Matter

Cosma / Communication / Knowledge / Realm / Physical / Matter

—————————

Introduction1

Dictionary

matter : material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary

Oxford Dictionary of Chemistry
Combined Chemical Dictionary (CRC Press)

Thesaurus

Roget’s II (Thesaurus.com), Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords

Encyclopedia

Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that we can touch are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, “matter” generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.

Matter exists in various states (also known as phases). These include classical everyday phases such as solid, liquid, and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.

Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding “cloud” of orbiting electrons which “take up space”. However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent “size” or “volume” in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some “point particles” known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space. — Wikipedia

Eric Weisstein’s World of Chemistry
Encyclopædia Britannica

Outline

Outline of Academic Disciplines: Chemistry (Wikipedia)
Chemistry Portal (Wikipedia)

Portal

Chemistry Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Chemistry Resources (Library of Congress)

Chemistry Subject Primer (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Chemistry Subject Guide (University of Virginia Libraries)
Links for Chemists (University of Liverpool‎)

American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry

ChemWeb
Chemistry World
WWW Chemistry Guide
Chemistry Place (Infoplease)
Chemistry (National Science Digital Library)

Chemistry Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Chemicals & Biochemicals Databases (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Lab Manuals, Guidelines, MSDS v (Martindale’s Reference Desk)

NIST Chemistry WebBook
Physical and Chemical Properties Resources (UC Berkeley Physics and Astronomy Library)
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Online (99th Edition)
ChemSpider: Free Chemical Structure Database
Merck Index
Chemistry Calculators (Calculator.com)

Search

Chemistry (Wolfram Alpha)

———————–

Inspiration

———————-

Innovation

Science

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Everything you’ve learned in school as “obvious” becomes less and less obvious as you begin to study the universe. For example, there are no solids in the universe. There’s not even a suggestion of a solid. There are no absolute continuums. There are no surfaces. There are no straight lines. — R. Buckminster Fuller

Technology

Chemistry stuff (YouTube Channel, HowStuffWorks)
Chemistry (HowStuffWorks)

————————–

Preservation

Chemical Heritage Foundation

History

Alchemy May Not Have Been the Pseudoscience We All Thought It Was (Richard Conniff, Smithsonian Magazine)
Alchemy (Tim Hunkin, Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia)

Robert Boyle

All Nobel Prizes in Chemistry (Nobel Foundation)
136 Major Figures in the History of Chemistry (Infoplease)

Library

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library

—————————

Participation

Education

Matter (Chem4Kids)
Chemical Reactions (Chem4Kids)
Matter and Materials (Fact Monster)
Chemistry (Spark Notes Study Guides)
Sci Show Chemistry (YouTube Channel)

Course

Crash Course Chemistry (YouTube)

Course

Chemistry Courses (MIT Open Courseware)
Chemistry Courses (Coursera)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

Community

Occupation

Chemists and Materials Scientists (Occupational Outlook Handbook)

Organization

American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemical Structure Association Trust

News

Journal of the American Chemical Society
Nature Chemistry
ScienceDaily
Scientific American
Phys.Org
NPR Archives

Book

ISBNdb

Government

Document

USA.gov

———————-

Expression

Fun

Arts

Poem

OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form

Music

Song Lyrics

returntotop


More News …


Nature Chemistry Nature Chemistry is a monthly journal dedicated to publishing high-quality papers that describe the most significant and cutting-edge research in all areas of chemistry. As well as reflecting the traditional core subjects of analytical, inorganic, organic and physical chemistry, the journal features a broad range of chemical research including, but not limited to, bioinorganic and bioorganic chemistry, catalysis, computational and theoretical chemistry, environmental chemistry, green chemistry, medicinal chemistry, organometallic chemistry, polymer chemistry, supramolecular chemistry and surface chemistry. Other multidisciplinary topics such as nanotechnology, chemical biology and materials chemistry are also featured.

  • E- and Z-trisubstituted macrocyclic...
    by Yucheng Mu on May 16, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 16 May 2022; doi:10.1038/s41557-022-00935-yMany bioactive compounds are trisubstituted macrocyclic alkenes, but use of current methods often results in poor yields and low stereoselectivity. Now, a ring-closing metathesis strategy has been developed that enables these compounds to be prepared efficiently and in either stereoisomeric form: an approach that may prove useful in the late stages of total syntheses, for skeletal editing and in drug discovery.

  • Ultrafast proton-coupled isomerization in the...
    by Yang Yang on May 16, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 16 May 2022; doi:10.1038/s41557-022-00944-xPhytochromes regulate plant growth by sensing far-red light through the photoisomerization of their protein-bound chromophores. In the phytochrome Agp2, it has now been demonstrated that ultrafast proton-transfer occurs from the chromophore to a protein–water network before photoisomerization, inducing protein changes on the ultrafast timescale. These protein changes develop further on longer timescales, resulting […]

  • Fixing photocatalysts
    by Claudia Turro on May 5, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 05 May 2022; doi:10.1038/s41557-022-00939-8Molecular photocatalysts for generating solar fuels such as hydrogen degrade over time, ceasing to function as intended. Now the mechanism by which a ruthenium–platinum-based hydrogen-evolving photocatalyst breaks down has been identified, leading to the development of a repair strategy that uses singlet oxygen to regenerate an inactivated bridging ligand.

  • Bewildering benzene
    by Claire Murray on May 5, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 05 May 2022; doi:10.1038/s41557-022-00948-7Claire Murray ponders on the attraction benzene — a small, seemingly simple molecule — has long exerted on scientists, some of the insights gained through its exploration, and the varied applications found for this hexagonal ring and its derivatives.

  • Catalytic site seeing
    by Max Mortensen on May 5, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Nature Chemistry, Published online: 05 May 2022; doi:10.1038/s41557-022-00943-yUnderstanding how surface structure affects catalyst selectivity is limited by the ability to synthesize atomically precise active-site ensembles. Now, by using intermetallic Pd–Zn, a series of well-defined multinuclear Pd–metal–Pd catalytic sites have been generated and studied, providing insights into their selectivity for the semi-hydrogenation of acetylene.


Geochemistry News -- ScienceDaily Earth and Climate Chemistry. Full text articles on organic and inorganic chemistry in the environment. Updated daily.

  • Long-hypothesized 'next generation wonder...
    on May 21, 2022 at 1:33 pm

    New research fills a longstanding gap in carbon material science, potentially opening brand-new possibilities for electronics, optics and semiconducting material research.

  • Deciphering the biosynthetic gene cluster for...
    on May 20, 2022 at 6:47 pm

    Scientists discover the enzymes responsible for the production of one of the most toxic and fast-acting neurotoxins associated with freshwater harmful algal blooms in lakes and ponds. The discovery revealed that guanitoxin-producing cyanobacteria are more prevalent than originally known in the United States, opening the possibility for new molecular diagnostic testing to better inform and protect the public from this natural freshwater toxin.

  • PFAS chemicals do not last forever
    on May 20, 2022 at 6:47 pm

    Once dubbed 'forever chemicals,' per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances, or PFAS, might be in the market for a new nickname. Adding iodide to a water treatment reactor that uses ultraviolet (UV) light and sulfite destroys up to 90% of carbon-fluorine atoms in PFAS forever chemicals in just a few hours, reports a new study led by environmental engineers. The addition of iodide accelerates the speed of the reaction up to four times, saving energy and chemicals.

  • New breathable gas sensors may improve monitoring...
    on May 19, 2022 at 8:19 pm

    Newly developed flexible, porous and highly sensitive nitrogen dioxide sensors that can be applied to skin and clothing have potential applications in health care, environmental health monitoring and military use, according to researchers.

  • Scientists devise method to prevent deadly...
    on May 19, 2022 at 7:01 pm

    Some 1.7 million Americans each year acquire hospital infections, resulting in nearly 100,000 deaths from infection-related complications. The biggest culprits: medical devices like catheters, stents and heart valves, whose surfaces often become covered with harmful bacterial films. A novel surface treatment developed by a UCLA-led team of scientists stops microbes from adhering to medical devices. The new findings are published May 19 in the journal Advanced Materials.


Scientific American - Chemistry Science news and technology updates from Scientific American


Chemistry News - Biochemistry, Polymers, Materials Science The latest news stories on chemistry, biochemistry, polymers, materials science from Phys.org

  • Long-hypothesized 'next generation wonder...
    on May 21, 2022 at 5:45 am

    For over a decade, scientists have attempted to synthesize a new form of carbon called graphyne with limited success. That endeavor is now at an end, though, thanks to new research from the University of Colorado Boulder.

  • Researchers unveil a secret of stronger metals
    on May 20, 2022 at 5:11 pm

    Forming metal into the shapes needed for various purposes can be done in many ways, including casting, machining, rolling, and forging. These processes affect the sizes and shapes of the tiny crystalline grains that make up the bulk metal, whether it be steel, aluminum or other widely used metals and alloys.

  • Researchers detect a novel binding mechanism...
    on May 20, 2022 at 3:30 pm

    Researchers at the 5th Physical Institute of the University of Stuttgart have verified a novel binding mechanism forming a molecule between a tiny charged particle and a gigantic (in molecular terms) Rydberg atom. The scientists observed the molecule with the help of a self-built ion microscope. The results are published in Nature.

  • Researchers develop new measurement method in...
    on May 19, 2022 at 4:07 pm

    In molecular electronics, single molecules are stretched between two electrodes to form an electrically conducting element in which molecular conductivity is then measured. Although the underlying method for this phenomenon, scanning tunneling microscopy, was awarded the Nobel Prize more than thirty years ago, a major limitation remains: To access molecular conductivity, the molecules to be measured had to be permanently attached to the inorganic gold electrodes, usually via sulfur bridges.

  • New findings enable monitoring for harmful toxin...
    on May 19, 2022 at 3:12 pm

    An international team of scientists has identified the genes and the biosynthetic pathway that enable certain types of cyanobacteria found in freshwater environments to produce a potent neurotoxin called guanitoxin.

——–
Related

Here are links to pages about closely related subjects.

Knowledge Realm

Physical

“Fundamentals”
Law (Constant) Relativity
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)
Matter (Microscope) Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle

“Space”
Universe (Astronomical Instrument)
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Our Neighborhood
Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid

——
Notes

1.   The resources on this page are are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma.