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Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Chemistry Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Chemistry Resources (Library of Congress)

Chemistry Subject Primer (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Chemistry Subject Guide (University of Virginia Libraries)
Links for Chemists (University of Liverpool‎)

American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry

Chemistry World
WWW Chemistry Guide
Chemistry Place (Infoplease)
Chemistry (National Science Digital Library)

Chemistry Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Chemicals & Biochemicals Databases (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Lab Manuals, Guidelines, MSDS v (Martindale’s Reference Desk)

NIST Chemistry WebBook
Physical and Chemical Properties Resources (UC Berkeley Physics and Astronomy Library)
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Online (99th Edition)
ChemSpider: Free Chemical Structure Database
Merck Index
Chemistry Calculators (


matter : material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Oxford Dictionary of Chemistry
Combined Chemical Dictionary (CRC Press)


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that we can touch are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, “matter” generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.

Matter exists in various states (also known as phases). These include classical everyday phases such as solid, liquid, and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.

Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding “cloud” of orbiting electrons which “take up space”. However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent “size” or “volume” in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some “point particles” known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space. — Wikipedia

Eric Weisstein’s World of Chemistry
Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Academic Disciplines: Chemistry (Wikipedia)
Chemistry Portal (Wikipedia)


Chemistry (Wolfram Alpha)


Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Chemistry stuff (YouTube Channel, HowStuffWorks)
Chemistry (HowStuffWorks)


Chemical Heritage Foundation


Alchemy May Not Have Been the Pseudoscience We All Thought It Was (Richard Conniff, Smithsonian Magazine)
Alchemy (Tim Hunkin, Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia)

Robert Boyle

All Nobel Prizes in Chemistry (Nobel Foundation)
136 Major Figures in the History of Chemistry (Infoplease)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Matter (Chem4Kids)
Chemical Reactions (Chem4Kids)
Matter and Materials (Fact Monster)
Chemistry (Spark Notes Study Guides)
Sci Show Chemistry (YouTube Channel)


Crash Course Chemistry (YouTube)


Chemistry Courses (MIT Open Courseware)
Chemistry Courses (Coursera)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Chemists and Materials Scientists (Occupational Outlook Handbook)


American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemical Structure Association Trust


Journal of the American Chemical Society
Nature Chemistry
Scientific American
NPR Archives







OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Nature Chemistry Nature Chemistry is a monthly journal dedicated to publishing high-quality papers that describe the most significant and cutting-edge research in all areas of chemistry. As well as reflecting the traditional core subjects of analytical, inorganic, organic and physical chemistry, the journal features a broad range of chemical research including, but not limited to, bioinorganic and bioorganic chemistry, catalysis, computational and theoretical chemistry, environmental chemistry, green chemistry, medicinal chemistry, organometallic chemistry, polymer chemistry, supramolecular chemistry and surface chemistry. Other multidisciplinary topics such as nanotechnology, chemical biology and materials chemistry are also featured.

  • Author Correction: Direct observation of coherent...
    by Elisa Biasin on February 24, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 24 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-021-00663-9Author Correction: Direct observation of coherent femtosecond solvent reorganization coupled to intramolecular electron transfer

  • Abiotic reduction of ketones with silanes...
    by Pengfei Ji on February 18, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 18 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-00633-7Enzymatic reactions involving mononuclear metal hydrides are unknown in nature, despite the prevalence of such intermediates in synthetic transition-metal catalysed reactions. Now, it has been shown that zinc-containing carbonic anhydrase enzymes can catalyse hydride transfers from silanes to ketones with high enantioselectivity and there is evidence to support the intermediacy of a mononuclear zinc hydride.

  • Predicting the stability of homotrimeric and...
    by Douglas R. Walker on February 15, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 15 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-00626-6Collagen-like peptides can self-assemble into hundreds of closely related triple helices. Now, an algorithm has been developed that predicts the most stable helix and the extent to which it will assemble to the exclusion of the competing helices. This information can help improve the understanding of triple helix design and assembly.

  • Metal–organic frameworks embedded in a liposome...
    by Huihui Hu on February 15, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 15 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-00635-5Some metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) can promote photocatalytic hydrogen evolution and others can facilitate water oxidation, but it is difficult to combine them into a single system. Now, by confining MOFs that can promote each half-reaction within the hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions of a liposome to avoid the fast recombination of photo-generated charges, evidence for water splitting has been obtained.

  • Illuminating the dark conformational space of...
    by Diego B. Diaz on February 15, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 15 February 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-00620-yConstrained molecules typically adopt one major conformation and this limitation prevents the study of other energetically less-favourable conformations. Nevertheless, these alternate structures might prove to be useful and it has now been shown that a dominant rotor method can alter the energetic landscape of peptides to create two-well systems with distinct conformational behaviour.

Geochemistry News -- ScienceDaily Earth and Climate Chemistry. Full text articles on organic and inorganic chemistry in the environment. Updated daily.

  • Molecular bridges power up printed electronics
    on February 25, 2021 at 4:31 pm

    Researchers have boosted the efficiency of conductive inks and devices connecting layered materials flakes with small molecules.

  • Nature's funhouse mirror: Understanding asymmetry...
    on February 24, 2021 at 7:34 pm

    The results of a new experiment could shift research of the proton by reviving previously discarded theories of its inner workings.

  • Oxidation processes in combustion engines and in...
    on February 23, 2021 at 9:44 pm

    Alkanes, an important component of fuels for combustion engines and an important class of urban trace gases, react via another reaction pathways than previously thought. These hydrocarbons, formerly called paraffins, thus produce large amounts of highly oxygenated compounds that can contribute to organic aerosol and thus to air pollution in cities. The results of this interdisciplinary work provide crucial information about oxidation processes both in combustion engines and in the atmosphere.

  • New gene-editing tool allows for programming of...
    on February 23, 2021 at 8:08 pm

    Researchers have discovered a new gene-editing technique that allows for the programming of sequential cuts -- or edits -- over time.

  • Researchers challenge the Conservation Reserve...
    on February 23, 2021 at 4:07 pm

    Amid population expansion and severe climate conditions threatening agricultural productivity, sustainable food production is a national priority. Simultaneously, advances in bioenergy agriculture are necessary to move our energy sector away from fossil fuels.

Scientific American - Chemistry Science news and technology updates from Scientific American

Chemistry News - Biochemistry, Polymers, Materials Science The latest news stories on chemistry, biochemistry, polymers, materials science from

  • Theory could accelerate push for spintronic...
    on February 25, 2021 at 7:57 pm

    A new theory by Rice University scientists could boost the growing field of spintronics, devices that depend on the state of an electron as much as the brute electrical force required to push it.

  • Building bridges between atoms and making...
    on February 25, 2021 at 5:23 pm

    Similar to the fact that a person would act differently when being alone, materials can also obtain unique qualities when being separated in atom-level, among which is the enhanced catalyzing ability.

  • Collaboration leads to 2-D polymer discovery
    on February 25, 2021 at 5:04 pm

    Army researchers reached a breakthrough in the nascent science of two-dimensional polymers thanks to a collaborative program that enlists the help of lead scientists and engineers across academia known as joint faculty appointments.

  • On the line: Watching nanoparticles get in shape
    on February 25, 2021 at 8:04 am

    Liquid structures—liquid droplets that maintain a specific shape—are useful for a variety of applications, from food processing to cosmetics, medicine, and even petroleum extraction, but researchers have yet to tap into these exciting new materials' full potential because not much is known about how they form.

  • An intelligent soft material that curls under...
    on February 24, 2021 at 5:41 pm

    Plants and animals can rapidly respond to changes in their environment, such as a Venus flytrap snapping shut when a fly touches it. However, replicating similar actions in soft robots requires complex mechanics and sensors. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces have printed liquid metal circuits onto a single piece of soft polymer, creating an intelligent material that curls under pressure or mechanical strain.