Matter

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Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)

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Chemistry Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
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Dictionary

matter : material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy — Webster

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Oxford Dictionary of Chemistry
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Encyclopedia

Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that we can touch are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, “matter” generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.

Matter exists in various states (also known as phases). These include classical everyday phases such as solid, liquid, and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.

Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding “cloud” of orbiting electrons which “take up space”. However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent “size” or “volume” in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some “point particles” known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space. — Wikipedia

Eric Weisstein’s World of Chemistry
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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. — Wikipedia

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Alchemy May Not Have Been the Pseudoscience We All Thought It Was (Richard Conniff, Smithsonian Magazine)
Alchemy (Tim Hunkin, Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia)



Robert Boyle

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Journal of the American Chemical Society: Latest Articles (ACS Publications) latest articles published in Journal of the American Chemical Society


Nature Chemistry Nature Chemistry is a monthly journal dedicated to publishing high-quality papers that describe the most significant and cutting-edge research in all areas of chemistry. As well as reflecting the traditional core subjects of analytical, inorganic, organic and physical chemistry, the journal features a broad range of chemical research including, but not limited to, bioinorganic and bioorganic chemistry, catalysis, computational and theoretical chemistry, environmental chemistry, green chemistry, medicinal chemistry, organometallic chemistry, polymer chemistry, supramolecular chemistry and surface chemistry. Other multidisciplinary topics such as nanotechnology, chemical biology and materials chemistry are also featured.

  • Lysine acylation using conjugating enzymes for...
    by Raphael Hofmann on September 14, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 14 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-0528-yA chemoenzymatic method to site-specifically conjugate peptide and protein thioesters to folded proteins at lysine residues has been developed. The method uses a genetically encoded four-residue tag that is recognized by the E2 SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9. This approach enables isopeptide formation with just Ubc9 in a programmable manner and obviates the need for E1 and E3 enzymes.

  • One-pot, room-temperature conversion of...
    by Marc-André Légaré on September 14, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 14 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-0520-6The vast majority of species capable of converting dinitrogen to ammonia rely on transition metals. Now, a boron compound has been shown to mediate the one-pot binding, cleavage and reduction of N2 to ammonium salts under mild conditions through a complex cascade mechanism involving multiple reduction–protonation sequences.

  • Quantum machine learning using...
    by Bing Huang on September 14, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 14 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-0527-zQuantum machine learning with improved data efficiency and transferability has been achieved using on-the-fly selection of query-dependent training molecules, which are drawn from a ‘dictionary’ of atom-in-molecule-based fragments. The benefits of the resulting models have been demonstrated for important molecular properties and for systems including organic molecules, 2D materials, water clusters, DNA base […]

  • Meta-DNA structures
    by Guangbao Yao on September 7, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 07 September 2020; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-0539-8A six-helix bundle DNA structure called meta-DNA has now been assembled and shown to possess some structural properties similar to those of single-stranded DNA. Two meta-DNAs containing complementary ‘meta-base pairs’ are shown to form double helices. Meta-DNA building blocks are also used to construct a series of DNA architectures and to perform a hierarchical strand-displacement reaction.

  • Using sulfuramidimidoyl fluorides that undergo...
    by Gabriel J. Brighty on August 31, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 31 August 2020; doi:10.1038/s41557-020-0530-4Latent functional groups—typically unreactive unless activated by protein binding—can provide additional selectivity to covalent drugs. Now, compounds containing the weakly electrophilic sulfuramidimidoyl fluoride group, capable of undergoing sulfur(vi) fluoride exchange, have been used to identify reactive proteins in human cell lysate. This approach has identified a compound that conjugates to and inhibits an […]


Geochemistry News -- ScienceDaily Earth and Climate Chemistry. Full text articles on organic and inorganic chemistry in the environment. Updated daily.

  • Shape matters for light-activated nanocatalysts
    on September 18, 2020 at 10:51 pm

    Points matter when designing nanoparticles that drive important chemical reactions using the power of light, according to recent research.

  • Supercooled water is a stable liquid, scientists...
    on September 17, 2020 at 10:04 pm

    First-ever measurements provide evidence that extremely cold supercooled water exists in two distinct structures that co-exist and vary in proportion dependent on temperature.

  • Effective pathway to convert CO2 into ethylene
    on September 17, 2020 at 12:40 pm

    The scientists developed nanoscale copper wires with specially shaped surfaces to catalyze a chemical reaction that reduces greenhouse gas emissions while generating ethylene -- a valuable chemical simultaneously.

  • New photoactivation mechanism for polymer...
    on September 16, 2020 at 5:10 pm

    A team of researchers has demonstrated a way to use low-energy, visible light to produce polymer gel objects from pure monomer solutions. The work not only poses a potential solution to current challenges in producing these materials, it also sheds further light on the ways in which low energy photons can combine to produce high energy excited states.

  • Going small for big solutions: Sub-nanoparticle...
    on September 15, 2020 at 6:01 pm

    'Sub-nanometer' particles (SNPs) are very popular because of their diverse applications, but technical difficulties in their synthesis has hindered research in this field. Scientists used an 'atom-hybridization method' to overcome this barrier they developed to study the reactivity of alloy SNPs made from three coinage metal elements. Their findings are an important step in improving the knowledge about properties of finite elements and help in building a sustainable society.


Scientific American - Chemistry Science news and technology updates from Scientific American


Chemistry News - Biochemistry, Polymers, Materials Science Phys.org provides the latest news on chemistry, biochemistry, polymers, materials science

  • Researchers validate clinical feasibility for...
    on September 18, 2020 at 1:30 pm

    In March, researchers in the Department of Biomedical Engineering—a shared department in the schools of Dental Medicine, Medicine, and Engineering—began to develop a new, low-cost, CRISPR-based diagnostic platform to detect infectious diseases, including HIV virus, the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Today, the method is one step closer to being a cutting-edge diagnostics technology for rapid detection of infectious diseases.

  • New high-speed test shows how antibiotics combine...
    on September 17, 2020 at 7:02 pm

    Researchers at Uppsala University have developed a new method to determine—rapidly, easily and cheaply—how effective two antibiotics combined can be in stopping bacterial growth. The new method is simple for laboratories to use and can provide greater scope for customizing treatment of bacterial infections. The study is published in PLOS Biology.

  • Engineered bacteria churn out cancer biomarkers
    on September 17, 2020 at 3:28 pm

    Pity the glycan—these complex sugar molecules are attached to 80% of the proteins in the human body, making them an essential ingredient of life. But this process, known as glycosylation, has been somewhat overshadowed by flashier biomolecular processes such as transcription and translation.

  • Researchers discover effective pathway to convert...
    on September 17, 2020 at 8:00 am

    A research team from Caltech and the UCLA Samueli School of Engineering has demonstrated a promising way to efficiently convert carbon dioxide into ethylene—an important chemical used to produce plastics, solvents, cosmetics and other important products globally.

  • Using chitin, a bioinspired material, to...
    on September 16, 2020 at 6:00 pm

    A simple manufacturing technology based on chitin, one of the most ubiquitous organic polymers on Earth, could be used to build tools and shelters on Mars, according to a study published September 16 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Javier Fernandez of Singapore University of Technology and Design, and colleagues.