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Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Chemistry Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Chemistry Resources (Library of Congress)

Chemistry Subject Primer (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Chemistry Subject Guide (University of Virginia Libraries)
Links for Chemists (University of Liverpool‎)

American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry

Chemistry World
WWW Chemistry Guide
Chemistry Place (Infoplease)
Chemistry (National Science Digital Library)

Chemistry Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Chemicals & Biochemicals Databases (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Lab Manuals, Guidelines, MSDS v (Martindale’s Reference Desk)

NIST Chemistry WebBook
Physical and Chemical Properties Resources (UC Berkeley Physics and Astronomy Library)
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Online (99th Edition)
ChemSpider: Free Chemical Structure Database
Merck Index
Chemistry Calculators (


matter : material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Oxford Dictionary of Chemistry
Combined Chemical Dictionary (CRC Press)


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that we can touch are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, “matter” generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.

Matter exists in various states (also known as phases). These include classical everyday phases such as solid, liquid, and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.

Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding “cloud” of orbiting electrons which “take up space”. However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent “size” or “volume” in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some “point particles” known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space. — Wikipedia

Eric Weisstein’s World of Chemistry
Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Academic Disciplines: Chemistry (Wikipedia)
Chemistry Portal (Wikipedia)


Chemistry (Wolfram Alpha)


Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Chemistry stuff (YouTube Channel, HowStuffWorks)
Chemistry (HowStuffWorks)


Chemical Heritage Foundation


Alchemy May Not Have Been the Pseudoscience We All Thought It Was (Richard Conniff, Smithsonian Magazine)
Alchemy (Tim Hunkin, Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia)

Robert Boyle

All Nobel Prizes in Chemistry (Nobel Foundation)
136 Major Figures in the History of Chemistry (Infoplease)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Matter (Chem4Kids)
Chemical Reactions (Chem4Kids)
Matter and Materials (Fact Monster)
Chemistry (Spark Notes Study Guides)
Sci Show Chemistry (YouTube Channel)


Crash Course Chemistry (YouTube)


Chemistry Courses (MIT Open Courseware)
Chemistry Courses (Coursera)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Chemists and Materials Scientists (Occupational Outlook Handbook)


American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemical Structure Association Trust


Journal of the American Chemical Society
Nature Chemistry
Scientific American
NPR Archives







OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Journal of the American Chemical Society: Latest Articles (ACS Publications) latest articles published in Journal of the American Chemical Society

  • Rapamycin-inspired macrocycles with new target...
    by Zufeng Guo on December 10, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Rapamycin-inspired macrocycles with new target specificityRapamycin-inspired macrocycles with new target specificity, Published online: 10 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41557-018-0187-4Rapamycin and FK506 are macrocycles that contain an FKBP-binding domain and an effector domain responsible for interacting with their respective targets, mTOR and calcineurin. Now, a 45,000-compound macrocycle library has been synthesized by fusing oligopeptides with synthetic FKBP-binding domains. Screening and […]

  • Intersystem crossing in the exit channel
    by Hongwei Li on December 10, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Intersystem crossing in the exit channelIntersystem crossing in the exit channel, Published online: 10 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41557-018-0186-5Intersystem crossing (ISC) is a radiationless process that is important in many photophysical systems. It has now been observed to take place in the exit channel for the reaction of ground-state atomic oxygen with alkylamines. […]

  • Streamlining the chemoenzymatic synthesis of...
    by Lin Liu on December 10, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Streamlining the chemoenzymatic synthesis of complex N-glycans by a stop and go strategyStreamlining the chemoenzymatic synthesis of complex <i>N</i>-glycans by a stop and go strategy, Published online: 10 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41557-018-0188-3Preparation of well-defined N-glycans is very demanding, which hampers progress in glycoscience. Now, a biomimetic synthetic approach has been developed in which a readily available bi-antennary glycan can be converted in ten or fewer […]

  • Carbopalladation of C–C...
    by Alexander Fawcett on December 10, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Carbopalladation of C–C σ-bonds enabled by strained boronate complexesCarbopalladation of C–C <i>σ</i>-bonds enabled by strained boronate complexes, Published online: 10 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41557-018-0181-xWidely used palladium-mediated cross-couplings typically operate via a handful of fundamental reaction steps. Now, the reactivity between palladium and C–C σ-bonds has been described. This carbopalladation enables the coupling of […]

  • Photochemical generation of radicals from alkyl...
    by Bertrand Schweitzer-Chaput on December 3, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Photochemical generation of radicals from alkyl electrophiles using a nucleophilic organic catalystPhotochemical generation of radicals from alkyl electrophiles using a nucleophilic organic catalyst, Published online: 03 December 2018; doi:10.1038/s41557-018-0173-xThe SN2 reaction, a fundamental process associated with ionic chemistry, can be incorporated into a photochemical approach to creating radicals from alkyl electrophiles. This method occurs readily under visible-light irradiation, […]

Geochemistry News -- ScienceDaily Earth and Climate Chemistry. Full text articles on organic and inorganic chemistry in the environment. Updated daily.

  • DNA study shows stethoscopes loaded with...
    on December 12, 2018 at 6:50 pm

    Stethoscopes carried by health care practitioners are loaded with diverse bacteria, including some that can cause healthcare-associated infections, according to a study. The research also reviewed the effectiveness of cleaning methods, finding a standardized approach to be superior for removing bacteria compared with various approaches employed by health care practitioners. […]

  • Scientists identify new minerals for carbon...
    on December 12, 2018 at 6:44 pm

    Research confirms new minerals are capturing and storing carbon. The minerals, members of the hydrotalcite group, are the first outside of the carbonate family to naturally capture atmospheric CO2 in mine waste, important as society continues to forge ways to lower our carbon emissions and combat climate change. […]

  • Professor models system using baking soda filled...
    on December 12, 2018 at 6:44 pm

    Coal and natural gas represent the majority of the US energy supply. Even with pollution controls, burning these fossil fuels for energy releases a tremendous amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Research uses microcapsule technology that may make post-combustion carbon capture cheaper, safer, and more efficient. […]

  • Low-cost catalyst boosts hydrogen production from...
    on December 12, 2018 at 5:18 pm

    A future powered by carbon-free fuel depends on our ability to harness and store energy from renewable but intermittent sources, such as solar and wind. Now, a new catalyst gives a boost to a number of clean energy technologies that depend on producing hydrogen from water. […]

  • Light-induced modification of a carboxylic acid...
    on December 12, 2018 at 3:46 pm

    Researchers report that carboxylic acids, functional groups contained in biomolecules, drugs, and materials can be readily modified by light-induced organic reactions using an aminocyclopropenone. This discovery opens up new pathways for carboxylic acid modification with potential applications including determination of drug target proteins, elucidation of protein function, and synthesis of functionalized polymer materials. […]

Scientific American - Chemistry Science news and technology updates from Scientific American

Chemistry News - Biochemistry, Polymers, Materials Science provides the latest news on chemistry, biochemistry, polymers, materials science

  • Unlocking the secrets of how cells communicate...
    on December 12, 2018 at 6:00 pm

    Portland State University researchers have made a significant breakthrough by developing the 3-D structure of proteins from inside the eye lens that control how cells communicate with each other, which could open the door to treating diseases such as cataracts, stroke and cancer. […]

  • Clearest view ever of cell membrane yields...
    on December 12, 2018 at 5:51 pm

    Working with a Nobel Prize-winning biophysicist, a team of researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University has gained the clearest view yet of a patch of cell membrane and its components, revealing unexpected structures and opening up new possibilities for pharmaceutical research. […]

  • Seeing small-molecule interactions inside cells
    on December 12, 2018 at 5:04 pm

    Like people in a large company, proteins in cells constantly interact with each other to perform various jobs. To develop new disease therapies, researchers are trying to control these interactions with small-molecule drugs that cause specific proteins to associate more or less with their "coworkers." Now, researchers reporting in ACS' journal Analytical Chemistry have developed a method to visualize whether drugs are regulating protein-protein interactions inside cells. […]

  • Chemical engineers advance olefins production...
    on December 12, 2018 at 4:58 pm

    Olefins are simple compounds of hydrogen and carbon but represent the building blocks of chemistry, and are vital for the synthesis of materials from polymers and plastics to petrochemicals. However, olefin production requires the use of nonrenewable fossil fuels, energy intensive "cracking" facilities, and limited production control. […]

  • New ways to make plant-based medicines in space...
    on December 12, 2018 at 2:50 pm

    How can you make medicines in space? […]