Cosma Home > Communication > Knowledge > Realm > Physical




Realm Cosmological, Physical, Terrestrial, Anthropological, Mystical


Universe Astronomical Instrument
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid

Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Physics Central: Physics in Action (American Physical Society)
Physical Sciences Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Introductory Physics Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Physics Resources (Library of Congress)
Physics Internet Resources (Library of Congress)

Physical Science Subject Primer (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Physics Subject Primer (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)

Physics World

Physics Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Physics Databases & Periodic Tables (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Online (99th Edition)

Natural and Physical Sciences Portal (Wikipedia)
Physical Sciences Portal (Wikipedia)
Physics Portal (Wikipedia)


Physical : (a) of or relating to physics (b) characterized or produced by the forces and operations of physics (c) having material existence : perceptible especially through the senses and subject to the laws of nature — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Realm : kingdom, sphere, domain — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Physical Realm : kingdom, sphere, or domain of things that have material existence and are perceptible, especially those things perceptible through the senses and subject to the laws of nature — M.E.Hopper


Physical universe In religion and esotericism, the term “physical universe” or “material universe” is used to distinguish the physical matter of the universe from a proposed spiritual or supernatural essence. — Wikipedia

Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics (ScienceWorld, Wolfram Research)
Encyclopædia Britannica


Outline of Physical Science (Wikipedia)
Outline of Physics (Wikipedia)


Physics (Wolfram Alpha)


Philosophical research online: Philosophy of Physical Science (PhilPapers)


Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science. It in turn has many branches, each referred to as a “physical science”, together called the “physical sciences”. However, the term physical creates an unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena and branches of chemistry, such as organic chemistry. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Physics is the natural science that studies matter and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Physics Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Encyclopedia of Physics



SciShow Physics (YouTube Channel)

Center for History of Physics (American Institute of Physics)
History of Physics Exhibits (American Institute of Physics)
All Nobel Prizes in Physics (Nobel Foundation)
Physics History and Terminology (Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics, Wolfram Research)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



Crash Course Kids (YouTube Channel)

The Cheerios effect (TED Ed)
Physical Sciences (TED Ed)

Minute Physics (YouTube Channel)

The Physics Classroom (Tom Henderson)
DC Physics Help for Students


Crash Course Physics (YouTube Channel)

How Things Work: An Introduction to Physics (Coursera)
Physical Science Courses (Coursera)
Physics Courses (MIT Opencourseware)
Einstein, Oppenheimer, Feynman: Physics in the 20th Century (MIT Opencourseware)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Careers in Physical Sciences (Physics World)
Careers in Physics (
General Physics (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)


American Physical Society (APS)
European Physical Society (EPS)
American Institute of Physics (AIP)


Conference Alerts Worldwide (Conal)

News E-Print Archive (Cornell University)
AAAS EurekaAlert, Nature, Physics World
Science News, Science Daily




Physics (It’s Okay To Be Smart, YouTube Channel)


What if?

What If? Answering your hypothetical questions with physics, every Tuesday.

  • Earth-Moon Fire Pole
    by xkcd on May 21, 2018 at 12:00 am

    <article class="entry"> <a href="//"><h1>Earth-Moon Fire Pole</h1></a> <p id="question">My son (5y) asked me today: If there were a kind of a fireman&#39;s pole from the Moon down to the Earth, how long would it take to slide all the way from the Moon to the Earth?</p> <p id="attribute">Ramon Schönborn, Germany</p> <p>First, let&#39;s get a few things out of the […]

  • Electrofishing for Whales
    by xkcd on March 9, 2017 at 12:00 am

    <article class="entry"> <a href="//"><h1>Electrofishing for Whales</h1></a> <p id="question">I used to work on a fisheries crew where we would use an electro-fisher backpack to momentarily stun small fish (30 - 100 mm length) so we could scoop them up with nets to identify and measure them. The larger fish tended to be stunned for slightly longer because of their larger surface area but I don&#39;t […]

  • Toaster vs. Freezer
    by xkcd on February 28, 2017 at 12:00 am

    <article class="entry"> <a href="//"><h1>Toaster vs. Freezer</h1></a> <p id="question">Would a toaster still work in a freezer?</p> <p id="attribute">—<a href="">My Brother, My Brother and Me</a>, <a […]

  • Coast-to-Coast Coasting
    by xkcd on February 8, 2017 at 12:00 am

    <article class="entry"> <a href="//"><h1>Coast-to-Coast Coasting</h1></a> <p id="question">What if the entire continental US was on a decreasing slope from West to East. How steep would the slope have to be to sustain the momentum needed to ride a bicycle the entire distance without pedaling?</p> <p id="attribute">—Brandon Rooks</p> <p>Too steep to actually build, […]

  • Hide the Atmosphere
    by xkcd on January 30, 2016 at 12:00 am

    <article class="entry"> <a href="//"><h1>Hide the Atmosphere</h1></a> <p id="question">Earth’s atmosphere is really thin compared to the radius of the Earth. How big a hole do I need to dig before people suffocate?</p> <p id="attribute">—Sam Burke</p> <p>The idea here is straightforward: When you dig a hole in the ground, the hole fills up with air.<span […]

Performing Arts


OEDILF: The Omnificent English Dictionary In Limerick Form


Song Lyrics



EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  • Electronic skin has a strong future stretching...
    on November 27, 2020 at 5:00 am

    (King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST)) Soft, stretchy, slimline and strong electronics could accelerate the arrival of artificial skin.

  • A route for avoiding defects during additive...
    on November 26, 2020 at 5:00 am

    (College of Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University) Research published in Science reveals how pores form during metals additive manufacturing and become defects trapped in solidifying metal. The practical value of this research is that it can inform industry on how to predict and improve 3D printing processes.

  • German researchers compile world's largest...
    on November 26, 2020 at 5:00 am

    (German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig) Researchers at Leipzig University and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) have compiled the world's most comprehensive list of known plant species. It contains 1,315,562 names of vascular plants, thus extending the number by some 70,000 - equivalent to about 20%. The researchers have also succeeded in clarifying 181,000 hitherto unclear species names. The data set has now been published in […]

  • Study revealing the secret behind a key cellular...
    on November 26, 2020 at 5:00 am

    (Ohio State University) New research has identified and described a cellular process that, despite what textbooks say, has remained elusive to scientists until now -- precisely how the copying of genetic material that, once started, is properly turned off.

  • Understanding the power of our Sun
    on November 25, 2020 at 5:00 am

    (Technische Universität Dresden) For the first time, the international team was able to directly observe neutrinos from this cycle (CNO neutrinos) with the Borexino detector in the Laboratori Nazionali in the Gran Sasso Massif (Italy). This milestone represents the fulfilment of a long-cherished scientific dream for the Dresden neutrino researcher Prof Kai Zuber and his team at the Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics.

  • COVID-19 vaccine candidate tested preclinically...
    on November 25, 2020 at 5:00 am

    (University of Alabama at Birmingham) A COVID-19 vaccine candidate that underwent extensive preclinical testing at the University of Alabama at Birmingham this spring and summer is poised for clinical testing to begin in December. Maryland-based Altimmune Inc., a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company, has submitted an Investigational New Drug, or IND, application to the United States Food and Drug Administration to commence a Phase 1 clinical study of its single-dose intranasal COVID-19 […]

  • Using a soft crystal to visualize how absorbed...
    on November 25, 2020 at 5:00 am

    (Hokkaido University) A team of scientists has succeeded in visualizing how carbon dioxide (CO2) behaves in an ionic liquid that selectively absorbs CO2. The finding is expected to help develop more efficient methods to capture CO2 in the atmosphere, one of the major factors causing global warming.

  • Age not just a number: Causes of joint stiffness...
    on November 25, 2020 at 5:00 am

    (Shibaura Institute of Technology) As people age, joints become less flexible, causing balance problems that lower quality of life. Dr. Kosuke Hirata, Mr. Ryosuke Yamadera, and Prof. Ryota Akagi from the Shibaura Institute of Technology revealed that among younger adults, muscle but not nerve stiffness is associated with the ankle's range of motion (ROM), whereas only nerve stiffness is linked to ankle ROM among older adults. In other words, non-muscle tissue becomes more important for joint […]

  • Minimal waste production is a fundamental law for...
    on November 25, 2020 at 5:00 am

    (Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (Skoltech)) Is there a unifying principle underpinning animal locomotion in its rich diversity? The thermodynamic analysis shows why and how waste minimization prevails on efficiency or power maximization when it comes to free locomotion irrespective of the available mode and gaits.

  • Russian scientists improve 3D printing technology...
    on November 25, 2020 at 5:00 am

    (National University of Science and Technology MISIS) Scientists from NUST MISIS have improved the technology of 3D printing from aluminum, having achieved an increase in the hardness of products by 1,5 times. The nanocarbon additive to aluminum powder, which they have developed, obtained from the products of processing associated petroleum gas, will improve the quality of 3D printed aerospace composites. The research results are published in the international scientific journal Composites […]

Physics News - Physics News, Material Sciences, Science News, Physics provides the latest news on physics, materials, nanotech, science and technology. Updated Daily.

  • A photonic crystal coupled to a transmission line...
    on November 27, 2020 at 6:00 pm

    Researchers have recently displayed the interaction of superconducting qubits; the basic unit of quantum information, with surface acoustic wave resonators; a surface-wave equivalent of the crystal resonator, in quantum physics. This phenomena opens a new field of research, defined as quantum acoustodynamics to allow the development of new types of quantum devices. The main challenge in this venture is to manufacture acoustic resonators in the gigahertz range. In a new report now published on […]

  • Unprecedented accuracy in quantum...
    on November 27, 2020 at 5:12 pm

    Physicists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics have tested quantum mechanics to a completely new level of precision using hydrogen spectroscopy, and in doing so they came much closer to solving the well-known proton charge radius puzzle.

  • Plasma-developed new material fundamental to...
    on November 26, 2020 at 3:08 pm

    QUT Professor Ken Ostrikov from the School of Chemistry and Physics and QUT Centre for Materials Science said the new material could be used to develop new transistor devices for electronics and photodetectors for such applications as fibre-optic communication systems and environmental sensing.

  • T-ray technology reveals what's getting under...
    on November 26, 2020 at 1:31 pm

    A new method for analyzing the structure of skin using a type of radiation known as T-rays could help improve the diagnosis and treatment of skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis and skin cancer.

  • A hint of new physics in polarized radiation from...
    on November 25, 2020 at 9:21 pm

    Using Planck data from the cosmic microwave background radiation, an international team of researchers has observed a hint of new physics. The team developed a new method to measure the polarization angle of the ancient light by calibrating it with dust emission from our own Milky Way. While the signal is not detected with enough precision to draw definite conclusions, it may suggest that dark matter or dark energy causes a violation of the so-called "parity symmetry."

  • Neutrinos yield first experimental evidence of...
    on November 25, 2020 at 6:39 pm

    An international team of about 100 scientists of the Borexino Collaboration, including particle physicist Andrea Pocar at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, report in Nature this week detection of neutrinos from the sun, directly revealing for the first time that the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) fusion-cycle is at work in our sun.

  • Understanding the utility of plasmas for medical...
    on November 24, 2020 at 4:00 pm

    Plasma medicine is an emerging field, as plasmas show promise for use in a wide range of therapies from wound healing to cancer treatment. Plasma jets are the main plasma sources typically used in plasma-surface applications. Before applications can progress, however, a better understanding of how plasma jets modify the surfaces of biological tissue is required.

  • Face masks slow spread of COVID-19; types of...
    on November 24, 2020 at 4:00 pm

    The use of face masks to help slow the spread of COVID-19 has been widely recommended by health professionals. This has triggered studies exploring the physics of face mask use and disease transmission, as well as investigations into materials, design, and other issues affecting the way face masks work.

  • COVID-19 virus survives on surfaces within thin...
    on November 24, 2020 at 4:00 pm

    How does the COVID-19 virus manage to survive on surfaces? To find out, researchers in India are exploring the drying times of thin liquid films that persist on surfaces after most respiratory droplets evaporate.

  • Shining a light on nanoscale dynamics
    on November 24, 2020 at 3:59 pm

    Physicists from the University of Konstanz, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (LMU Munich) and the University of Regensburg have successfully demonstrated that ultrashort electron pulses experience a quantum mechanical phase shift through their interaction with light waves in nanophotonic materials, which can uncover the nanomaterials' functionality. The corresponding experiments and results are reported in the latest issue of Science Advances.

Nature Physics - Issue - science feeds Nature Physics offers a unique mix of news and reviews alongside top-quality research papers. Published monthly, in print and online, the journal reflects the entire spectrum of physics, pure and applied.

  • Author Correction: 15 years of Nature...
    by Alison Wright on November 24, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 24 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41567-020-01113-yAuthor Correction: 15 years of Nature Physics

  • High-harmonic generation from topological surface...
    by Ya Bai on November 23, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 23 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41567-020-01052-8High-harmonic generation up to the seventh harmonic is observed from the intrinsic three-dimensional topological insulator BiSbTeSe2. The parallel components of the even-order harmonics arise directly from the topological surface states.

  • Topological defects in the nematic order of actin...
    by Yonit Maroudas-Sacks on November 23, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 23 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41567-020-01083-1Topological defects in the nematic order of actin fibres in a regenerating organism are shown to be tied to key feature formation. Fibre alignment sets the regenerated body axis and defect sites form organizing centres for the developing body plan.

  • Bacteria solve the problem of crowding by moving...
    by O. J. Meacock on November 23, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 23 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41567-020-01070-6Bacteria are able to move as vast, dense collectives. Here the authors show that slow movement is key to this collective behaviour because faster bacteria cause topological defects to collide together and trap cells in place.

  • Topological defects promote layer formation in...
    by Katherine Copenhagen on November 23, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 23 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41567-020-01056-4Topological defects in active nematic systems such as epithelial tissues and neural progenitor cells can be associated with biological functions. Here, the authors show that defects can play a role in the layer formation of the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus.

  • Living proof of effective defects
    by M.-A. Fardin on November 23, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 23 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41567-020-01084-0A class of biological matter including elongated cells and filaments can be understood in the framework of active nematic liquid crystals. Within these systems, topological defects emerge and give rise to remarkable collective behaviours.

  • Ultrafast dynamics of correlation bands following...
    by M. Hervé on November 16, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 16 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41567-020-01073-3The size-dependent lifetimes observed in the ultrafast molecular relaxation dynamics of an entire class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can be explained by correlation bands and electron–phonon scattering, reminiscent of solid-state systems.

  • A solid look at molecules
    by Laura Cattaneo on November 16, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 16 November 2020; doi:10.1038/s41567-020-01080-4When molecular model systems, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are ionized by ultrashort extreme ultraviolet pulses, their relaxation path proceeds via electron–phonon scattering, linking molecules to typical solid-state matter behaviour. news Latest news from

    Feed has no items.

Matter & Energy News -- ScienceDaily Detectors and electronics. Learn about every sort of detector, radar system and more from leading research institutes around the world.

  • Neutrinos yield first experimental evidence of...
    on November 25, 2020 at 8:48 pm

    Scientists report the detection of neutrinos from the sun, directly revealing for the first time that the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) fusion-cycle is at work in our sun.

  • Quantum nanodiamonds may help detect disease...
    on November 25, 2020 at 6:51 pm

    The quantum sensing abilities of nanodiamonds can be used to improve the sensitivity of paper-based diagnostic tests, potentially allowing for earlier detection of diseases such as HIV, according to a new study.

  • A microscope for everyone: Researchers develop...
    on November 25, 2020 at 5:23 pm

    Researchers have developed an optical toolbox to build microscopes for a few hundred euros that deliver high-resolution images comparable to commercial microscopes that cost up to a thousand times more. The 3D printed open-source modular system can be combined in the way the research question requires -- from the observation of living organisms in the incubator to a toolbox for education.

  • Scientists determine the structure of...
    on November 25, 2020 at 4:43 pm

    Researchers have determined the three dimensional (3D) structure of a protein responsible for glass formation in sponges. They explain how the earliest and, in fact, the only known natural protein-mineral crystal is formed.

  • Phytoplankton disturbed by nanoparticles
    on November 25, 2020 at 4:43 pm

    Products derived from nanotechnology are efficient and highly sought-after, yet their effects on the environment are still poorly understood. A research team has investigated the effects of nanosilver, currently used in almost 450 products for its antibacterial properties, on the algae known as Poterioochromonas malhamensis. The results show that nanosilver disturb the alga's entire metabolism. Its membrane becomes more permeable, the cellular ROS increases and photosynthesis is less effective.

  • Patterning method could pave the way for new...
    on November 25, 2020 at 2:15 pm

    Multimaterial fibers that integrate metal, glass and semiconductors could be useful for applications such as biomedicine, smart textiles and robotics. But because the fibers are composed of the same materials along their lengths, it is difficult to position functional elements, such as electrodes or sensors, at specific locations. Now, researchers have developed a method to pattern hundreds-of-meters-long multimaterial fibers with embedded functional elements.

  • Research creates hydrogen-producing living...
    on November 25, 2020 at 2:14 pm

    Scientists have built tiny droplet-based microbial factories that produce hydrogen, instead of oxygen, when exposed to daylight in air.

  • When consumers trust AI recommendations, or...
    on November 25, 2020 at 2:14 pm

    The key factor in deciding how to incorporate AI recommenders is whether consumers are focused on the functional and practical aspects of a product (its utilitarian value) or on the experiential and sensory aspects of a product (its hedonic value).

  • Cutting edge technology to bioprint mini-kidneys
    on November 25, 2020 at 12:05 am

    Researchers have used cutting edge technology to bioprint miniature human kidneys in the lab, paving the way for new treatments for kidney failure and possibly lab-grown transplants.

  • Pesticide deadly to bees now easily detected in...
    on November 24, 2020 at 8:28 pm

    A common insecticide that is a major hazard for honeybees is now effectively detected in honey thanks to a simple new method.