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Realm Cosmological, Physical, Terrestrial, Anthropological, Mystical


Universe Astronomical Instrument
Galaxy Milky Way, Andromeda
Planetary System Star, Brown Dwarf, Planet, Moon

Solar System Sun
Terrestrial Planet Mercury, Venus, Earth (Moon), Mars
Asteroid Belt Ceres, Vesta
Jovian Planet Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Trans-Neptunian Object
Kuiper Belt Pluto, Haumea, Makemake
Scattered Disc Eris, Sedna, Planet X
Oort Cloud Etc. Scholz’s Star
Small Body Comet, Centaur, Asteroid

Physical Laws (Constants) Relativity
Matter Molecule, Atom (Periodic Table), Particle
Force Gravity, Electromagnetism (Light, Color)


These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…



Physics Central: Physics in Action (American Physical Society)
Physical Sciences Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Introductory Physics Science Tracer Bullet (Library of Congress)
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Physical Science Subject Primer (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
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CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Online (99th Edition)

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Physical Sciences Portal (Wikipedia)
Physics Portal (Wikipedia)


Physical : (a) of or relating to physics (b) characterized or produced by the forces and operations of physics (c) having material existence : perceptible especially through the senses and subject to the laws of nature — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Realm : kingdom, sphere, domain — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Physical Realm : kingdom, sphere, or domain of things that have material existence and are perceptible, especially those things perceptible through the senses and subject to the laws of nature — M.E.Hopper


Physical universe In religion and esotericism, the term “physical universe” or “material universe” is used to distinguish the physical matter of the universe from a proposed spiritual or supernatural essence. — Wikipedia

Eric Weisstein’s World of Physics (ScienceWorld, Wolfram Research)
Encyclopædia Britannica


Outline of Physical Science (Wikipedia)
Outline of Physics (Wikipedia)


Physics (Wolfram Alpha)


Philosophical research online: Philosophy of Physical Science (PhilPapers)


Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science. It in turn has many branches, each referred to as a “physical science”, together called the “physical sciences”. However, the term physical creates an unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena and branches of chemistry, such as organic chemistry. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Physics is the natural science that studies matter and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica

Physics Center (Martindale’s Reference Desk)
Encyclopedia of Physics



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Center for History of Physics (American Institute of Physics)
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DC Physics Help for Students


Crash Course Physics (YouTube Channel)

How Things Work: An Introduction to Physics (Coursera)
Physical Science Courses (Coursera)
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OER Commons: Open Educational Resources



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What if?

What If? Answering your hypothetical questions with physics, every Tuesday.

  • Earth-Moon Fire Pole
    by xkcd on May 21, 2018 at 12:00 am

    <article class="entry"> <a href="//"><h1>Earth-Moon Fire Pole</h1></a> <p id="question">My son (5y) asked me today: If there were a kind of a fireman&#39;s pole from the Moon down to the Earth, how long would it take to slide all the way from the Moon to the Earth?</p> <p id="attribute">Ramon Schönborn, Germany</p> <p>First, let&#39;s get a few things out of the […]

  • Electrofishing for Whales
    by xkcd on March 9, 2017 at 12:00 am

    <article class="entry"> <a href="//"><h1>Electrofishing for Whales</h1></a> <p id="question">I used to work on a fisheries crew where we would use an electro-fisher backpack to momentarily stun small fish (30 - 100 mm length) so we could scoop them up with nets to identify and measure them. The larger fish tended to be stunned for slightly longer because of their larger surface area but I don&#39;t […]

  • Toaster vs. Freezer
    by xkcd on February 28, 2017 at 12:00 am

    <article class="entry"> <a href="//"><h1>Toaster vs. Freezer</h1></a> <p id="question">Would a toaster still work in a freezer?</p> <p id="attribute">—<a href="">My Brother, My Brother and Me</a>, <a […]

  • Coast-to-Coast Coasting
    by xkcd on February 8, 2017 at 12:00 am

    <article class="entry"> <a href="//"><h1>Coast-to-Coast Coasting</h1></a> <p id="question">What if the entire continental US was on a decreasing slope from West to East. How steep would the slope have to be to sustain the momentum needed to ride a bicycle the entire distance without pedaling?</p> <p id="attribute">—Brandon Rooks</p> <p>Too steep to actually build, […]

  • Hide the Atmosphere
    by xkcd on January 30, 2016 at 12:00 am

    <article class="entry"> <a href="//"><h1>Hide the Atmosphere</h1></a> <p id="question">Earth’s atmosphere is really thin compared to the radius of the Earth. How big a hole do I need to dig before people suffocate?</p> <p id="attribute">—Sam Burke</p> <p>The idea here is straightforward: When you dig a hole in the ground, the hole fills up with air.<span […]

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EurekAlert! - Chemistry, Physics and Materials Sciences The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  • Scientists use a novel ink to 3D print 'bone'...
    on January 25, 2021 at 5:00 am

    (University of New South Wales) 3D printers may one day become a permanent fixture of the operating theatre after UNSW scientists showed they could print bone-like structures containing living cells.

  • Titanium oxide nanotubes facilitate low-cost...
    on January 25, 2021 at 5:00 am

    (Toyohashi University of Technology (TUT)) Toyohashi University of Technology developed a nanosecond pulse laser-assisted photoporation method using titanium-oxide nanotubes (TNTs) for highly efficient and low-cost intracellular delivery. HeLa - human cervical cancer cells were cultured in the nanotubes and submerged in a solution of biomolecules. After cells were exposed to nanosecond pulse laser, we successfully delivered propidium iodide (PI) and fluorescent dextran into cells with high […]

  • Advanced measurement technology for future...
    on January 25, 2021 at 5:00 am

    (Osaka University) A team of researchers led by Osaka University investigated beta-gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3), an emerging semiconductor for next-generation power devices, using an advanced method involving terahertz waves -- the technology that could replace conventional yet invasive electrical semiconductor characterizations.

  • White turns into (extreme-)ultraviolet
    on January 25, 2021 at 5:00 am

    (Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI)) Researchers from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) have developed a new method to modify the spectral width of extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light. By employing a novel phase-matching scheme in four-wave mixing, they could compress the spectral width of the initial broadband light by more than hundred times. The detailed experimental and theoretical results have been published […]

  • Researchers develop promising way to find new...
    on January 25, 2021 at 5:00 am

    (University of Copenhagen - The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences) The enzymes in human cells known as histone deacetylases, or HDACs, are targets for a handful of anticancer drugs because of their ability to affect gene expression. Now, researchers from the University of Copenhagen have developed a new method to investigate how these enzymes work on a molecular level. This new method can also help identify more precise possible anti-cancer drug candidates at a very high pace.

  • UToledo awarded Department of Defense funding to...
    on January 25, 2021 at 5:00 am

    (University of Toledo) The project relies on a unique cell death pathway to overcome the multidrug resistance that often characterizes triple negative breast cancer.

  • Princeton team advances new route to chemically...
    on January 25, 2021 at 5:00 am

    (Princeton University) As the planet's burden of rubber and plastic trash rises unabated, scientists increasingly look to the promise of closed-loop recycling to reduce waste. A team of researchers at Princeton's Department of Chemistry announces the discovery of a new polybutadiene molecule - from a material known for over a century and used to make common products like tires and shoes - that could one day advance this goal through depolymerization.

  • Charged up: revolutionizing rechargeable...
    on January 25, 2021 at 5:00 am

    (National Korea Maritime and Ocean University) Rechargeable batteries like lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are seeing a surge in demand as technologies like electric propulsion ships and other vehicles become increasingly popular. However, lithium is costly, which has driven the search for other options. Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are a more sustainable alternative but are thermodynamically unstable with graphite--the usual anode material. Now, researchers in Korea have developed a […]

  • New galaxy sheds light on how stars form
    on January 25, 2021 at 5:00 am

    (University of Bath) Detailed observations of molecular gas in a tidal dwarf galaxy have important implications for our understanding of how stars are formed.

  • Fighting cancer from a chair
    on January 25, 2021 at 5:00 am

    (Wiley) Cisplatin has been used to treat cancer since the 1970s. Since then, many other platinum-containing cytostatic drugs have been developed, such as triplatinNC, a highly charged complex that contains three ligand-bridged platinum atoms. Unlike cisplatin, this drug also directly inhibits metastasis. The reason for this seems to be modulation of the geometry of a sugar component of heparan sulfate, an important component of the extracellular matrix, reports a research team in the journal […]

Physics News - Physics News, Material Sciences, Science News, Physics The latest news in physics, materials science, quantum physics, optics and photonics, superconductivity science and technology. Updated Daily.

  • Researchers achieve extreme-ultraviolet spectral...
    on January 25, 2021 at 4:00 pm

    Researchers from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) have developed a new method to modify the spectral width of extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light. By employing a novel phase-matching scheme in four-wave mixing, they could compress the spectral width of the initial broadband light by more than hundred times. The detailed experimental and theoretical results have been published in Nature Photonics.

  • Optimal information about the invisible
    on January 25, 2021 at 3:03 pm

    Laser beams can be used to precisely measure an object's position or velocity. Normally, however, a clear, unobstructed view of this object is required—and this prerequisite is not always satisfied. In biomedicine, for example, structures are examined, which are embedded in an irregular, complicated environment. There, the laser beam is deflected, scattered and refracted, often making it impossible to obtain useful data from the measurement.

  • Long-distance and secure quantum key distribution...
    on January 25, 2021 at 2:20 pm

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a technique that enables secure communications between devices using a cryptographic protocol that is partly based on quantum mechanics. This communication method ultimately allows two parties to encrypt and decrypt messages they send to each other using a unique key that is unknown to other parties.

  • Researchers guide a single ion through a...
    on January 25, 2021 at 1:40 pm

    Transport processes are ubiquitous in nature, but still raise many questions. The research team around Florian Meinert from the Fifth Institute of Physics at the University of Stuttgart has now developed a new method to observe a single charged particle on its path through a dense cloud of ultracold atoms. The results were published in Physical Review Letters and are further reported in a Viewpoint column in the journal Physics.

  • Physicists succeed in filming phase transition...
    on January 25, 2021 at 12:31 pm

    Laser beams can be used to change the properties of materials in an extremely precise way. This principle is already widely used in technologies such as rewritable DVDs. However, the underlying processes generally take place at such unimaginably fast speeds and at such a small scale that they have so far eluded direct observation. Researchers at the University of Göttingen and the Max Planck Institute (MPI) for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now managed to film, for the first time, […]

  • New blueprint for more stable quantum computers
    on January 22, 2021 at 5:42 pm

    Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) have put forward a detailed plan of how faster and better defined quantum bits—qubits—can be created. The central elements are magnetic atoms from the class of so-called rare-earth metals, which would be selectively implanted into the crystal lattice of a material. Each of these atoms represents one qubit. The researchers have demonstrated how these qubits can be activated, entangled, used as memory bits, and read out. They have now published […]

  • Using the unpredictable nature of quantum...
    on January 22, 2021 at 2:36 pm

    A team of researchers from the U.K., Germany and Russia has used the unpredictable nature of quantum mechanics to create a device capable of generating truly random numbers. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the group describes using aspects of quantum theory to develop a framework for building a truly random number generator.

  • The mystery of pointy oil droplets
    on January 22, 2021 at 1:30 pm

    A certain type of oil droplets changes shape when cooled and shrunk: from spherical through icosahedral to flat hexagonal. Two competing theories couldn't fully explain this, but now, a Physical Review Letter by Ireth García-Aguilar and Luca Giomi solves the mystery.

  • Record-breaking laser link could provide test of...
    on January 22, 2021 at 1:18 pm

    Scientists from the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR) and the University of Western Australia (UWA) have set a world record for the most stable transmission of a laser signal through the atmosphere.

  • Bringing atoms to a standstill: Researchers...
    on January 21, 2021 at 9:35 pm

    It's cool to be small. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have miniaturized the optical components required to cool atoms down to a few thousandths of a degree above absolute zero, the first step in employing them on microchips to drive a new generation of super-accurate atomic clocks, enable navigation without GPS, and simulate quantum systems.

Nature Physics - Issue - science feeds Nature Physics offers a unique mix of news and reviews alongside top-quality research papers. Published monthly, in print and online, the journal reflects the entire spectrum of physics, pure and applied.

  • Quantum diffusion of microcavity solitons
    by Chengying Bao on January 25, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 25 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41567-020-01152-5Quantum jitter fundamentally limits the performance of microresonator frequency combs. The timing jitter of the solitons that generate the comb spectra is analysed, reaching the quantum limit and establishing fundamental limits for soliton microcombs.

  • Got the quantum jitters
    by Miro Erkintalo on January 25, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 25 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41567-020-01118-7Among the many reasons a signal may deviate from perfect periodicity, quantum-limited jitter is arguably the most fundamental. A clever experiment has now stripped away technical noise to unveil quantum-limited jitter of ultrafast soliton frequency combs.

  • Publisher Correction: Resonant phase-matching...
    by Raphael Dahan on January 22, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 22 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41567-021-01178-3Publisher Correction: Resonant phase-matching between a light wave and a free-electron wavefunction

  • Exchange bias due to coupling between coexisting...
    by Eran Maniv on January 21, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 21 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41567-020-01123-wCoexistence of a spin-glass phase with antiferromagnetism in an intercalated crystal produces a large exchange bias effect. This is due to the interplay of disorder and frustration.

  • Maximum information states for coherent...
    by Dorian Bouchet on January 21, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 21 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41567-020-01137-4Wavefront shaping can reduce uncertainties due to measurement noise through disordered media—key to many imaging applications. Optimal precision can be achieved using light fields that are eigenstates of an operator related to the medium’s scattering matrix.

  • Disordered exchange is biased
    by Minhyea Lee on January 21, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 21 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41567-020-01127-6The magnetic properties of intercalated metal dichalcogenides are dramatically affected by small crystal imperfections, potentially providing design principles and materials for spintronic devices.

  • When silicon is like a cuprate
    by Eduardo Miranda on January 18, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 18 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41567-020-01162-3Recent advances in spectroscopy give access to the decay time of excitations in disordered insulating silicon close to the metal–insulator transition, revealing similarities to high-temperature cuprate superconductors.

  • Publisher Correction: A charge-density-wave...
    by Wujun Shi on January 18, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Nature Physics, Published online: 18 January 2021; doi:10.1038/s41567-021-01169-4Publisher Correction: A charge-density-wave topological semimetal news Latest news from

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Matter & Energy News -- ScienceDaily Detectors and electronics. Learn about every sort of detector, radar system and more from leading research institutes around the world.

  • Nanomedicine's 'crown' is ready for its close up
    on January 25, 2021 at 2:43 pm

    An international team of researchers has developed a new method to better understand how nanomedicines -- emerging diagnostics and therapies that are very small yet very intricate -- interact with patients' biomolecules.

  • Continuous monitoring of proteins a game-changer...
    on January 25, 2021 at 2:43 pm

    A world-first discovery could become a game-changer for patients at risk of rapid health deterioration, such as heart complications, stroke, sepsis and cancer. Researchers developed an antibody as a biosensor, to continuously monitor rapid changes in the concentration of EGFR, a protein present on cancer cells and in body fluids.

  • No more needles for diagnostic tests?
    on January 23, 2021 at 2:10 pm

    Medical researchers have developed a biosensing microneedle patch that can be applied to the skin, capture a biomarker of interest and, thanks to its unprecedented sensitivity, allow clinicians to detect its presence.

  • New technique builds super-hard metals from...
    on January 23, 2021 at 2:10 pm

    Researchers have shown a way to make bulk metals by smashing tiny metal nanoparticles together, which allows for customized grain structures and improved mechanical and other properties.

  • Crystal structures in super slow motion
    on January 22, 2021 at 8:44 pm

    Laser beams are used to change the properties of materials in an extremely precise way. However, the underlying processes generally take place at such unimaginably fast speeds and at such a small scale that they have so far eluded direct observation. Researchers have now managed to film, for the first time, the laser transformation of a crystal structure with nanometer resolution and in slow motion in an electron microscope.

  • AI trained to read electric vehicle charging...
    on January 22, 2021 at 4:23 pm

    Although electric vehicles that reduce greenhouse gas emissions attract many drivers, the lack of confidence in charging services deters others. Building a reliable network of charging stations is difficult in part because it's challenging to aggregate data from independent station operators. But now, researchers have developed an AI that can analyze user reviews of these stations, allowing it to accurately identify places where there are insufficient or out-of-service stations.

  • Highly efficient grid-scale electricity storage...
    on January 22, 2021 at 4:23 pm

    Researchers have found a way to enhance hybrid flow batteries and their commercial use. The new approach can store electricity in these batteries for very long durations for about a fifth the price of current technologies, with minimal location restraints and zero emissions.

  • Single atoms as a catalyst: Surprising effects...
    on January 22, 2021 at 4:22 pm

    Catalysts are getting smaller - 'single-atom' catalysts are the logical end point of this downsizing. However, individual atoms can no longer be described using the rules developed from larger pieces of metal, so the rules used to predict which metals will be good catalysts must be revamped - this has now been achieved. As it turns out, single atom catalysts based on much cheaper materials might be even more effective.

  • Highly functional membrane developed for...
    on January 22, 2021 at 3:20 pm

    Researchers have developed a new desalination membrane by laminating a two-dimensional carbon material on to the surface of a porous polymer membrane. This membrane has the potential to perform highly efficient desalination because it is possible to control the gaps between its nanosheets and the charge on the nanosheets' surfaces. It is hoped that this research will contribute towards the implementation of futuristic desalination membranes.

  • Defects may help scientists understand the exotic...
    on January 22, 2021 at 3:20 pm

    Real-world materials are usually messier than the idealized scenarios found in textbooks. Imperfections can add complications and even limit a material's usefulness. To get around this, scientists routinely strive to remove defects and dirt entirely, pushing materials closer to perfection. Now, researchers have turned this problem around and shown that for some materials defects could act as a probe for interesting physics, rather than a nuisance.