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Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Chemistry Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Chemistry Resources (Library of Congress)

Chemistry Subject Primer (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Chemistry Subject Guide (University of Virginia Libraries)
Links for Chemists (University of Liverpool‎)

American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry

Chemistry World
WWW Chemistry Guide
Chemistry Place (Infoplease)
Chemistry (National Science Digital Library)

Chemistry Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Chemicals & Biochemicals Databases (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Lab Manuals, Guidelines, MSDS v (Martindale’s Reference Desk)

NIST Chemistry WebBook
Physical and Chemical Properties Resources (UC Berkeley Physics and Astronomy Library)
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Online (99th Edition)
ChemSpider: Free Chemical Structure Database
Merck Index
Chemistry Calculators (


matter : material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Oxford Dictionary of Chemistry
Combined Chemical Dictionary (CRC Press)


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that we can touch are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, “matter” generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.

Matter exists in various states (also known as phases). These include classical everyday phases such as solid, liquid, and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.

Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding “cloud” of orbiting electrons which “take up space”. However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent “size” or “volume” in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some “point particles” known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space. — Wikipedia

Eric Weisstein’s World of Chemistry
Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Academic Disciplines: Chemistry (Wikipedia)
Chemistry Portal (Wikipedia)


Chemistry (Wolfram Alpha)


Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Chemistry stuff (YouTube Channel, HowStuffWorks)
Chemistry (HowStuffWorks)


Chemical Heritage Foundation


Alchemy May Not Have Been the Pseudoscience We All Thought It Was (Richard Conniff, Smithsonian Magazine)
Alchemy (Tim Hunkin, Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia)

Robert Boyle

All Nobel Prizes in Chemistry (Nobel Foundation)
136 Major Figures in the History of Chemistry (Infoplease)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Matter (Chem4Kids)
Chemical Reactions (Chem4Kids)
Matter and Materials (Fact Monster)
Chemistry (Spark Notes Study Guides)
Sci Show Chemistry (YouTube Channel)


Crash Course Chemistry (YouTube)


Chemistry Courses (MIT Open Courseware)
Chemistry Courses (Coursera)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Chemists and Materials Scientists (Occupational Outlook Handbook)


American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemical Structure Association Trust


Journal of the American Chemical Society
Nature Chemistry
Scientific American
NPR Archives







OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Journal of the American Chemical Society: Latest Articles (ACS Publications) latest articles published in Journal of the American Chemical Society

Nature Chemistry Nature Chemistry is a monthly journal dedicated to publishing high-quality papers that describe the most significant and cutting-edge research in all areas of chemistry. As well as reflecting the traditional core subjects of analytical, inorganic, organic and physical chemistry, the journal features a broad range of chemical research including, but not limited to, bioinorganic and bioorganic chemistry, catalysis, computational and theoretical chemistry, environmental chemistry, green chemistry, medicinal chemistry, organometallic chemistry, polymer chemistry, supramolecular chemistry and surface chemistry. Other multidisciplinary topics such as nanotechnology, chemical biology and materials chemistry are also featured.

  • Kinetic modulation of graphene growth by fluorine...
    by Can Liu on July 15, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 15 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41557-019-0290-1Active species such as hydrogen and oxygen are commonly introduced into reactors to control the growth of two-dimensional materials. Now, the presence of fluorine—released by the decomposition of a metal fluoride sheet—has also been shown to modulate the growth kinetics of graphene, h-BN and WS2. […]

  • Enantioselective construction of remote tertiary...
    by Jianbo Liu on July 15, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 15 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41557-019-0289-7Although methods exist to construct secondary stereocentres containing both a C–F and C–H bond, the ability to form a tertiary C–F bond, remote from pre-existing activating groups, remains challenging. Now, C–F tertiary, benzylic stereocentres have been constructed through a Pd-catalysed enantioselective Heck reaction of acyclic alkenyl fluorides with arylboronic acids. […]

  • A display of sensitivity
    by James J. Douglas on July 15, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 15 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41557-019-0302-1Scientific progress often relies on applying published methodological advances to different problems. With the aim of improving both the uptake and reproducibility of chemical transformations, a new assessment tool has now been developed that provides a clear and easy-to-interpret overview of common factors that affect a synthetic method. […]

  • Ultrafast X-ray scattering reveals vibrational...
    by Brian Stankus on July 8, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 08 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41557-019-0291-0Quantum coherence and dephasing in molecular motions determine the behaviour of many chemical reactions and are the fundamental basis for the concept of coherent control. Now, ultrafast X-ray scattering combined with a detailed structural determination analysis precisely measures the coherent vibrational motions of a polyatomic organic molecule following photoexcitation. […]

  • Super-resolution imaging of non-fluorescent...
    by Xianwen Mao on July 8, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 08 July 2019; doi:10.1038/s41557-019-0288-8Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy techniques can interrogate entities that fluoresce; however, most chemical or biological processes do not involve fluorescent species. Now, the incorporation of a competitive reaction into a single-molecule fluorescence detection scheme has been shown to enable quantitative super-resolution imaging of non-fluorescent reactions. […]

Geochemistry News -- ScienceDaily Earth and Climate Chemistry. Full text articles on organic and inorganic chemistry in the environment. Updated daily.

  • Eco-friendly composite catalyst and ultrasound...
    on July 19, 2019 at 5:55 pm

    Scientists have developed a wastewater treatment process that uses a common agricultural byproduct to effectively remove pollutants and environmental hormones, which are known to be endocrine disruptors. […]

  • Successful application of machine learning in the...
    on July 19, 2019 at 2:21 pm

    As a powerful example of how artificial intelligence (AI) can accelerate the discovery of new materials, scientists in Japan have designed and verified polymers with high thermal conductivity -- a property that would be the key to heat management, for example, in the fifth-generation (5G) mobile communication technologies. Their study highlights the great advantages of machine learning methods over traditional ways of searching for high-performance materials. […]

  • X-ray mapping enhances potential of lightweight...
    on July 19, 2019 at 2:21 pm

    Engineers have discovered a technique for creating stronger, lightweight magnesium alloys. This finding could be of significant benefit to the automobile and aerospace industries. […]

  • Metal oxide-infused membranes could offer...
    on July 18, 2019 at 7:09 pm

    Researchers are working on membranes that could separate chemicals without using energy-intensive distillation processes. […]

  • New laws of attraction: Scientists print magnetic...
    on July 18, 2019 at 6:54 pm

    Scientists have made a new material that is both liquid and magnetic, opening the door to a new area of science in magnetic soft matter. The new material could lead to a revolutionary class of printable liquid devices for a variety of applications from artificial cells that deliver targeted cancer therapies to flexible liquid robots that can change their shape to adapt to their surroundings. […]

Scientific American - Chemistry Science news and technology updates from Scientific American

  • Elite Runners' Microbes Make Mice Mightier
    by Karen Hopkin on June 25, 2019 at 3:25 am

    Mice that were fed bacteria isolated from elite athletes logged more treadmill time than other mice that got bacteria found in yogurt. -- Read more on […]

  • Antiperspirant Boosts Armpit and Toe-Web...
    by Christopher Intagliata on June 22, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Rather than wiping microbes out, antiperspirants and foot powders increased the diversity of microbial flora in armpits and between toes. Christopher Intagliata reports. -- Read more on […]

  • You Contain Multitudes of Microplastics
    by Annie Sneed on June 13, 2019 at 8:57 pm

    People appear to consume between 74,000 and 121,000 microplastic particles annually, and that's probably a gross underestimate. -- Read more on […]

  • A Biodegradable Label Doesn't Make It So
    by Steve Mirsky on June 13, 2019 at 2:00 am

    At the third Scientific American “Science on the Hill” event, “Solving the Plastic Waste Problem”, one of the issues discussed by experts on Capitol Hill was... -- Read more on […]

  • Nobelist: Harness Evolution as a Problem-Solving...
    by Steve Mirsky on May 17, 2019 at 8:14 pm

    Frances Arnold, the Caltech scientist who shared the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, says evolution can show us how to solve problems of sustainability. -- Read more on […]

Chemistry News - Biochemistry, Polymers, Materials Science provides the latest news on chemistry, biochemistry, polymers, materials science

  • Bridging the nanoscale gap: A deep look inside...
    on July 19, 2019 at 4:44 pm

    A team of researchers from Tokyo Institute of Technology has gained unprecedented insight into the inner workings of an atomic switch. By investigating the composition of the tiny metal 'bridge' that forms inside the switch, their findings may spur the design of atomic switches with improved performance. […]

  • Successful application of machine learning in the...
    on July 19, 2019 at 3:52 pm

    A joint research group including Ryo Yoshida (Professor and Director of the Data Science Center for Creative Design and Manufacturing at the Institute of Statistical Mathematics [ISM], Research Organization of Information and Systems), Junko Morikawa (Professor at the School of Materials and Chemical Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology [Tokyo Tech]), and Yibin Xu (Group Leader of Thermal Management and Thermoelectric Materials Group, Center for Materials Research by Information […]

  • An air-stable and waterproof lithium metal anode
    on July 19, 2019 at 3:49 pm

    Lithium metal anode offers a promising pathway to upgrade the energy density of lithium ion batteries for its high specific capacity (3800 mAh g-1) and low voltage (-3.04 V vs. Li/Li+). But the safety issues caused by dendrite growth and instability in air caused by its high chemical activity limit its large-scale use as an electrode material. Lithium metal is highly sensitive to moisture and oxidative components in the air, leading to the generation of insulating products like lithium […]

  • X-ray mapping enhances potential of lightweight...
    on July 19, 2019 at 2:29 pm

    A world-first study led by Monash University has discovered a technique and phenomenon that can be used for creating stronger, lightweight magnesium alloys that could improve structural integrity in the automobile and aerospace industries. […]

  • Adding a polymer stabilizes collapsing...
    on July 19, 2019 at 11:46 am

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a special class of sponge-like materials with nano-sized pores. The nanopores lead to record-breaking internal surface areas, up to 7800 m2 in a single gram. This feature makes MOFs extremely versatile materials with multiple uses, such as separating petrochemicals and gases, mimicking DNA, hydrogen production and removing heavy metals, fluoride anions, and even gold from water—to name a few. […]