Cosma Home > Communication > Knowledge > Realm > Physical




Realm Cosmological, Physical, Terrestrial, Anthropological, Mystical


Universe Astronomical Instrument
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid

Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Physics Central: Physics in Action (American Physical Society)
Physical Sciences Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Introductory Physics Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
Physics Resources (Library of Congress)
Physics Internet Resources (Library of Congress)

Physical Science Subject Primer (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Physics Subject Primer (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)

Physics World

Physics Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Physics Databases & Periodic Tables (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Online (99th Edition)

Natural and Physical Sciences Portal (Wikipedia)
Physical Sciences Portal (Wikipedia)
Physics Portal (Wikipedia)


Physical : (a) of or relating to physics (b) characterized or produced by the forces and operations of physics (c) having material existence : perceptible especially through the senses and subject to the laws of nature — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Realm : kingdom, sphere, domain — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Physical Realm : kingdom, sphere, or domain of things that have material existence and are perceptible, especially those things perceptible through the senses and subject to the laws of nature — M.E.Hopper


Physical universe In religion and esotericism, the term “physical universe” or “material universe” is used to distinguish the physical matter of the universe from a proposed spiritual or supernatural essence. — Wikipedia

Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics (ScienceWorld, Wolfram Research)
Encyclopædia Britannica


Outline of Physical Science (Wikipedia)
Outline of Physics (Wikipedia)


Physics (Wolfram Alpha)


Philosophical research online: Philosophy of Physical Science (PhilPapers)


Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science. It in turn has many branches, each referred to as a “physical science”, together called the “physical sciences”. However, the term physical creates an unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena and branches of chemistry, such as organic chemistry. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Physics is the natural science that studies matter and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Physics Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Encyclopedia of Physics



SciShow Physics (YouTube Channel)

Center for History of Physics (American Institute of Physics)
History of Physics Exhibits (American Institute of Physics)
All Nobel Prizes in Physics (Nobel Foundation)
Physics History and Terminology (Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics, Wolfram Research)


WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library



Crash Course Kids (YouTube Channel)

The Cheerios effect (TED Ed)
Physical Sciences (TED Ed)

Minute Physics (YouTube Channel)

The Physics Classroom (Tom Henderson)
DC Physics Help for Students


Crash Course Physics (YouTube Channel)

How Things Work: An Introduction to Physics (Coursera)
Physical Science Courses (Coursera)
Physics Courses (MIT Opencourseware)
Einstein, Oppenheimer, Feynman: Physics in the 20th Century (MIT Opencourseware)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



Careers in Physical Sciences (Physics World)
Careers in Physics (
General Physics (Ask an Astronomer, Cornell University)


American Physical Society (APS)
European Physical Society (EPS)
American Institute of Physics (AIP)


Conference Alerts Worldwide (Conal)

News E-Print Archive (Cornell University)
AAAS EurekaAlert, Nature, Physics World
Science News, Science Daily




Physics (It’s Okay To Be Smart, YouTube Channel)


What if?

What If? Answering your hypothetical questions with physics, every Tuesday.

  • Earth-Moon Fire Pole
    by xkcd on May 21, 2018 at 12:00 am

    <article class="entry"> <a href="//"><h1>Earth-Moon Fire Pole</h1></a> <p id="question">My son (5y) asked me today: If there were a kind of a fireman&#39;s pole from the Moon down to the Earth, how long would it take to slide all the way from the Moon to the Earth?</p> <p id="attribute">Ramon Schönborn, Germany</p> <p>First, let&#39;s get a few things out of the […]

  • Electrofishing for Whales
    by xkcd on March 9, 2017 at 12:00 am

    <article class="entry"> <a href="//"><h1>Electrofishing for Whales</h1></a> <p id="question">I used to work on a fisheries crew where we would use an electro-fisher backpack to momentarily stun small fish (30 - 100 mm length) so we could scoop them up with nets to identify and measure them. The larger fish tended to be stunned for slightly longer because of their larger surface area but I don&#39;t […]

  • Toaster vs. Freezer
    by xkcd on February 28, 2017 at 12:00 am

    <article class="entry"> <a href="//"><h1>Toaster vs. Freezer</h1></a> <p id="question">Would a toaster still work in a freezer?</p> <p id="attribute">—<a href="">My Brother, My Brother and Me</a>, <a […]

  • Coast-to-Coast Coasting
    by xkcd on February 8, 2017 at 12:00 am

    <article class="entry"> <a href="//"><h1>Coast-to-Coast Coasting</h1></a> <p id="question">What if the entire continental US was on a decreasing slope from West to East. How steep would the slope have to be to sustain the momentum needed to ride a bicycle the entire distance without pedaling?</p> <p id="attribute">—Brandon Rooks</p> <p>Too steep to actually build, […]

  • Hide the Atmosphere
    by xkcd on January 30, 2016 at 12:00 am

    <article class="entry"> <a href="//"><h1>Hide the Atmosphere</h1></a> <p id="question">Earth’s atmosphere is really thin compared to the radius of the Earth. How big a hole do I need to dig before people suffocate?</p> <p id="attribute">—Sam Burke</p> <p>The idea here is straightforward: When you dig a hole in the ground, the hole fills up with air.<span […]

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EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  • An easy-to-use platform is a gateway to AI in...
    on April 23, 2021 at 4:00 am

    (Abo Akademi University) A new, freely available platform helps non-experts use artificial intelligence to analyse microscopy images. The platform has been developed at Åbo Akademi University in Finland and Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Portugal, and will be of big help in research and diagnostics using modern day microscopes.

  • Two UoC professors win the most prestigious...
    on April 23, 2021 at 4:00 am

    (University of Cologne) Cultural anthropologist Michael Bollig and physicist Stephan Schlemmer receive an ERC Advanced Grant for new research projects.

  • Patching up your health
    on April 23, 2021 at 4:00 am

    (Osaka University) Researchers from Osaka University and JOANNEUM RESEARCH develop ultrathin piezoelectric flexible patches that harvest the body's energy to monitor the patient's pulse and blood pressure. This work may lead to novel biosensors and self-powered wearable electronics.

  • Fiber optic cable monitors microseismicity in...
    on April 23, 2021 at 4:00 am

    (Seismological Society of America) At the Seismological Society of America's 2021 Annual Meeting, researchers shared how they are using fiber optic cable to detect the small earthquakes that occur in ice in Antarctica.

  • Bacteria and viruses infect our cells through...
    on April 23, 2021 at 4:00 am

    (University of Copenhagen - The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences) Most infectious bacteria and viruses bind to sugars on the surface of our cells. Now researchers from the University of Copenhagen have created a library of tens of thousands of natural cells containing all the sugars found on the surface of our cells. The library may help us understand the role played by sugars and their receptors in the immune system and the brain, the researchers behind the study explain.

  • With new optical device, engineers can fine tune...
    on April 23, 2021 at 4:00 am

    (Stanford University) A new sort of optical device allows engineers to change the frequencies of individual photons, putting new capabilities in engineers' hands.

  • Hubble celebrates 31st birthday with giant star...
    on April 23, 2021 at 4:00 am

    (ESA/Hubble Information Centre) In celebration of the 31st anniversary of the launching of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers aimed the celebrated observatory at one of the brightest stars seen in our galaxy to capture its beauty.

  • Engineering single-molecule fluorescence with...
    on April 23, 2021 at 4:00 am

    (Light Publishing Center, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics And Physics, CAS) NIR fluorescence has shown great potential in bioscience, but low quantum-yield has largely impeded the research on most NIR fluorophores. Here, scientists in China use asymmetric plasmonic nano-antenna to drastically enhance NIR dye's single-molecule fluorescence intensity. The asymmetry provides an additional tuning parameter that offers new possibilities to modulate near-field and far-field properties […]

  • Arena Pharmaceuticals presents late-breaking data...
    on April 23, 2021 at 4:00 am

    (LaVoieHealthScience) Arena Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Nasdaq: ARNA) today announced data at a late-breaking session at the American Academy of Dermatology VMX Experience. Etrasimod, a novel investigational drug candidate to treat moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD), demonstrated statistical significance in both clinician and patient reported outcomes in the ADVISE Phase 2b clinical trial.

  • Force transmission between cells orchestrates...
    on April 23, 2021 at 4:00 am

    (University of Copenhagen - Faculty of Science) How do the billions of cells communicate in order to perform tasks? The cells exert force on their environment through movement - and in doing so, they communicate. They work as a group in order to infiltrate their environment, perform wound healing and the like. They sense the stiffness or softness of their surroundings and this helps them connect and organize their collective effort. But when the connection between cells is distrubeddisturbed, a […]

Physics News - Physics News, Material Sciences, Science News, Physics The latest news in physics, materials science, quantum physics, optics and photonics, superconductivity science and technology. Updated Daily.

  • Researchers realize high-efficiency frequency...
    on April 23, 2021 at 3:08 pm

    A team led by Prof. GUO Guangcan and Prof. ZOU Changling from the University of Science and Technology of China of the Chinese Academy of Sciences realized efficient frequency conversion in microresonators via a degenerate sum-frequency process, and achieved cross-band frequency conversion and amplification of converted signal through observing the cascaded nonlinear optical effects inside the microresonator. The study was published in Physical Review Letters.

  • Using a new kind of electron microscopy to...
    on April 23, 2021 at 2:13 pm

    A team of researchers from China, the Netherland and Saudi Arabia has used a new kind of electron microscopy to measure weak van der Waals interactions. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the group describes creating what they describe as a molecular compass to measure weak van der Waals interactions using a new type of electron microscopy developed in the Netherlands.

  • Quantum steering for more precise measurements
    on April 23, 2021 at 12:09 pm

    Quantum systems consisting of several particles can be used to measure magnetic or electric fields more precisely. A young physicist at the University of Basel has now proposed a new scheme for such measurements that uses a particular kind of correlation between quantum particles.

  • With new optical device, engineers can fine tune...
    on April 23, 2021 at 9:00 am

    Among the first lessons any grade school science student learns is that white light is not white at all, but rather a composite of many photons, those little droplets of energy that make up light, from every color of the rainbow—red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet.

  • Research paves way for improved lasers,...
    on April 23, 2021 at 7:57 am

    New photonics research paves the way for improved lasers, high-speed computing and optical communications for the Army.

  • Using exoplanets as dark matter detectors
    on April 22, 2021 at 5:08 pm

    In the continuing search for dark matter in our universe, scientists believe they have found a unique and powerful detector: exoplanets.

  • Transient grating spectroscopy with ultrafast...
    on April 22, 2021 at 5:02 pm

    Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI have succeeded for the first time in looking inside materials using the method of transient grating spectroscopy with ultrafast X-rays at SwissFEL. The experiment at PSI is a milestone in observing processes in the world of atoms. The researchers are publishing their research results today in the journal Nature Photonics.

  • 'Stickiness' key to better diagnostics and...
    on April 22, 2021 at 5:01 pm

    The 'stickiness', or viscosity, of microscopic liquids can now be measured thousands of times faster than ever before, potentially leading to better understanding of living cells, disease diagnostics and pharmaceutical testing.

  • A novel optical physics method to measure the...
    on April 22, 2021 at 2:14 pm

    Quasars are extraordinarily distant celestial objects that throw off a massive amount of light, and astrophysicists use them to probe cosmological theories.

  • A new method to generate and control orbital...
    on April 22, 2021 at 1:30 pm

    Artificial spin ices (ASIs) are magnetic metamaterials with exotic properties that are dependent on their geometries. Over the past few years, many physicists have studied these materials, as their unique properties could be advantageous for a number of applications.

Nature Physics - Issue - science feeds Nature Physics offers a unique mix of news and reviews alongside top-quality research papers. Published monthly, in print and online, the journal reflects the entire spectrum of physics, pure and applied.

  • Two-fold symmetric superconductivity in few-layer...
    by Alex Hamill on April 15, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 15 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41567-021-01219-xA two-fold rotational symmetry is observed in the superconducting state of NbSe2. This is strikingly different from the three-fold symmetry of the lattice, and suggests that a mixed conventional and unconventional order parameter exists in this material.

  • One-dimensional Kronig–Penney superlattices at...
    by Megan Briggeman on April 15, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 15 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41567-021-01217-zThe two-dimensional electron gas at an oxide interface is patterned to form a channel with a periodic potential imposed on top. This replicates the textbook Kronig–Penney model and leads to fractionalization of electron bands in the channel.

  • Unusual high-field metal in a Kondo insulator
    by Ziji Xiang on April 12, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 12 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41567-021-01216-0Transport and thermodynamic measurements on strongly correlated Kondo metal YbB12 reveal the coexistence of charged and charge-neutral fermions in the material and the crucial role played by the latter in the quantum oscillations of resistivity.

  • Embryonic tissues as active foams
    by Sangwoo Kim on April 12, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 12 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41567-021-01215-1A computational framework draws analogy with foams to offer a comprehensive picture of how cell behaviours influence fluidization in embryonic tissues, highlighting the role of tension fluctuations in regulating tissue rigidity.

  • Measurement of the proton spin structure at long...
    by X. Zheng on April 12, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 12 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41567-021-01198-zMeasurements of the proton’s spin structure in experiments scattering a polarized electron beam off polarized protons in regions of low momentum transfer squared test predictions from chiral effective field theory of the strong interaction.

  • Selective prosecution of scientists must stop
    on April 9, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 09 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41567-021-01231-1The US Department of Justice’s ‘China Initiative’ is unfairly targeting Chinese American academics for their alleged ties with the Chinese government. A more proportionate approach is urgently needed.

  • Nerve rays on the brain
    by Abigail Klopper on April 9, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 09 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41567-021-01228-wNerve rays on the brain

  • A signal from the ice
    by Stefanie Reichert on April 9, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 09 April 2021; doi:10.1038/s41567-021-01227-xA signal from the ice news Latest news from

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Matter & Energy News -- ScienceDaily Detectors and electronics. Learn about every sort of detector, radar system and more from leading research institutes around the world.

  • Ankle exoskeleton enables faster walking
    on April 23, 2021 at 1:54 pm

    In lab tests, researchers found that an optimized ankle exoskeleton system increased participants' walking speed by about 40 percent compared with their regular speed. The researchers hope someday to help restore walking speed in older adults.

  • Ground and satellite observations map building...
    on April 22, 2021 at 4:36 pm

    Days after the 4 August 2020 massive explosion at the port of Beirut in Lebanon, researchers were on the ground mapping the impacts of the explosion in the port and surrounding city. The goal was to document and preserve data on structural and façade damage before rebuilding.

  • Fighting harmful bacteria with nanoparticles
    on April 22, 2021 at 4:36 pm

    Multi-resistant pathogens are a serious and increasing problem in today's medicine. Where antibiotics are ineffective, these bacteria can cause life-threatening infections. Researchers are currently developing nanoparticles that can be used to detect and kill multi-resistant pathogens that hide inside our body cells. The team published the study in the current issue of the journal Nanoscale.

  • The future looks bright for infinitely recyclable...
    on April 22, 2021 at 2:28 pm

    Plastics are ubiquitous, but they're not practical. Less than 10% are recycled, and the other approximately 8 billion tons are creating a pollution crisis. Researchers are determined to change that. A new analysis shows producing and recycling their game-changing new plastic could be easy and cheap enough to leave old plastics in the dust.

  • Scientists glimpse signs of a puzzling state of...
    on April 22, 2021 at 1:39 pm

    High-temperature superconductors are famous for conducting electricity with no loss, but no one knows how they do it. Now scientists have observed the signature of an exotic state of matter called 'pair density waves' in a cuprate superconductor and confirmed that it intertwines with another exotic state -- a step toward understanding how these materials work.

  • Faster air exchange in buildings not always...
    on April 22, 2021 at 1:38 pm

    Vigorous and rapid air exchanges might not always be a good thing when it comes to levels of coronavirus particles in a multiroom building, according to a new modeling study. Particle levels can spike in downstream rooms shortly after rapid ventilation.

  • Average-risk individuals may prefer stool-based...
    on April 22, 2021 at 1:38 pm

    When given a choice, most individuals with an average risk of colorectal cancer said they would prefer a stool-based screening test for colorectal cancer over colonoscopy, the method most often recommended by health care providers.

  • Collaborative research could help fine-tune the...
    on April 22, 2021 at 12:01 am

    Much of common pharmaceutical development today is the product of laborious cycles of tweaking and optimization. In each drug, a carefully concocted formula of natural and synthetic enzymes and ingredients works together to catalyze a desired reaction. But in early development, much of the process is spent determining what quantities of each enzyme to use to ensure a reaction occurs at a specific speed.

  • Detailed look at intriguing property of chiral...
    on April 21, 2021 at 8:00 pm

    A new study is advancing scientists' understanding of magneto-chiral dichroism. The research focuses on light-matter interactions in chiral materials under a magnetic field.

  • Using floodwaters to weather droughts
    on April 21, 2021 at 7:12 pm

    Using a new computer framework, scientists are able to project future floodwaters under a changing climate. The approach could help California water managers plan for and redirect floodwaters toward groundwater aquifers, alleviating both flood and drought risks.