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Realm Cosmological, Physical, Terrestrial, Anthropological, Mystical


Universe Astronomical Instrument
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid

Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Physics Central: Physics in Action (American Physical Society)
Physical Sciences Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Introductory Physics Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Physics Resources (Library of Congress)
Physics Internet Resources (Library of Congress)

Physical Science Subject Primer (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Physics Subject Primer (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)

Physics World

Physics Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Physics Databases & Periodic Tables (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Online (99th Edition)

Natural and Physical Sciences Portal (Wikipedia)
Physical Sciences Portal (Wikipedia)
Physics Portal (Wikipedia)


Physical : (a) of or relating to physics (b) characterized or produced by the forces and operations of physics (c) having material existence : perceptible especially through the senses and subject to the laws of nature — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Realm : kingdom, sphere, domain — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Physical Realm : kingdom, sphere, or domain of things that have material existence and are perceptible, especially those things perceptible through the senses and subject to the laws of nature — M.E.Hopper


Physical universe In religion and esotericism, the term “physical universe” or “material universe” is used to distinguish the physical matter of the universe from a proposed spiritual or supernatural essence. — Wikipedia

Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics (ScienceWorld, Wolfram Research)
Encyclopædia Britannica


Outline of Physical Science (Wikipedia)
Outline of Physics (Wikipedia)


Physics (Wolfram Alpha)


Philosophical research online: Philosophy of Physical Science (PhilPapers)


Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science. It in turn has many branches, each referred to as a “physical science”, together called the “physical sciences”. However, the term physical creates an unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena and branches of chemistry, such as organic chemistry. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Physics is the natural science that studies matter and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Physics Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Encyclopedia of Physics



SciShow Physics (YouTube Channel)

Center for History of Physics (American Institute of Physics)
History of Physics Exhibits (American Institute of Physics)
All Nobel Prizes in Physics (Nobel Foundation)
Physics History and Terminology (Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics, Wolfram Research)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



Crash Course Kids (YouTube Channel)

The Cheerios effect (TED Ed)
Physical Sciences (TED Ed)

Minute Physics (YouTube Channel)

The Physics Classroom (Tom Henderson)
DC Physics Help for Students


Crash Course Physics (YouTube Channel)

How Things Work: An Introduction to Physics (Coursera)
Physical Science Courses (Coursera)
Physics Courses (MIT Opencourseware)
Einstein, Oppenheimer, Feynman: Physics in the 20th Century (MIT Opencourseware)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Careers in Physical Sciences (Physics World)
Careers in Physics (
General Physics (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)


American Physical Society (APS)
European Physical Society (EPS)
American Institute of Physics (AIP)


Conference Alerts Worldwide (Conal)

News E-Print Archive (Cornell University)
AAAS EurekaAlert, Nature, Physics World
Science News, Science Daily




Physics (It’s Okay To Be Smart, YouTube Channel)


What if?

What If? Answering your hypothetical questions with physics, every Tuesday.

  • Earth-Moon Fire Pole
    by xkcd on May 21, 2018 at 12:00 am

    <article class="entry"> <a href="//"><h1>Earth-Moon Fire Pole</h1></a> <p id="question">My son (5y) asked me today: If there were a kind of a fireman&#39;s pole from the Moon down to the Earth, how long would it take to slide all the way from the Moon to the Earth?</p> <p id="attribute">Ramon Schönborn, Germany</p> <p>First, let&#39;s get a few things out of the […]

  • Electrofishing for Whales
    by xkcd on March 9, 2017 at 12:00 am

    <article class="entry"> <a href="//"><h1>Electrofishing for Whales</h1></a> <p id="question">I used to work on a fisheries crew where we would use an electro-fisher backpack to momentarily stun small fish (30 - 100 mm length) so we could scoop them up with nets to identify and measure them. The larger fish tended to be stunned for slightly longer because of their larger surface area but I don&#39;t […]

  • Toaster vs. Freezer
    by xkcd on February 28, 2017 at 12:00 am

    <article class="entry"> <a href="//"><h1>Toaster vs. Freezer</h1></a> <p id="question">Would a toaster still work in a freezer?</p> <p id="attribute">—<a href="">My Brother, My Brother and Me</a>, <a […]

  • Coast-to-Coast Coasting
    by xkcd on February 8, 2017 at 12:00 am

    <article class="entry"> <a href="//"><h1>Coast-to-Coast Coasting</h1></a> <p id="question">What if the entire continental US was on a decreasing slope from West to East. How steep would the slope have to be to sustain the momentum needed to ride a bicycle the entire distance without pedaling?</p> <p id="attribute">—Brandon Rooks</p> <p>Too steep to actually build, […]

  • Hide the Atmosphere
    by xkcd on January 30, 2016 at 12:00 am

    <article class="entry"> <a href="//"><h1>Hide the Atmosphere</h1></a> <p id="question">Earth’s atmosphere is really thin compared to the radius of the Earth. How big a hole do I need to dig before people suffocate?</p> <p id="attribute">—Sam Burke</p> <p>The idea here is straightforward: When you dig a hole in the ground, the hole fills up with air.<span […]

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EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  • PLOS announces published peer review option
    on May 22, 2019 at 4:00 am

    (PLOS) PLOS today announced that all its journals will offer authors the option to publish their peer review history alongside their accepted manuscript. We are making major strides towards a more open publication process and this peer review option gives authors and reviewers more choices about how they publish and claim credit for their work. […]

  • LIDAR and other optical sensors in autonomous...
    on May 22, 2019 at 4:00 am

    (The Optical Society) Jin Shang, CEO of GAC's R&D center in Silicon Valley, U.S.A., will share his views on LIDAR and other optical sensors in autonomous driving as keynote speaker at the OIDA Forum on Optics in Autonomy, June 27, 2019 in San Jose, Calif., U.S.A. […]

  • 18 Earth-sized exoplanets discovered
    on May 22, 2019 at 4:00 am

    (Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research) Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (MPS), the Georg August University of Göttingen, and the Sonneberg Observatory have discovered 18 Earth-sized planets beyond the solar system. The worlds are so small that previous surveys had overlooked them. One of them is one of the smallest known so far; another one could offer conditions friendly to life. The researchers re-analyzed a part of the data from NASA's Kepler […]

  • Skin patch shows promise for children with...
    on May 22, 2019 at 4:00 am

    (Children's Hospital of Philadelphia) A new study from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia finds that a skin patch may be useful in treating children with a painful, chronic condition called eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) triggered by milk. Among 20 children with EoE who wore Viaskin Milk -- a skin patch measuring just over an inch long containing trace amounts of milk protein -- nine saw an improvement in their symptoms and normalization of their biopsies after 11 months. […]

  • Charging into the future -- novel rock salt for...
    on May 22, 2019 at 4:00 am

    (Tokyo University of Science) By synthesizing novel material for electrode that facilitates reversing of the chemistry of ions, a group of researchers led by Professor Idemoto from Tokyo University of Science combat the wasteful aspects of energy sources by laying an important foundation for the production of next-generation rechargeable magnesium secondary batteries. […]

  • Ancient proteins offer clues to the past
    on May 22, 2019 at 4:00 am

    (American Chemical Society) Archeologists once relied solely on artifacts, such as skeletal remains, fossils and pottery sherds, to learn about past species and cultures. Today's scientists can also study ancient proteins to paint a more complete picture of the people who lived at archeological sites, and the plants and animals they raised and ate, according to an article in Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN), the weekly news magazine of the American Chemical Society. […]

  • Galaxies as 'cosmic cauldrons'
    on May 22, 2019 at 4:00 am

    (University of Heidelberg) Star formation within interstellar clouds of gas and dust, so-called molecular clouds, proceeds very rapidly yet highly 'inefficiently'. Most of the gas is dispersed by stellar radiation, revealing galaxies to be highly dynamic systems, like 'cosmic cauldrons', consisting of components that constantly change their appearance. A team of scientists led by astrophysicist Dr. Diederik Kruijssen from Heidelberg University has reached these conclusions based on new […]

  • New data on ultrafast electron photoemission from...
    on May 22, 2019 at 4:00 am

    (Lobachevsky University) Metallic nanoparticle ensembles are capable of emitting short bunches of electrons when irradiated by powerful laser pulses of femtosecond (1 fs = 10-15 s) duration. Scientists at Lobachevsky University have long been studying the plasmon effect -- the excitation by light of collective electron oscillations in nanoparticles and the amplification of the light field associated with these oscillations in the vicinity of the nanoparticle, which plays the main role in this […]

  • Artificial photosynthesis transforms carbon...
    on May 22, 2019 at 4:00 am

    (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, News Bureau) Chemists at the University of Illinois have successfully produced fuels using water, carbon dioxide and visible light through artificial photosynthesis. By converting carbon dioxide into more complex molecules like propane, green energy technology is now one step closer to using excess CO2 to store solar energy -- in the form of chemical bonds -- for use when the sun is not shining and in times of peak demand. […]

  • As more veterans die of opioid overdoses, study...
    on May 22, 2019 at 4:00 am

    (Michigan Medicine - University of Michigan) A dramatic rise in opioid overdose deaths among American veterans in recent years has happened mainly among veterans dying from heroin and synthetic opioids, a new study shows. The study highlights a pressing need to find and provide care to veterans who need help for use of non-prescription opioids, whether or not they are also taking prescription opioids. […]

Physics News - Physics News, Material Sciences, Science News, Physics provides the latest news on physics, materials, nanotech, science and technology. Updated Daily.

  • Scientists break record for highest-temperature...
    on May 22, 2019 at 7:34 pm

    University of Chicago scientists are part of an international research team that has discovered superconductivity—the ability to conduct electricity perfectly—at the highest temperatures ever recorded. […]

  • Unexpected observation of ice at low temperature,...
    on May 22, 2019 at 5:00 pm

    Through an experiment designed to create a super-cold state of water, scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory used neutron scattering to discover a pathway to the unexpected formation of dense, crystalline phases of ice thought to exist beyond Earth's limits. […]

  • Nanoscopic protein motion on a live cell membrane
    on May 22, 2019 at 2:10 pm

    Cellular functions are dictated by the intricate motion of proteins in membranes that span across a scale of nanometers to micrometers, within a time-frame of microseconds to minutes. However, this rich parameter of space is inaccessible using fluorescence microscopy, although it is within reach of interferometric scattering (iSCAT) particle tracking. The new iSCAT technique is, however, highly sensitive to single and unlabelled proteins, thereby causing non-specific background staining as a […]

  • Learning magnets could lead to energy-efficient...
    on May 22, 2019 at 2:06 pm

    The power consumption of data centers around the world is increasing. This creates a high demand for new technologies that could lead to energy-efficient computers. In a new study, physicists at Radboud University have demonstrated that this could also be achieved by using chips whose operation is inspired by that of the human brain. The study was published in the scientific journal Applied Physics Letters on 16 May. […]

  • Physicists propose a second level of quantization...
    on May 22, 2019 at 1:30 pm

    Information theory, which was developed by Claude Shannon starting in the late 1940s, deals with questions such as how quickly information can be sent over a noisy communications channel. Both the information carriers (e.g., photons) and the channel (e.g., optical fiber cable) are assumed to be classical systems, with well-defined, perfectly distinguishable states. […]

  • 'Metasurfaces' that manipulate light at tiny...
    on May 22, 2019 at 12:01 pm

    Most of us know optical lenses as curved, transparent pieces of plastic or glass, designed to focus light for microscopes, spectacles, cameras, and more. For the most part, a lens' curved shape has not changed much since it was invented many centuries ago. […]

  • New method could shed light on workers'...
    on May 21, 2019 at 11:00 pm

    Researchers in the UK have developed a new method for evaluating plutonium workers' historical internal radiation exposure in a study funded by the National Institute for Health Research. […]

  • Quantum communication: making two from one
    on May 21, 2019 at 1:59 pm

    In the future, quantum physics could become the guarantor of secure information technology. To achieve this, individual particles of light—photons—are used for secure transmission of data. Findings by physicists from the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research could play a key role. The researchers accidentally came across a light source that generates a photon pair from the energy of an electron. One of these particles of light has the potential to serve as a carrier of the […]

  • A method to determine magnon coherence in...
    on May 21, 2019 at 1:30 pm

    A team of researchers at Utrecht University, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology and the University of Konstanz has recently proposed a new method to determine magnon coherence in solid-state devices. Their study, outlined in a paper published in Physical Review Letters , shows that cross-correlations of pure spin currents injected by a ferromagnet into two metal leads normalized by their dc value replicate the behavior of the second-order optical coherence function, referred to […]

  • A better way to use atomic force microscopy to...
    on May 21, 2019 at 1:10 pm

    A team of researchers at Justus Liebig University Giessen has found a way to dramatically improve the images of topologically complex 3-D molecules created using atomic force microscopy (AFM). In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the group describes the simple adjustment they made to the procedure that greatly improved the resolution of AFM. […]

Nature Physics - Issue - science feeds Nature Physics offers a unique mix of news and reviews alongside top-quality research papers. Published monthly, in print and online, the journal reflects the entire spectrum of physics, pure and applied.

  • A moiré foray
    by Pietro Tierno on May 13, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 13 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41567-019-0541-5The transport properties of many two-dimensional systems are strongly affected by the proximity of a periodic pattern. Colloidal particles are now shown to have preferred sliding routes due to competing symmetries between two unmatched crystalline surfaces. […]

  • Orientational and directional locking of...
    by Xin Cao on May 13, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 13 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41567-019-0515-7Colloidal clusters are shown to undergo directional locking when driven across a patterned surface. The role of the Fourier components of the particle–surface interaction suggests a means of leveraging this behaviour for nanoscale manipulation. […]

  • The quest for quantum degeneracy
    by Kang-Kuen Ni on May 13, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 13 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41567-019-0531-7While Bose–Einstein condensates of atoms were achieved in the mid-1990s, extending the regime of quantum degeneracy to polar molecules took another two decades of dedicated work. The researchers that contributed to this achievement span many generations of students in many different laboratories around the world. […]

  • Stress relaxation in epithelial monolayers is...
    by Nargess Khalilgharibi on May 13, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 13 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41567-019-0516-6Stress relaxation in cell monolayers shows remarkable similarities with that of single cells, suggesting the rheology of epithelial tissues is mediated by the actomyosin cortex—with dynamics reminiscent of those on a cellular level. […]

  • Chiral topological superconductivity arising from...
    by Wei Qin on May 6, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 06 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41567-019-0517-5Renormalization group calculations incorporate band structure and interaction effects on an equal footing. Applying this methodology to Ge-doped Pb3Bi shows that this material is a chiral topological superconductor and hosts Majorana fermions. […]

  • Polarization and entanglement in...
    by M. Ablikim on May 6, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 06 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41567-019-0494-8The decay asymmetry and helicity phase of polarized baryon–antibaryon pairs are measured at the BESIII experiment, testing charge–parity symmetry and revealing a discrepancy of the Λ → pπ− decay asymmetry with respect to the current world average. […]

  • Anomalous asymmetry
    by Ulrik Egede on May 6, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 06 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41567-019-0523-7A measurement based on quantum entanglement of the parameter describing the asymmetry of the Λ hyperon decay is inconsistent with the current world average. This shows that relying on previous measurements can be hazardous. […]

  • Identifying topological order through...
    by Joaquin F. Rodriguez-Nieva on May 6, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 06 May 2019; doi:10.1038/s41567-019-0512-xMachine learning techniques have latterly gained currency in condensed-matter physics, for example by identifying phase transitions. An unsupervised machine learning algorithm that identifies topological order is now demonstrated. […] news Latest news from

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Matter & Energy News -- ScienceDaily Detectors and electronics. Learn about every sort of detector, radar system and more from leading research institutes around the world.

  • Robots activated by water may be the next frontier
    on May 22, 2019 at 9:39 pm

    Scientists have developed material that can drive mechanical systems, with movements controlled by a pattern set into the design. Potential applications include opening windows in humidity, and allowing fabric to evaporate sweat […]

  • Researchers gain key insight into solar...
    on May 22, 2019 at 9:39 pm

    Researchers report a key breakthrough in how the performance of cadmium telluride thin-film solar cells is improved even further by the addition of another material, selenium. […]

  • Data science helps engineers discover new...
    on May 22, 2019 at 8:27 pm

    Engineers have developed a high-throughput computational method to design new materials for next generation solar cells and LEDs. Their approach generated 13 new material candidates for solar cells and 23 new candidates for LEDs. […]

  • Big energy savings for tiny machines
    on May 22, 2019 at 7:31 pm

    Physicists demonstrate for the first time a strategy for manipulating the trillions of tiny molecular nanomachines inside us that work to keep us alive, to maximize efficiency and conserve energy. The breakthrough could impact numerous fields, including creating more efficient computer chips and solar cells for energy generation. […]

  • Artificial photosynthesis transforms carbon...
    on May 22, 2019 at 7:31 pm

    Chemists have successfully produced fuels using water, carbon dioxide and visible light through artificial photosynthesis. By converting carbon dioxide into more complex molecules like propane, green energy technology is now one step closer to using excess carbon dioxide to store solar energy -- in the form of chemical bonds -- for use when the sun is not shining and in times of peak demand. […]

  • Soft, social robot brings coziness to homes, and...
    on May 22, 2019 at 6:19 pm

    A new social robot that can be customized with handcrafted material, such as wood and wool, brings simplicity and fun to home robotics -- and will soon be used to help teach math to fourth graders. […]

  • Need for rigorous procedures within...
    on May 22, 2019 at 6:18 pm

    Many experimental studies of electrochemical synthesis of ammonia are flawed. A new study highlights the need for rigorous protocols moving forward. […]

  • Quantum rebar: Quantum dots enhance stability of...
    on May 22, 2019 at 6:18 pm

    Engineering researchers have combined two emerging technologies for next-generation solar power -- and discovered that each one helps stabilize the other. The resulting hybrid material is a major step toward reducing the cost of solar power while multiplying the ways it can be used. […]

  • Scientists break record for highest-temperature...
    on May 22, 2019 at 6:18 pm

    An international research team of scientists has discovered superconductivity -- the ability to conduct electricity perfectly -- at the highest temperatures ever recorded. […]

  • Good vibrations: Using piezoelectricity to ensure...
    on May 22, 2019 at 4:06 pm

    Researchers have developed a new method that uses piezoelectric resonance to improve the manufacture of highly sensitive hydrogen sensors. By optimizing the gaps between palladium nanoparticles in the devices, they were able to increase the sensitivity by a factor of 12 over palladium nanoparticles fabricated by previous methods. The work in this study is important for the development of new sensing devices that are capable of detecting hydrogen at low concentration. […]