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Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Chemistry Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Chemistry Resources (Library of Congress)

Chemistry Subject Primer (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Chemistry Subject Guide (University of Virginia Libraries)
Links for Chemists (University of Liverpool‎)

American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry

Chemistry World
WWW Chemistry Guide
Chemistry Place (Infoplease)
Chemistry (National Science Digital Library)

Chemistry Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Chemicals & Biochemicals Databases (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Lab Manuals, Guidelines, MSDS v (Martindale’s Reference Desk)

NIST Chemistry WebBook
Physical and Chemical Properties Resources (UC Berkeley Physics and Astronomy Library)
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Online (99th Edition)
ChemSpider: Free Chemical Structure Database
Merck Index
Chemistry Calculators (


matter : material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Oxford Dictionary of Chemistry
Combined Chemical Dictionary (CRC Press)


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that we can touch are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, “matter” generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.

Matter exists in various states (also known as phases). These include classical everyday phases such as solid, liquid, and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.

Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding “cloud” of orbiting electrons which “take up space”. However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent “size” or “volume” in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some “point particles” known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space. — Wikipedia

Eric Weisstein’s World of Chemistry
Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Academic Disciplines: Chemistry (Wikipedia)
Chemistry Portal (Wikipedia)


Chemistry (Wolfram Alpha)


Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Chemistry stuff (YouTube Channel, HowStuffWorks)
Chemistry (HowStuffWorks)


Chemical Heritage Foundation


Alchemy May Not Have Been the Pseudoscience We All Thought It Was (Richard Conniff, Smithsonian Magazine)
Alchemy (Tim Hunkin, Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia)

Robert Boyle

All Nobel Prizes in Chemistry (Nobel Foundation)
136 Major Figures in the History of Chemistry (Infoplease)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Matter (Chem4Kids)
Chemical Reactions (Chem4Kids)
Matter and Materials (Fact Monster)
Chemistry (Spark Notes Study Guides)
Sci Show Chemistry (YouTube Channel)


Crash Course Chemistry (YouTube)


Chemistry Courses (MIT Open Courseware)
Chemistry Courses (Coursera)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Chemists and Materials Scientists (Occupational Outlook Handbook)


American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemical Structure Association Trust


Journal of the American Chemical Society
Nature Chemistry
Scientific American
NPR Archives







OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Journal of the American Chemical Society: Latest Articles (ACS Publications) latest articles published in Journal of the American Chemical Society

  • 5-Formylcytosine organizes nucleosomes and forms...
    by Eun-Ang Raiber on October 22, 2018 at 12:00 am

    5-Formylcytosine organizes nucleosomes and forms Schiff base interactions with histones in mouse embryonic stem cells5-Formylcytosine organizes nucleosomes and forms Schiff base interactions with histones in mouse embryonic stem cells, Published online: 22 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41557-018-0149-xA series of in vitro and in vivo studies has now shown that 5fC is linked to increased nucleosome occupancy and stability. Moreover, there is evidence that Schiff base formation between histones and […]

  • Something’s fishy
    by Bruce C. Gibb on October 19, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Something’s fishySomething’s fishy, Published online: 19 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41557-018-0162-0Bruce Gibb focuses on fatty acids and wonders whether we’ll all be eating cyanobacteria before too long. […]

  • Crumple zones in MOFs
    by Jürgen Senker on October 19, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Crumple zones in MOFsCrumple zones in MOFs, Published online: 19 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41557-018-0161-1The applicability of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) — in spite of their obvious potential — is hindered by stability issues, in particular towards water. Now, a ‘crumple zone’ concept has been proposed in which the presence of sacrificial bonds protects a MOF without significantly altering its structure or functionality. […]

  • Targeting tennessine
    by Elizabeth Williams on October 19, 2018 at 12:00 am

    Targeting tennessineTargeting tennessine, Published online: 19 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41557-018-0160-2Liz Williams explores the synthesis of tennessine, a story in which elements in supporting roles play a crucial part. […]

  • A crystalline monosubstituted carbene
    by Ryo Nakano on October 15, 2018 at 12:00 am

    A crystalline monosubstituted carbeneA crystalline monosubstituted carbene, Published online: 15 October 2018; doi:10.1038/s41557-018-0153-1So far, monosubstituted carbenes have only been spectroscopically characterized at very low temperatures. Now, it has been shown that a bulky, chemically inert, amino substituent is enough to tame the intrinsic tendency of carbenes towards dimerization, enabling their isolation at room temperature. […]

Geochemistry News -- ScienceDaily Earth and Climate Chemistry. Full text articles on organic and inorganic chemistry in the environment. Updated daily.

  • Mystery of how black widow spiders create...
    on October 22, 2018 at 7:09 pm

    Researchers have better unraveled the complex process of how black widow spiders transform proteins into steel-strength fibers. This knowledge promises to aid scientists in creating equally strong synthetic materials. Utilizing state-of-the-art techniques, the research team was able to more closely see inside the protein gland where the silk fibers originate, revealing a more complex, hierarchical protein assembly. The researchers' 'modified micelles theory' concludes that spider silk proteins […]

  • Fracking wastewater accumulation found in...
    on October 22, 2018 at 5:57 pm

    Elevated concentrations of strontium, an element associated with oil and gas wastewaters, have accumulated in the shells of freshwater mussels downstream from fracking wastewater disposal sites. […]

  • Ancient enzymes the catalysts for new discoveries
    on October 22, 2018 at 4:28 pm

    New research recreating 450 million-year-old enzymes has resulted in a biochemical engineering 'hack' which could lead to new drugs, flavors, fragrances and biofuels. […]

  • Origami, 3D printing merge to make complex...
    on October 22, 2018 at 12:58 pm

    By merging the ancient art of origami with 21st century technology, researchers have created a one-step approach to fabricating complex origami structures whose light weight, expandability, and strength could have applications in everything from biomedical devices to equipment used in space exploration. […]

  • Molecular memory can be used to increase the...
    on October 19, 2018 at 2:06 pm

    Scientists have taken part in research where the first molecule capable of remembering the direction of a magnetic above liquid nitrogen temperatures has been prepared and characterized. The results may be used in the future to massively increase the storage capacity of hard disks without increasing their physical size. […]

Scientific American - Chemistry Science news and technology updates from Scientific American

Chemistry News - Biochemistry, Polymers, Materials Science provides the latest news on chemistry, biochemistry, polymers, materials science

  • Mystery of how black widow spiders create...
    on October 22, 2018 at 7:00 pm

    Researchers at Northwestern University and San Diego State University (SDSU) have better unraveled the complex process of how black widow spiders transform proteins into steel-strength fibers. This knowledge promises to aid scientists in creating equally strong synthetic materials. […]

  • Ancient enzymes the catalysts for new discoveries
    on October 22, 2018 at 3:25 pm

    University of Queensland-led research recreating 450 million-year-old enzymes has resulted in a biochemical engineering 'hack' which could lead to new drugs, flavours, fragrances and biofuels. […]

  • Researchers wake-up DNA from soil bacteria to...
    on October 22, 2018 at 2:56 pm

    Scleric Acid has been discovered by capturing and engineering a DNA fragment from soil bacteria Streptomyces sclerotialus, and could help fight bacterial infections—by researchers at the School of Life Sciences and Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick. […]

  • Secondary building units (SBUs)—the turning...
    on October 22, 2018 at 1:40 pm

    There is an urgent need to control materials on the molecular level to make "materials on demand." A strategy to develop such materials is in development in reticular chemistry, derived from the Latin translation "reticulum" as "having the form of a net." The strategy links discrete building units (molecules and clusters) via bonds to make large and extended crystalline structures. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are the most prominent class of materials in the realm of reticular chemistry. […]

  • Study describes cellular factories in greater...
    on October 22, 2018 at 12:29 pm

    Many important natural products such as antibiotics, immunosuppressants and cancer drugs are derived from microorganisms. These natural products are often small proteins or peptides generated in the cell by NRPS enzymes similar to a modern automobile factory: At each station, additional parts are added to the basic structure until finally, a completed automobile leaves the factory. With regard to the NRPS, a specific amino acid is incorporated and processed at each station (module), and […]