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matter : material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy — Webster

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Oxford Dictionary of Chemistry
Combined Chemical Dictionary (CRC Press)


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Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that we can touch are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, “matter” generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.

Matter exists in various states (also known as phases). These include classical everyday phases such as solid, liquid, and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.

Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding “cloud” of orbiting electrons which “take up space”. However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent “size” or “volume” in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some “point particles” known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space. — Wikipedia

Eric Weisstein’s World of Chemistry
Encyclopædia Britannica


Outline of Academic Disciplines: Chemistry (Wikipedia)
Chemistry Portal (Wikipedia)


Chemistry Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
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CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Online (99th Edition)
ChemSpider: Free Chemical Structure Database
Merck Index
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Chemistry (Wolfram Alpha)






Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Everything you’ve learned in school as “obvious” becomes less and less obvious as you begin to study the universe. For example, there are no solids in the universe. There’s not even a suggestion of a solid. There are no absolute continuums. There are no surfaces. There are no straight lines. — R. Buckminster Fuller


Chemistry stuff (YouTube Channel, HowStuffWorks)
Chemistry (HowStuffWorks)



Chemical Heritage Foundation


Alchemy May Not Have Been the Pseudoscience We All Thought It Was (Richard Conniff, Smithsonian Magazine)
Alchemy (Tim Hunkin, Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia)

Robert Boyle

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136 Major Figures in the History of Chemistry (Infoplease)


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Chemists and Materials Scientists (Occupational Outlook Handbook)


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OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


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More News …

Journal of the American Chemical Society: Latest Articles (ACS Publications) latest articles published in Journal of the American Chemical Society

Nature Chemistry Nature Chemistry is a monthly journal dedicated to publishing high-quality papers that describe the most significant and cutting-edge research in all areas of chemistry. As well as reflecting the traditional core subjects of analytical, inorganic, organic and physical chemistry, the journal features a broad range of chemical research including, but not limited to, bioinorganic and bioorganic chemistry, catalysis, computational and theoretical chemistry, environmental chemistry, green chemistry, medicinal chemistry, organometallic chemistry, polymer chemistry, supramolecular chemistry and surface chemistry. Other multidisciplinary topics such as nanotechnology, chemical biology and materials chemistry are also featured.

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  • Concurrent control over sequence and dispersity...
    by Maria-Nefeli Antonopoulou on November 29, 2021 at 12:00 am

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    by Pengjun Yuan on November 25, 2021 at 12:00 am

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Geochemistry News -- ScienceDaily Earth and Climate Chemistry. Full text articles on organic and inorganic chemistry in the environment. Updated daily.

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  • Air quality models can improve the accuracy of...
    on December 2, 2021 at 7:15 pm

    The expansion of renewable energies is placing increasing demands on the power grids. Precise forecasts of the amount of solar power that will be fed into the grid is key to effective energy management. In addition to clouds, aerosol particles also strongly influence the amount of electricity generated by photovoltaic systems. Current air quality models are a good basis for estimating the production of solar electricity, but they could be further improved.

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Scientific American - Chemistry Science news and technology updates from Scientific American

Chemistry News - Biochemistry, Polymers, Materials Science The latest news stories on chemistry, biochemistry, polymers, materials science from

  • Using machine learning and computationally...
    on December 3, 2021 at 2:20 pm

    A team of researchers at RWTH Aachen University and the University of Jyväskylä has developed a system based on machine learning and computationally derived descriptors that can be used to find special kinds of catalysts. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes using machine learning algorithms to find patterns in known types of ligands and applying the results to find new catalysts.

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    on December 2, 2021 at 9:32 pm

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    on December 2, 2021 at 3:30 pm

    A team of researchers affiliated with a number of institutions in China and one in the U.K. has used Raman spectroscopy and computational techniques to study the interfacial water on Pd single-crystal surfaces. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the group describes their study of the dynamics and structure of water at the solid-liquid interface and what they learned from it. Matthias Waegele, with Boston College has published a News and Views piece in the same journal issue […]

  • Characterizing tardigrades' disordered protein to...
    on December 1, 2021 at 1:53 pm

    A team of researchers from the University of Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, CEA Institut de Biologie Structurale and one with the National (Taiwan) University has learned more about the unique protein made by tardigrades that allows them to survive in extremely hostile conditions. They've published their findings in Angewandte Chemie International Edition.

  • Why cannabis smells skunky
    on December 1, 2021 at 1:47 pm

    As cannabis is legalized in more areas, it has become increasingly popular as a medicinal and recreational drug. This plant produces a pungent, skunk-like odor that is pleasing to some but repulsive to others. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Omega have discovered a new family of prenylated volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) that give cannabis its characteristic skunky aroma. The findings open up opportunities to investigate the molecules for medicinal benefits, the researchers say.


Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm


Law (Constant) Relativity
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)
Matter (Microscope) Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle

Universe (Astronomical Instrument)
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Our Neighborhood
Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid


1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.