Matter

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Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)

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Chemistry Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
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Dictionary

matter : material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy — Webster

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Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that we can touch are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, “matter” generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.

Matter exists in various states (also known as phases). These include classical everyday phases such as solid, liquid, and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.

Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding “cloud” of orbiting electrons which “take up space”. However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent “size” or “volume” in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some “point particles” known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space. — Wikipedia

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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. — Wikipedia

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Alchemy May Not Have Been the Pseudoscience We All Thought It Was (Richard Conniff, Smithsonian Magazine)
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Journal of the American Chemical Society: Latest Articles (ACS Publications) latest articles published in Journal of the American Chemical Society


Nature Chemistry Nature Chemistry is a monthly journal dedicated to publishing high-quality papers that describe the most significant and cutting-edge research in all areas of chemistry. As well as reflecting the traditional core subjects of analytical, inorganic, organic and physical chemistry, the journal features a broad range of chemical research including, but not limited to, bioinorganic and bioorganic chemistry, catalysis, computational and theoretical chemistry, environmental chemistry, green chemistry, medicinal chemistry, organometallic chemistry, polymer chemistry, supramolecular chemistry and surface chemistry. Other multidisciplinary topics such as nanotechnology, chemical biology and materials chemistry are also featured.

  • Ruthenium-catalysed multicomponent synthesis of...
    by Barry M. Trost on June 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 01 June 2020; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-0464-xA ruthenium-catalysed multicomponent reaction provides rapid and tunable access to 1,3-dienyl-6-oxy polyketide motifs. An initial alkene–alkyne coupling produces unsymmetrical 3-boryl-1,4-dienes. Allylation of aldehydes and ketones with these products is highly diastereoselective and results in the formation of two carbon–carbon bonds, two stereodefined olefins and up to three contiguous sp3 stereocentres.

  • Raising the ribosomal repertoire
    by Christopher D. Reinkemeier on May 29, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 29 May 2020; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-0476-6Three versatile and mutually orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pairs have been developed. Collectively, these pairs enable the site-specific incorporation of three different non-canonical amino acids into a protein that can still be terminated faithfully by a natural stop codon.

  • Engineered triply orthogonal pyrrolysyl–tRNA...
    by Daniel L. Dunkelmann on May 29, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 29 May 2020; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-0472-xNon-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) can be incorporated into proteins in cells using orthogonal aminaocyl–tRNA synthetase/tRNA pairs; the most widely adopted system is based on a pyrrolysyl–tRNA synthetase (PylRS)/tRNA pair. Now, three new PylRS/tRNA pairs have been developed that are mutually orthogonal and can be used together to site-specifically incorporate three distinct ncAAs into a single protein.

  • Cobalt-catalysed C–H methylation for late-stage...
    by Stig D. Friis on May 29, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 29 May 2020; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-0475-7Despite the importance of C–H methylation in medicinal chemistry, the application to densely functionalized complex molecules remains a challenge. Now, a novel cobalt-catalysed method takes advantage of inherently present functional groups to guide the C–H activation and a boron-based methyl source enables the late stage C–H methylation of pharmaceutically relevant substrates.

  • Exploring epigenetics with chemical tools
    by Yi Zhang on May 29, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 29 May 2020; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-0471-yIdentifying chromatin modifications and their interactomes is imperative to understand how chromatin functions and is regulated. Now, two new studies report on chemical tools that enable characterization of the biological interactions within native chromatin.


Geochemistry News -- ScienceDaily Earth and Climate Chemistry. Full text articles on organic and inorganic chemistry in the environment. Updated daily.

  • Study shows diamonds aren't forever
    on June 5, 2020 at 2:54 pm

    Diamonds, those precious, sparkling jewels, are known as the hardest materials on Earth. They are a high-pressure form of carbon and found deep in the ground. While diamonds are commonly thought of as hard and stable, carbon from about 100 miles beneath the African plate is being brought to shallower levels where diamond will become unstable. Molten rock (magma) brings the excess carbon towards the surface, and earthquakes open cracks that allow the carbon to be released into the air as carbon […]

  • Showtime for photosynthesis
    on June 4, 2020 at 3:16 pm

    Using a unique combination of nanoscale imaging and chemical analysis, researchers have revealed a key step in the molecular mechanism behind the water splitting reaction of photosynthesis, a finding that could help inform the design of renewable energy technology.

  • High-speed atomic video
    on June 4, 2020 at 1:56 pm

    Researchers have successfully captured video of single molecules in motion at 1,600 frames per second. This is 100 times faster than previous experiments of this nature. They accomplished this by combining a powerful electron microscope with a highly sensitive camera and advanced image processing. This method could aid many areas of nanoscale research.

  • New record for carbon dioxide capture
    on June 3, 2020 at 5:25 pm

    Researchers have set a record for carbon dioxide capture using Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs). The technology resembles a sponge filled with tiny magnets.

  • Breaking the mold: An unusual choice of material...
    on June 3, 2020 at 5:25 pm

    Scientists have developed a novel silica-based cathode for lithium-sulfur batteries, thereby enabling the realization of batteries that can last for over 2000 charge/discharge cycles. The possibility of successfully using the unconventional silica could spark a paradigm shift in rechargeable battery designs.


Scientific American - Chemistry Science news and technology updates from Scientific American


Chemistry News - Biochemistry, Polymers, Materials Science Phys.org provides the latest news on chemistry, biochemistry, polymers, materials science

  • Scientists develop unique polymer coating to...
    on June 5, 2020 at 6:00 pm

    Scientists from the University of Nottingham have developed a new way to control harmful fungi, without the need to use chemical bioactives like fungicides or antifungals.

  • Breaking symmetry leads to responsive organic...
    on June 5, 2020 at 2:28 pm

    A column of liquid crystal molecules could form the basis of a new breed of flexible light detectors that have ultrafast responses, an all-RIKEN team has demonstrated.

  • Ultrastable, selective catalyst for propane...
    on June 5, 2020 at 9:29 am

    A group of Japanese scientists has developed an ultrastable, selective catalyst to dehydrogenate propane—an essential process to produce the key petrochemical substance of propylene—without deactivation, even at temperatures of more than 600 degrees C.

  • How is a metal formed?
    on June 5, 2020 at 9:28 am

    What does it mean to be a metal? How is a metal formed? These seem like textbook questions with a simple answer: Metal is characterized by free electrons that give rise to high electric conductivity. But how, exactly, is a metallic conduction band formed from originally localized electrons, and what is the corresponding microscopic picture for the material involved?

  • Self-assembling, biomimetic composites possess...
    on June 4, 2020 at 8:17 pm

    Sometimes, breaking rules is not a bad thing. Especially when the rules are apparent laws of nature that apply in bulk material, but other forces appear in the nanoscale.