobel Prizes in Chemistry (Nobel Foundation)

Landmarks in Chemical History (American Chemical Society)
History of Chemistry (Nature)

History of Chemistry (Wikipedia)
Timeline of Chemistry (Wikipedia)

Materials Engineering History (Engineering and Technology History Wiki)

Library

Library of Congress # QD Chemistry (UPenn Online Books)

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library

—————————

Participation

Education

Chemistry Posters (Glogpedia)
Matter (Chem4Kids)
Collisions Chemistry (PlayMada Games)
Chemistry (Wired Chemist)

Chemistry (PHET Interactive Simulations, University of Colorado)

Adventures in Chemistry (American Chemical Society)
ChemMatters (American Chemical Society)

American Association of Chemistry Teachers (American Chemical Society)
Educational Resources (American Chemical Society)

Journal of Chemical Education (American Chemical Society)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice

Chemical Engineering (American Society for Engineering Education)
Materials Engineering (American Society for Engineering Education)

MERLOT: Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

Course

General Chemistry I: Atoms, Molecules, and Bonding (MITx)
General Chemistry II: Chemical Equilibrium, Kinetics, and Transition (MITx)

Chemistry Department Courses (MIT OpenCourseWare)
Chemistry Courses (edX)

MicroBachelors Program in University Chemistry (HarvardX)

Structure of Materials Course (MITx)
Materials Science and Engineering Department Courses (MITx)

Chemical Engineering Department Courses (MIT OpenCourseWare)
Materials Science and Engineering Department Courses (MIT OpenCourseware)

Community

Occupation

Chemistry Careers (American Chemistry Society)
Chemists and Materials Scientists (Occupational Outlook Handbook)
Chemists (CareerOneStop, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)

Chemical Engineers (CareerOneStop, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)

Materials Engineers (Occupational Outlook Handbook)
Materials Engineers (CareerOneStop, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration)

Organization

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Royal Society of Chemistry
American Chemical Society
American Institute of Chemists
Chemical Structure Association Trust

Institution of Chemical Engineers (IChemE)
American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE)

Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering (SAMPE)

News

Journal of the American Chemical Society
American Chemical Society Publications

Nature Chemistry (Nature)
Chemistry (Phys.org)
Chemistry (Scientific American)
Chemistry (NPR Archives)

AIChE Journal
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science
Chemical and Engineering News (American Chemical Society)
Chemical Engineering (Nature)

Materials chemistry (Nature)
Materials Science (Science News)

Book

Chemistry (ISBNdb)

Government

Document

Chemistry (USA.gov)

———————-

Expression

Fun

Humor

Reactions (YouTube Channel)

Alchemy (Tim Hunkin, Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia)
Materials (Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia, Tim Hunkin)

Toy

Science at Play: The History of Chemistry Sets (Sciience History Institute)
The Rise and Fall and Rise of the Chemistry Set (Sarah Zielinski, Smithsonian Magazine)
Chemistry Set (Wikipedia)

Arts

Culinary Arts

Science & Cooking: From Haute Cuisine to Soft Matter Science (HarvardX)
Science and Cooking (Harvard University, YouTube Playlist)
The Science of Cooking Professional Certificate (Harvard University)

Poem

OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form

Music

returntotop

——–
Related

Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm

Physical

“Fundamentals”
Law (Constant) Relativity
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)
Matter (Microscope) Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle

“Space”
Universe (Astronomical Instrument)
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Our Neighborhood
Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid

——
Notes

1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.