Cosma Home > Communication > Knowledge > Realm > Physical > Matter




Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Chemistry Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Chemistry Resources (Library of Congress)

Chemistry Subject Primer (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Chemistry Subject Guide (University of Virginia Libraries)
Links for Chemists (University of Liverpool‎)

American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry

Chemistry World
WWW Chemistry Guide
Chemistry Place (Infoplease)
Chemistry (National Science Digital Library)

Chemistry Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Chemicals & Biochemicals Databases (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Lab Manuals, Guidelines, MSDS v (Martindale’s Reference Desk)

NIST Chemistry WebBook
Physical and Chemical Properties Resources (UC Berkeley Physics and Astronomy Library)
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Online (99th Edition)
ChemSpider: Free Chemical Structure Database
Merck Index
Chemistry Calculators (


matter : material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Oxford Dictionary of Chemistry
Combined Chemical Dictionary (CRC Press)


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that we can touch are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, “matter” generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.

Matter exists in various states (also known as phases). These include classical everyday phases such as solid, liquid, and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.

Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding “cloud” of orbiting electrons which “take up space”. However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent “size” or “volume” in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some “point particles” known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space. — Wikipedia

Eric Weisstein’s World of Chemistry
Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Academic Disciplines: Chemistry (Wikipedia)
Chemistry Portal (Wikipedia)


Chemistry (Wolfram Alpha)


Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Chemistry stuff (YouTube Channel, HowStuffWorks)
Chemistry (HowStuffWorks)


Chemical Heritage Foundation


Alchemy May Not Have Been the Pseudoscience We All Thought It Was (Richard Conniff, Smithsonian Magazine)
Alchemy (Tim Hunkin, Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia)

Robert Boyle

All Nobel Prizes in Chemistry (Nobel Foundation)
136 Major Figures in the History of Chemistry (Infoplease)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Matter (Chem4Kids)
Chemical Reactions (Chem4Kids)
Matter and Materials (Fact Monster)
Chemistry (Spark Notes Study Guides)
Sci Show Chemistry (YouTube Channel)


Crash Course Chemistry (YouTube)


Chemistry Courses (MIT Open Courseware)
Chemistry Courses (Coursera)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Chemists and Materials Scientists (Occupational Outlook Handbook)


American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemical Structure Association Trust


Journal of the American Chemical Society
Nature Chemistry
Scientific American
NPR Archives







OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Nature Chemistry Nature Chemistry is a monthly journal dedicated to publishing high-quality papers that describe the most significant and cutting-edge research in all areas of chemistry. As well as reflecting the traditional core subjects of analytical, inorganic, organic and physical chemistry, the journal features a broad range of chemical research including, but not limited to, bioinorganic and bioorganic chemistry, catalysis, computational and theoretical chemistry, environmental chemistry, green chemistry, medicinal chemistry, organometallic chemistry, polymer chemistry, supramolecular chemistry and surface chemistry. Other multidisciplinary topics such as nanotechnology, chemical biology and materials chemistry are also featured.

  • Author Correction: Mechanochemical bond scission...
    by Shuaidong Huo on May 6, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 06 May 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-021-00685-3Author Correction: Mechanochemical bond scission for the activation of drugs

  • Single crystals of mechanically entwined helical...
    by Yiming Hu on May 3, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 03 May 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-021-00686-2Single crystals of a helical covalent polymer have been obtained from an achiral monomer through spiroborate formation. Polymerization and crystallization occur simultaneously to give a network of pairs of entwined helical strands of the same handedness. No strong non-covalent interactions were observed between the two helical polymers forming a pair; instead, each interacts with neighbouring pairs through hydrogen […]

  • The effect of solvation on electron capture...
    by Aude Lietard on May 3, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 03 May 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-021-00687-1Although electron-driven chemistry is ubiquitous, how molecular electron capture is altered by solvent remains poorly understood. Now, using anion two-dimensional photoelectron spectroscopy, it is shown that the presence of water molecules can enhance electron capture and that considering the mechanism from the perspective of the anion offers further understanding.

  • The road to hell is irreversible
    by Bruce C. Gibb on April 30, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 30 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-021-00699-xThe hole in the ozone layer is a huge warning sign that society is in danger of ignoring, argues Bruce C. Gibb, who reflects on the legacy of Paul Crutzen and the Anthropocene.

  • Funding a more equitable research community
    by Anne Pichon on April 30, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 30 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41557-021-00703-4Gemma Tracey talks to Nature Chemistry about ingrained inequalities in the research community and the role of funders in replacing privilege with equitable and transparent systems.

Geochemistry News -- ScienceDaily Earth and Climate Chemistry. Full text articles on organic and inorganic chemistry in the environment. Updated daily.

  • Transforming atmospheric carbon into industrially...
    on May 6, 2021 at 8:36 pm

    Plants are unparalleled in their ability to capture carbon from the air, but this benefit is temporary. Researchers have proposed a more permanent, and even useful, fate for this captured carbon by turning plants into a valuable industrial material called silicon carbide (SiC). A new study from scientists quantifies this process with more detail than ever before.

  • In graphene process, resistance is useful
    on May 6, 2021 at 8:36 pm

    Scientists adapt laser-induced graphene to make conductive patterns from standard photoresist material for consumer electronics and other applications.

  • Researchers develop new metal-free, recyclable...
    on May 6, 2021 at 8:36 pm

    The introduction of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries has revolutionized technology as a whole, leading to major advances in consumer goods across nearly all sectors. Battery-powered devices have become ubiquitous across the world. While the availability of technology is generally a good thing, the rapid growth has led directly to several key ethical and environmental issues surrounding the use of Li-ion batteries.

  • Research breakthrough in the fight against cancer
    on May 6, 2021 at 4:57 pm

    Researchers have engineered a nanoparticle that has the potential to revolutionize disease treatment, including for cancer.

  • Microalgae biofuels: Changing carbohydrates into...
    on May 6, 2021 at 2:54 pm

    Engineers have developed a technique to repartition carbon resources from carbohydrates to lipids in microalgae. It is hoped that this method can be applied to biofuel production.

Scientific American - Chemistry Science news and technology updates from Scientific American

Chemistry News - Biochemistry, Polymers, Materials Science The latest news stories on chemistry, biochemistry, polymers, materials science from

  • Tiny amino acid differences can lead to...
    on May 7, 2021 at 12:51 pm

    Just a few changes to an enzyme's amino acids can be enough to dramatically change its function, enabling microbes to inhabit wildly different environments.

  • Transforming atmospheric carbon into industrially...
    on May 7, 2021 at 7:30 am

    Plants are unparalleled in their ability to capture CO2 from the air, but this benefit is temporary, as leftover crops release carbon back into the atmosphere, mostly through decomposition. Researchers have proposed a more permanent, and even useful, fate for this captured carbon by turning plants into a valuable industrial material called silicon carbide (SiC)—offering a strategy to turn an atmospheric greenhouse gas into an economically and industrially valuable material.

  • Multidisciplinary cooperation leads to catalysts...
    on May 6, 2021 at 6:18 pm

    A team of chemists and physicists at Utrecht University has succeeded in designing a new type of catalyst. By combining two metals with atomic precision they created a highly effective catalytic material. The team, led by Prof. Petra de Jongh (Chemistry) and Prof. Alfons van Blaaderen (Physics), are publishing their findings in Nature Materials today.

  • 'Molecular glue' makes perovskite solar cells...
    on May 6, 2021 at 6:00 pm

    A research team from Brown University has made a major step toward improving the long-term reliability of perovskite solar cells, an emerging clean energy technology. In a study to be published on Friday, May 7 in the journal Science, the team demonstrates a "molecular glue" that keeps a key interface inside cells from degrading. The treatment dramatically increases cells' stability and reliability over time, while also improving the efficiency with which they convert sunlight into electricity.

  • Unusual semimetal shows evidence of unique...
    on May 6, 2021 at 4:40 pm

    Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology experimentally verify the existence of exotic surface conduction states in topological semimetals (TSMs), materials that lie at the boundary between conductors and insulators, by performing voltage scans of these surface states on a thin film sample of a TSM. The findings can pave the way for future study and exploitation of such conduction states in realizing novel, quantum transport phenomena.