Cosma Home > Communication > Knowledge > Realm > Physical > Matter




Physical Realm
Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Chemistry Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Chemistry Resources (Library of Congress)

Chemistry Subject Primer (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Chemistry Subject Guide (University of Virginia Libraries)
Links for Chemists (University of Liverpool‎)

American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry

Chemistry World
WWW Chemistry Guide
Chemistry Place (Infoplease)
Chemistry (National Science Digital Library)

Chemistry Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Chemicals & Biochemicals Databases (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Lab Manuals, Guidelines, MSDS v (Martindale’s Reference Desk)

NIST Chemistry WebBook
Physical and Chemical Properties Resources (UC Berkeley Physics and Astronomy Library)
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Online (99th Edition)
ChemSpider: Free Chemical Structure Database
Merck Index
Chemistry Calculators (


matter : material substance that occupies space, has mass, and is composed predominantly of atoms consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons, that constitutes the observable universe, and that is interconvertible with energy — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Oxford Dictionary of Chemistry
Combined Chemical Dictionary (CRC Press)


Roget’s II (, Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, Visuwords


Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that we can touch are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, “matter” generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.

Matter exists in various states (also known as phases). These include classical everyday phases such as solid, liquid, and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, and gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, and quark–gluon plasma.

Usually atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, and a surrounding “cloud” of orbiting electrons which “take up space”. However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions.

In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent “size” or “volume” in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some “point particles” known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space. — Wikipedia

Eric Weisstein’s World of Chemistry
Encyclopædia Britannica



Outline of Academic Disciplines: Chemistry (Wikipedia)
Chemistry Portal (Wikipedia)


Chemistry (Wolfram Alpha)


Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica


Chemistry stuff (YouTube Channel, HowStuffWorks)
Chemistry (HowStuffWorks)


Chemical Heritage Foundation


Alchemy May Not Have Been the Pseudoscience We All Thought It Was (Richard Conniff, Smithsonian Magazine)
Alchemy (Tim Hunkin, Rudiments of Wisdom Encyclopedia)

Robert Boyle

All Nobel Prizes in Chemistry (Nobel Foundation)
136 Major Figures in the History of Chemistry (Infoplease)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library




Matter (Chem4Kids)
Chemical Reactions (Chem4Kids)
Matter and Materials (Fact Monster)
Chemistry (Spark Notes Study Guides)
Sci Show Chemistry (YouTube Channel)


Crash Course Chemistry (YouTube)


Chemistry Courses (MIT Open Courseware)
Chemistry Courses (Coursera)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Chemists and Materials Scientists (Occupational Outlook Handbook)


American Chemical Society
Royal Society of Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemical Structure Association Trust


Journal of the American Chemical Society
Nature Chemistry
Scientific American
NPR Archives







OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



Journal of the American Chemical Society: Latest Articles (ACS Publications) latest articles published in Journal of the American Chemical Society

  • Mendelevium 101
    by Anne Pichon on February 21, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Mendelevium 101Mendelevium 101, Published online: 21 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41557-019-0227-8The first element to be identified one atom at a time was named after the main architect of the modern periodic table. This seemingly straightforward etymological choice illustrates how scientific recognition can eclipse geopolitical tensions, says Anne Pichon. […]

  • Changing the gold standard
    by Didier Bourissou on February 21, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Changing the gold standardChanging the gold standard, Published online: 21 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41557-019-0223-zGold — long presumed to be an inert metal — has been increasingly shaking this image over the past couple of decades, mostly through electrophilic behaviour. Now, a two-coordinate gold complex has been shown to exhibit nucleophilic reactivity, with the insertion of CO2 into its polarized Auδ−–Alδ+ bond. […]

  • Two are better than one
    by Benjamin S. Natinsky on February 21, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Two are better than oneTwo are better than one, Published online: 21 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41557-019-0221-1Finely tuned interactions in the second coordination sphere of enzymes or homogeneous catalysts can be essential for their function. Now, this concept has been applied to the surface of a catalytic material, utilizing pairs of Cu atoms for the selective electrochemical fixation of CO2. […]

  • Circular chemistry to enable a circular economy
    by Tom Keijer on February 21, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Circular chemistry to enable a circular economyCircular chemistry to enable a circular economy, Published online: 21 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41557-019-0226-9By expanding the scope of sustainability to the entire lifecycle of chemical products, the concept of circular chemistry aims to replace today’s linear ‘take–make–dispose’ approach with circular processes. This will optimize resource efficiency across chemical value chains and enable a closed-loop, […]

  • An automated platform for the enzyme-mediated...
    by Tiehai Li on February 21, 2019 at 12:00 am

    An automated platform for the enzyme-mediated assembly of complex oligosaccharidesAn automated platform for the enzyme-mediated assembly of complex oligosaccharides, Published online: 21 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41557-019-0219-8An automated platform that can synthesize a wide range of complex glycans could greatly facilitate progress in glycoscience. Now, a fully automated process for enzyme-mediated oligosaccharide synthesis has been developed. This process uses […]

Geochemistry News -- ScienceDaily Earth and Climate Chemistry. Full text articles on organic and inorganic chemistry in the environment. Updated daily.

  • With nanopore sensing, physics researchers...
    on February 21, 2019 at 8:15 pm

    Researchers have discovered that a technique known as nanopore sensing can be used to detect subtle changes in clusters, or extremely small chunks of matter that are bigger than a molecule but smaller than a solid. […]

  • Sustainable, solar-driven chemical manufacturing
    on February 21, 2019 at 7:56 pm

    A team of researchers is working to upend energy-intensive, fossil fuel-dependent chemical manufacturing processes and replace them with sustainable, solar-driven reactions that rely on renewable feedstocks. The team recently designed a novel reactor that uses solar energy and plant waste to sustainably produce adiponitrile, an precursor material used in Nylon production. […]

  • Electric car batteries inspire safer, cheaper way...
    on February 21, 2019 at 7:15 pm

    Inspired by the refined electrochemistry of electric car batteries, scientists have developed a battery-like system that allows them to make potential advancements for the manufacturing of medicines. Their new method avoids safety risks associated with a type of chemical reaction known as dissolving metal reduction. Their method would offer significant advantages over current methods of chemical manufacturing, but until now, has largely been sidelined due to safety considerations. […]

  • Using E. coli to create bioproducts, like...
    on February 21, 2019 at 6:03 pm

    Mechanical engineers are working on genetically engineering and optimizing E. coli bacteria to produce bioproducts, like biodiesel, in a cost-effective manner. […]

  • New iridium catalyst enables efficient selective...
    on February 21, 2019 at 4:05 pm

    The researchers found that transient formation of hydrogen bonding between a substrate and the catalyst induced such high segregation in the reaction. By using inexpensive and readily available feedstock hydrocarbons, the researchers produced a group of chiral lactams in different shapes. Their diverse structures allow lactams to correspond to different pharmaceutical drugs. […]

Scientific American - Chemistry Science news and technology updates from Scientific American

Chemistry News - Biochemistry, Polymers, Materials Science provides the latest news on chemistry, biochemistry, polymers, materials science

  • New theory could lead to better batteries, fuel...
    on February 22, 2019 at 12:21 pm

    A new theory could enable researchers and industry to tune and improve the performance of a material called ionic ceramics in rechargeable batteries, fuel cells and other energy applications. […]

  • With nanopore sensing, physics researchers detect...
    on February 21, 2019 at 9:32 pm

    Researchers in Virginia Commonwealth University's Department of Physics have discovered that a technique known as nanopore sensing can be used to detect subtle changes in clusters, or extremely small chunks of matter that are bigger than a molecule but smaller than a solid. […]

  • Electric car batteries inspire safer, cheaper way...
    on February 21, 2019 at 7:00 pm

    Recent advances in battery technology, from the engineering of their cases to the electrochemistry that takes place inside them, has enabled the rapid rise of Teslas, Leafs, Volts and other electric cars. […]

  • New biochemical pathway that may develop more...
    on February 21, 2019 at 7:00 pm

    Researchers from the Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, have discovered a new biochemical pathway in plants which they have named CHLORAD. […]

  • Dietary fiber helps clump material in your gut
    on February 21, 2019 at 2:55 pm

    Food, microbes, and medicine all clump together as they move through our gut. Sticky molecules secreted into our intestines bind the gut particles in the same way that flour holds a ball of dough together. Now a new mice-based study from Caltech is showing that dietary fiber also plays a role in clumping. This is the first time that researchers have shown that fiber—stringy molecules found in foods like vegetables and whole grains—helps to aggregate gut particles. […]