These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…
NIST Chemistry WebBook
Physical and Chemical Properties Resources (UC Berkeley Physics and Astronomy Library)
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Online (99th Edition)
ChemSpider: Free Chemical Structure Database
Chemistry Calculators (Calculator.com)
matter : material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy — Webster
Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that we can touch are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, “matter” generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.
Matter exists in various states (also known as phases). These include classical everyday phases such as solid, liquid, and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.
Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding “cloud” of orbiting electrons which “take up space”. However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions.
In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent “size” or “volume” in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some “point particles” known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space. — Wikipedia
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. — Wikipedia
Journal of the American Chemical Society: Latest Articles (ACS Publications) latest articles published in Journal of the American Chemical Society
[ASAP] Facet-Dependent <italic...
by Kun Joong Kim, Hyeon Han, Thomas Defferriere, Daseob Yoon, Suenhyoeng Na, Sun Jae Kim, Amir Masoud Dayaghi, Junwoo Son, Tae-Sik Oh, Hyun Myung Jang, Gyeong Man Choi on April 24, 2019 at 4:00 am
Journal of the American Chemical SocietyDOI: 10.1021/jacs.9b02283 […]
[ASAP] Nickel-Catalyzed Decarboxylation of Aryl...
by Akihiro Nishizawa, Tsuyoshi Takahira, Kosuke Yasui, Hayato Fujimoto, Tomohiro Iwai, Masaya Sawamura, Naoto Chatani, Mamoru Tobisu on April 24, 2019 at 4:00 am
Journal of the American Chemical SocietyDOI: 10.1021/jacs.9b02751 […]
[ASAP] How Size and Aggregation of Ice-Binding...
by Yuqing Qiu, Arpa Hudait, Valeria Molinero on April 24, 2019 at 4:00 am
Journal of the American Chemical SocietyDOI: 10.1021/jacs.9b01854 […]
[ASAP] CO<sub>2</sub> and...
by Marta Falcone, Rosario Scopelliti, Marinella Mazzanti on April 24, 2019 at 4:00 am
Journal of the American Chemical SocietyDOI: 10.1021/jacs.9b02235 […]
[ASAP] Ligand-Mediated Band Engineering in...
by Maria Ibáñez, Roger Hasler, Aziz Genç, Yu Liu, Beatrice Kuster, Maximilian Schuster, Oleksandr Dobrozhan, Doris Cadavid, Jordi Arbiol, Andreu Cabot, Maksym V. Kovalenko on April 24, 2019 at 4:00 am
Journal of the American Chemical SocietyDOI: 10.1021/jacs.9b01394 […]
Plastics are forever
by Bruce C. Gibb on April 24, 2019 at 12:00 am
Plastics are foreverPlastics are forever, Published online: 24 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41557-019-0260-7Bruce C. Gibb explains why plastic isn’t always fantastic. […]
Safe, sustainable and scalable
by Craig P. Johnston on April 24, 2019 at 12:00 am
Safe, sustainable and scalableSafe, sustainable and scalable, Published online: 24 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41557-019-0262-5Two recent back-to-back meetings conveyed a common set of ongoing challenges for the fields of organocatalysis, photoredox catalysis and photochemistry. […]
Author Correction: The molecular Lego movie
by Arash Nikoubashman on April 24, 2019 at 12:00 am
Author Correction: The molecular Lego movieAuthor Correction: The molecular Lego movie, Published online: 24 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41557-019-0268-zAuthor Correction: The molecular Lego mov […]
A synthetic genetic polymer with an uncharged...
by Sebastian Arangundy-Franklin on April 22, 2019 at 12:00 am
A synthetic genetic polymer with an uncharged backbone chemistry based on alkyl phosphonate nucleic acidsA synthetic genetic polymer with an uncharged backbone chemistry based on alkyl phosphonate nucleic acids, Published online: 22 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41557-019-0255-4The highly charged phosphodiester chemistry of the natural nucleic acids DNA and RNA has been widely considered to be indispensable for their function as informational molecules. Now, synthetic genetic polymers with an […]
Practical and regioselective amination of arenes...
by Alessandro Ruffoni on April 22, 2019 at 12:00 am
Practical and regioselective amination of arenes using alkyl aminesPractical and regioselective amination of arenes using alkyl amines, Published online: 22 April 2019; doi:10.1038/s41557-019-0254-5The synthesis of aryl amines is traditionally achieved through aromatic nitration or transition metal-catalysed cross coupling. Now, photocatalysis provides a route for the direct and selective C–H amination of aromatics with alkyl amines, without the need for pre-functionalization. This […]
Geochemistry News -- ScienceDaily Earth and Climate Chemistry. Full text articles on organic and inorganic chemistry in the environment. Updated daily.
Cleaner, cheaper ammonia: Cheaper fertilizer
on April 24, 2019 at 7:36 pm
Ammonia -- a colorless gas essential for things like fertilizer -- can be made by a new process which is far cleaner, easier and cheaper than the current leading method. Researchers use readily available lab equipment, recyclable chemicals and a minimum of energy to produce ammonia. Their Samarium-Water Ammonia Production (SWAP) process promises to scale down ammonia production and improve access to ammonia fertilizer to farmers everywhere. […]
Eclogitic diamonds formed from oceanic crust
on April 24, 2019 at 7:34 pm
Eclogitic diamonds formed in Earth's mantle originate from oceanic crust, rather than marine sediments as commonly thought, according to a new study. […]
Nanosized container with photoswitches: Release...
on April 24, 2019 at 2:22 pm
Researchers have developed a nanosized container bearing photoswitches that takes up hydrophobic compounds of various size and shape in water and subsequently releases them quantitatively by non-invasive light stimulus. The installed switches allow reusing of the container after successful release of the cargo. The novel system represents a versatile platform for future developments in fields such as materials chemistry and biomedicine. […]
Energy-saving new LED phosphor
on April 24, 2019 at 2:22 pm
The human eye is particularly sensitive to green, but less sensitive to blue and red. Chemists have now developed a new red phosphor whose light is well perceived by the eye. This increases the light yield of white LEDs by around one-sixth, which can significantly improve the energy efficiency of lighting systems. […]
Polymers to give early warning signs
on April 24, 2019 at 12:34 pm
Researchers have developed a method to tailor the properties of stress-indicating molecules that can be integrated into polymers and signal damages or excessive mechanical loads with an optical signal. […]
Scientific American - Chemistry Science news and technology updates from Scientific American
How Do I Know If My Tap Water Is Safe?
by Everyday Einstein Sabrina Stierwalt on April 18, 2019 at 7:00 pm
Everyday Einstein explains what contaminates our water, how it gets there, and what we can do to test it -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com […]
Squeezed Potassium Atoms Straddle Liquid and Solid
by Christopher Intagliata on April 12, 2019 at 11:00 pm
At extreme pressures, potassium atoms can be both liquid and solid at the same time, a phase of matter known as "chain melt." Christopher Intagliata reports. -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com […]
Whitening Strips Alter Proteins in Teeth
by Christopher Intagliata on April 9, 2019 at 8:10 pm
Hydrogen peroxide in whitening treatments penetrates enamel and dentin, and alters tooth proteins. Christopher Intagliata reports. -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com […]
Infrared Light Offers a Cooler Way to Defrost
by Adam Levy on April 8, 2019 at 10:00 pm
Light tuned to a specific frequency warms ice more than water—which could come in handy for defrosting delicate biological samples. Adam Levy reports. -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com […]
Tennessee Whiskey Relies on Missing Ingredients
by Christopher Intagliata on April 3, 2019 at 3:40 am
Food chemists precisely measured how charcoal filtration contributes to Tennessee whiskey's smoother flavor. Christopher Intagliata reports. -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com […]
Chemistry News - Biochemistry, Polymers, Materials Science Phys.org provides the latest news on chemistry, biochemistry, polymers, materials science
Treating addiction: Cryo-EM technology enables...
on April 24, 2019 at 5:00 pm
Scientists used a compound found in a shrub native to Africa to reveal the three major shapes of the serotonin transporter, a protein in the brain linked to anxiety and depression. […]
Researchers create the first maps of two...
on April 24, 2019 at 5:00 pm
An international team of researchers used an X-ray laser at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory to create the first detailed maps of two melatonin receptors that tell our bodies when to go to sleep or wake up and guide other biological processes. A better understanding of how they work could enable researchers to design better drugs to combat sleep disorders, cancer and Type 2 diabetes. Their findings were published in two papers today in Nature. […]
Researchers dramatically clean up ammonia...
on April 24, 2019 at 5:00 pm
Ammonia—a colorless gas essential for things like fertilizer—can be made by a new process which is far cleaner, easier and cheaper than the current leading method. UTokyo researchers use readily available lab equipment, recyclable chemicals and a minimum of energy to produce ammonia. Their Samarium-Water Ammonia Production (SWAP) process promises to scale down ammonia production and improve access to ammonia fertilizer to farmers everywhere. […]
New synthesis strategy speeds identification of...
on April 24, 2019 at 4:54 pm
A new chemical synthesis strategy to harvest the rich information found in natural products—organic compounds isolated from natural sources—has led to the identification of novel, simpler derivatives with potential to selectively protect neurons, important for neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease, or to prevent the immune system from rejecting organ transplants, according to a Baylor University-led study. […]
Fluorescence probe shows the distribution of...
on April 24, 2019 at 4:53 pm
Batteries with metallic lithium anodes offer enhanced efficiency compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries because of their higher capacity. However, safety concerns and a short lifespan stand in the way. To better analyze the causes of malfunctions and premature failure of such batteries, researchers have developed a technique that visualizes the distribution of active lithium on the anode and differentiates between dendrites and "dead" lithium. As reported in the journal Angewandte […]