Life

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Terrestrial (Earth)
Sphere Land, Ice, Water (Ocean), Air, Life (Cell, Gene, Microscope)
Ecosystem Forest, Grassland, Desert, Arctic, Aquatic

Tree of Life
Microorganism
Plant Flower, Tree
Animal
Invertebrate Octopus, Ant, Bee, Butterfly, Spider, Lobster
Vertebrate Fish, Seahorse, Ray, Shark, Frog, Turtle, Tortoise, Dinosaur
Bird, Ostrich, Owl, Crow, Parrot
Mammal Bat, Rabbit, Giraffe, Camel, Horse, Elephant, Mammoth
Whale, Dolphin, Walrus, Seal, Polar Bear, Bear, Cat, Tiger, Lion, Dog, Wolf
Monkey, Chimpanzee, Human

Resources

These are organized by a classification scheme developed exclusively for Cosma. More…

General

Dictionary

life : an organismic state characterized by capacity for metabolism, growth, reaction to stimuli, and reproduction — Webster

OneLook, Free Dictionary, Wiktionary, Urban Dictionary

Encyclopedia

Life is a characteristic distinguishing physical entities having biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate. Various forms of life exist, such as plants, animals, fungi, protists, archaea, and bacteria. The criteria can at times be ambiguous and may or may not define viruses, viroids, or potential artificial life as “living”. Biology is the primary science concerned with the study of life, although many other sciences are involved.

The definition of life is controversial. The current definition is that organisms maintain homeostasis, are composed of cells, undergo metabolism, can grow, adapt to their environment, respond to stimuli, and reproduce. However, many other biological definitions have been proposed, and there are some borderline cases of life, such as viruses. Properties common to all organisms include the need for certain core chemical elements to sustain biochemical functions. — Wikipedia

Encyclopedia of Life (EOL)
Encyclopædia Britannica

OneZoom Tree of Life Explorer
Tree of Life Web Project (David Maddison, Katja-Sabine Schulz, and Wayne Maddison)
Web Lift to Taxa (University of California Museum of Paleontology)





New Study Shows Viruses Can Have Immune Systems (Tufts Now)

Biosphere also known as the ecosphere, is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems. It can also be termed the zone of life on Earth, a closed system (apart from solar and cosmic radiation and heat from the interior of the Earth), and largely self-regulating. By the most general biophysiological definition, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, geosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. — Wikipedia

Life and the Biosphere (Encyclopædia Britannica)


Science

Life sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica
Life Sciences (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Life Sciences (Wolfram Alpha)

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution. Despite the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis. — Wikipedia

Encyclopædia Britannica
Biology (National Network of Libraries of Medicine)
Biology Subject Guide (Library of Congress)
Biological Science Portal (Wikipedia)

Outline



Outline of Biology (Wikipedia)

Philosophy

Philosophical research online: Philosophy of Biology (PhilPapers)

Preservation

History


The history of biology (Encyclopædia Britannica)
History of biology (Wikipedia)
Journal of the History of Biology

Museum

Museum of Life Sciences (Official Site)
Museum of Life Sciences (Wikipedia)

Library

WorldCat, Library of Congress, UPenn Online Books, Open Library

Participation

Education

Biosphere: A Big Ball of Life (Geography4Kids)
Biology Basics (Biology4Kids)
Life Sciences (TED Ed)
Great Sites for Kids (ALA)
Science Projects in Biology, Natural History and Agriculture (Library of Congress)

Course



Crash Course Biology (YouTube Channel)

MIT Biology Courses (MIT Opencourseware)
OER Commons: Open Educational Resources

Community

The Company of Biologists

News

AAAS EurekAlert, Phys.org, Scientific American, NPR Archives

Book

ISBNdb

Government

Document

USA.gov

returntotop

More…

EurekAlert! - Biology The premier online source for science news since 1996. A service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  • Wyss Academy for Nature founded at the University...
    on December 13, 2019 at 5:00 am

    (University of Bern) With the Wyss Academy for Nature, a globally leading research and implementation center in the field of nature and people is being set up at the University of Bern. The entrepreneur and patron, Hansjörg Wyss, the President of the Government of the Canton of Bern, Christoph Ammann, and the Rector of the University of Bern, Christian Leumann, ceremoniously signed the contract today. Over the next 10 years, 200 million francs are going to be invested.

  • Entrectinib effective, well-tolerated against...
    on December 13, 2019 at 5:00 am

    (University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus) Pooled analysis of three phase 1 and 2 clinical trials show that the drug entrectinib is effective and well-tolerated against advanced ROS1 and NTRK fusion-positive non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC).

  • Researchers create synthetic nanopores made from...
    on December 13, 2019 at 5:00 am

    (Aarhus University) A scientific collaboration led by researchers at iNANO/Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics at Aarhus University and the Department of Chemistry at the University of Copenhagen has resulted in the construction of a synthetic DNA nanopore capable of selectively translocating protein-size macromolecules across lipid bilayers.

  • Dartmouth study finds conscious visual perception...
    on December 13, 2019 at 5:00 am

    (Dartmouth College) A Dartmouth study finds that the conscious perception of visual location occurs in the frontal lobes of the brain, rather than in the visual system in the back of the brain. The findings are published in Current Biology.The results are significant given the ongoing debate among neuroscientists on what consciousness is and where it happens in the brain.

  • Genetic resources of birds to be preserved in new...
    on December 13, 2019 at 5:00 am

    (Kazan Federal University) The support is provided by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research and the Science and Innovation in East Asia Consortium. Kazan Federal University's partners are Mahidol University and Kumamoto University.


Biology News - Evolution, Cell theory, Gene theory, Microbiology, Biotechnology Phys.org provides the latest news on biology, evolution, microbiology, biotechnology

  • Thousands of 'penis fish' exposed on California...
    on December 14, 2019 at 9:08 am

    Thousands of marine worms dubbed "penis fish" for their shape and color appeared this week on a California beach after a strong winter storm exposed them.

  • Mitochondria are the 'canary in the coal mine'...
    on December 14, 2019 at 9:08 am

    Mitochondria, tiny structures present in most cells, are known for their energy-generating machinery. Now, Salk researchers have discovered a new function of mitochondria: they set off molecular alarms when cells are exposed to stress or chemicals that can damage DNA, such as chemotherapy. The results, published online in Nature Metabolism on December 9, 2019, could lead to new cancer treatments that prevent tumors from becoming resistant to chemotherapy.

  • Savannah monitor lizards have a unique airflow...
    on December 14, 2019 at 9:03 am

    Take a deep breath in. Slowly let it out.

  • The wild relatives of major vegetables, needed...
    on December 13, 2019 at 7:34 pm

    Growing up in the wild makes plants tough. Wild plants evolve to survive the whims of nature and thrive in difficult conditions, including extreme climate conditions, poor soils, and pests and disease. Their better-known descendants—the domesticated plants that are critical to a healthy diet—are often not nearly as hardy. The genes that make crop wild relatives robust have the potential to make their cultivated cousins—our food plants—better prepared for a harsh climate […]

  • Why are giant pandas born so tiny?
    on December 13, 2019 at 7:33 pm

    Born pink, blind, and helpless, giant pandas typically weigh about 100 grams at birth—the equivalent of a stick of butter. Their mothers are 900 times more massive than that.


Scientific American Science news and technology updates from Scientific American